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Mao was a Yale Man - A Yali with Skull and Bones  

“By about the year 2000 Communist China will be a “superpower” built by American technology and skill.”
Antony C. Sutton, American Secret Establishment published 1984

Student Mao Zedong & Yale in China
"The fundamental difference between a "New World Order" under the United Nations and an independent United States are nowhere more clearly indicated than in our 'Declaration of Independence' affirmation that "men are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights." The UN's total exclusion of God means that rights do not come from God, (but) that they proceed from government, and government can take them away.

Skull and Bones reaches to all the leaders around the world and this may explain Bush's obsessive support of China, regardless of the human rights violations and arsenol buildup.

"Skull and Bones is a secret fraternity at Yale University which restricts their membership to only fifteen per year. . The society was formed in 1832 by General William Russell, whose shipping firm later dominated the U.S. side of the China opium trade. Yale University was founded by Eli Yale, who made his fortune working for the opium smuggling British East India Company.

"Skull and Bones became the recruiting grounds and preserve of the most important New England-centered families--families who also made their money in the opium trade. These families, whose sons regularly join Skull and Bones, include the little known, but powerful, Coffins, Sloanes, Tafts, Bundys, Paynes, Whitneys. They are a dominant element of the U.S. 'Eastern Establishment' to this day. The Bush family is one of a cluster of lower-level Establishment families controlled by these interests.

"George Bush, the first U.S. diplomatic representative to the People's Republic of China back in 1973, was a member of Skull and Bones. So was his father, brother, son, uncle, nephew, and several cousins. Winston Lord, the Reagan-Bush administration Ambassador to China was a member; so was his father and several other relatives. James Lilley, the current Ambassador to China, is a member of Skull and Bones, as was his brother. With the exception during the Carter administration, every U.S. Ambassador to Beijing ,since Kissinger's deal with Mao Zedong was a member of the Skulls and Bones.

In 1903, Yale Divinity School established a number of schools and hospitals throughout China that were collectively known as 'Yale in China.' It has since been shown that 'Yale in China' was an intelligence network whose purpose was to destroy the republican movement of Sun Yat-sen on behalf of the Anglo-American Establishment. The Anglo-American "Establishment" hated Sun, because he wanted to develop China. On the other hand, they loved the Chinese communists because they intended to keep China backward, and were committed to the production of drugs. . One of 'Yale in China's' most important students was Mao Zedong.

"During World War II, 'Yale in China' was a primary instrument used by the U.S. Establishment and its Office of Strategic Services (OSS) to install the Maoists into power.

'Yale in China' was run by OSS operative Reuben Holden, the husband of Bush's cousin, and also a member of Skull and Bones. "The Maoists made China into the world's largest opium producer.,  

"'Yale in China' was also closely associated with the New York-based Union Theological Seminary, which has been a center for U.S. subversion of Asia According to Branton, they were literally wolves in sheeps clothing Every prominent radical leader operating in Korea today was trained at Union Theological. Union Theological was dominated for twenty years by Henry Sloane Coffin, a U.S. intelligence executive from the Sloane and Coffin families. He was a Skull and Bones member as were a dozen of his relatives.

"Nor should it be forgotten that Averell Harriman, the former Ambassador to Moscow who did so much to build up the Soviet Union, was a member of Skull and Bones. Harriman was also a business partner of Prescott Bush, Sr., the father of Maoist enthusiast George Bush."

According to geopolitical and economics researcher, Dr. Antony Sutton in his book 'The Patriot Review', not only did the Skulls and Bones help to build up the Communist movement in China, but they gave financial aide to the Soviet Union communists as well. This power cult has for centuries been playing a "two ends against the middle" type of game, attempting to control America (the thesis) and Russia (the anti-thesis) and other countries or movements, carefully pitting them against each other at the lower levels in order to keep the populations of the world in a state of confusion and despair, to the point that they will - hopefully - resign themselves into accepting the New World Order "synthesis" as the only alternative to solve the very "problems" which 'they' the New World Order initiators, created in the first place!

The latter gentleman had been on the staff of the Yale University establishment in China in 1921-22. Yale and the Rockefellers were breeding a grotesque communist insurgency with British Empire ideology; another Yale staffer there was Mao Zedong, later the communist dictator and mass murderer. While he was over in China, Papa Godfrey's cousin Isabel had been the bridesmaid at the wedding of George Bush's parents. His Uncle Percy had co-founded the Harriman bank with George Walker, and backed George Bush's father in several Nazi German enterprises. His grandfather had been the founding treasurer of the Standard Oil Company, and had made the Harrimans (and thus, ultimately, George Bush) rich.

Yuelu Academy was founded in 976 AD (Song Dynasty), destroyed by war in 1127, and rebuilt in 1165 (Southern Song Dynasty). The celebrated philosopher Zhu Xi taught in at the Academy in 1165. It was destroyed by the Mongols but was restored in the late-fifteenth century (Ming Dynasty). In 1903, it became Hunan High School. The modern day Hunan University is a descendant of the academy. The architecture of some of the buildings was restored from 1981–1986, presumably according to the Song design.

The 1903 Treaty of Shanghai between China and Japan opened the city to foreign trade. Consequently, factories, churches, and schools were built. A college was started by Yale University bachelors and later became a medical center named Xiangya and a secondary school named the Yali School.

Mao Zedong, founder of the People's Republic of China began his political career in Changsha. He was a student at the Hunan Number One Teachers' Training School from 1913 to 1918. He later returned as a teacher and principal from 1920 to 1922. The school was destroyed during the civil war but has since been restored. The Former Office of the Hunan Communist Party Central Committee where Mao Zedong once lived is now a museum that includes Mao's living quarters, photographs, and other historical items from the 1920s.

The creation of Yale's campus in China was a long and difficult process, interrupted by upheavals and constantly threatened by Chinese distrust of foreign influence. Seabury and Thurston would eventually both have plaques in Woolsey Rotunda next to Pitkin's: Thurston contracted tuberculosis in 1903 while attempting to find land for the program, and Seabury drowned in a swimming accident in China four years later.

The Yali Academy -- later known as the Yali Middle School -- opened its doors to Chinese students in 1906 in the ancient walled city of Changsha. There, students were instructed in both Western and Chinese subject matter. Soon, recent Yale graduates began to be recruited as short-term instructors, known as the "Bachelors." By 1918, due to the generosity of Edward Harkness, construction was completed on a new, state-of-the-art medical college, hospital and middle school campus.

Era of 'enlightenment'

Relations between the local Chinese government and students and the Yale staff members were delicate from the start. Although Yale-in-China almost immediately reduced the religious nature of its work, the original missionary causes and attitudes remained a campus presence, and a source of tension, through the years.

"Right from the start, the Chinese felt real caution about linking education with Christian training," Spence said. "If you wanted to become a nurse or doctor, why did you need Christian training?"

During the rice riot of 1910, and again in 1927 when Chiang Kai-shek and the Nationalist Party took over the Chinese government, rising anti-foreign sentiment forced the Yale administrators to evacuate.

"We have been made aware of the almost bottomless gulf of pride, prejudice, and misunderstanding between the east and west," Gage wrote in a letter home.

Even during times without overt political strife, the students and Changsha residents resisted American control. Yale-in-China, which was "manned and controlled by Yale men," was not intended to be a reciprocal program: Americans were in Changsha to educate and "enlighten" the Chinese.

Even in the 1950s, 20 years after the program had transitioned to minimal American oversight, many at Yale still viewed the Chinese as the primary beneficiaries of the arrangement.

"[Yale-in-China's] enlightening effect on a new generation of Chinese may be of as great significance as its contributions to a past generation," the Yale Daily News reported in 1951, during Yale-in-China's 50th anniversary.

Many at Yale remained hopeful even after the outbreak of the Korean War in 1950, when the United States became the enemy of China. The News reported on Feb. 12, 1951 that Anson Stokes, one of the original members of the program, expressed his hope that Yale-in-China would "save for China the strong institutions based on Christian faith and idealism of Yale."

Leaving the mainland

But after surviving the horrors and privations of World War II, as well as Mao Zedong's Cultural Revolution and the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949, most of Yale-in-China's staff were evacuated from the country by 1951.

With the expulsion of the last staff member, Yale's involvement in mainland China ended for nearly 30 years. Only in 1980, after China had opened its doors to the West once more, did Yale return to Changsha.
Yale’s ‘Mao Project’ Paves Road To Hell For Rise of Oriental Anti-Christ

Tuesday, February 21st, 2006

Yale University is known as one of the most prestigious centers of   learning in the world. It is now also known as the home of the Skull   and Bones secret society of which both Presidential Candidates in the   2004 election, Senator John Kerry and President George W. Bush were   members. President Bush is third generation Skull and Bones , while Senator Kerry’s first wife’s father and   brother were members, as was the former father-in-law of Teresa Heinz-  Kerry whom he is now married to. Ms. Heinz.

Kerry’s becoming a billionairess after her previous husband Senator  Heinz died in a bizarre plane crash is but one of numerous odd events   that follow this organization everywhere it goes and affect everyone  it comes into contact with.

What is not known to the general public is the connection that Yale   University had to Mao Tse Tung, the ‘Great Helmsman” of China that   navigated the Chinese nation across the proverbial river Styx into   the human rights hell that it currently is, with organs and collagen   being harvested for sale from political prisoners and every manner of  
evil perpetrated with no recourse for the tens and millions of   victims. In fact Mao and his “Little Red Book” are responsible for more deaths   and misery over the long term than anyone else in history. Mao is also a “Yalie”.

It is the purpose of this article to show how a plan has been   effectuated for nearly a century to bring to global power and   domination an Oriental Antichrist , likely from China through the   auspices and assistance of an evil secret society network based in   Yale University, which effectively uses its status as a center of   learning as a cover.

1. Yale University was founded on the profits of the opium trade in China. Skull & Bones & Bush .

2. Mao attended Yale-In-China and in fact was a writer and editor there after his first paper was closed by authorities. Thus when Yale educated, trained and hired him  the institution surely knew what they were doing. In fact ,
1920. .

3.Since the resumption of diplomatic ties with China due to the influence of Henry Kissinger (whose son David is a Yale graduate) on President Nixon, every US ambassador to China is a Yalie and known or suspected member of Skull  
and Bones, the only exception being a brief period during the Jimmy Carter presidency.

The current Ambassador, Mr. Randt is known to be a member of S & B by   the chinese authorities and is described as a ‘fraternity brother’ of President GW Bush. .
“New US Ambassador to China Promises Closer Relations”. Of course,   former President George H.W. Bush was a member of Skull and Bones and US ambassador to China as well.

Oddly, the paranoid Chinese Communist regime never seems to have a problem with this “fraternity” - for good reason as the following information will show.


1. “CNOOC’s All Star Team” . CNOOC , the chinese oil giant hired various lobbyists recently in its ultimately failed attempt to buy US oil company and owner of the only rare earth metals   mine in the USA, UNOCAL.
One of the lobbyists was BKSH an affiliate of Burson-Marsteller and part of the WPP group.

2. “Security Veteran Michael J. Hershmann To Head New Homeland Security Advisory Firm/18July2003.
. The new company is to “help navigate the security landscape” possibly with the ‘great helmsman’ in mind. The subsidiary of previously   mentioned BHSH and WPP will join with StoneBridge International and be called
Civitas, LLC. So the lobbyists for CNOOC are also navigators for companies that want a piece of the security pie caused by the 9-11   attacks and the creation of DHS.

3. StoneBridge International was run by Samuel Berger, also now known as Sandy-the-Burglar, caught with US secrets in his silk stockings   and now convicted of a misdemeanor and on probation. .

4. StoneBridge has a StoneBridge-China subsidiary. “…announces establishment of StoneBridge-China…” .

5. WPP has extensive ties in China as well. It is planning on doubling its workforce to 2000 employees and its subsidiaries are also   expanding in China. WPP is the second largest advertising / Public Relations firm in
the world led by a member ofBritish royalty.
. WPP Plans to expand in China.

6. The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is managed by the illustrious Secretary Michael Chertoff. He was formerly a long term partner of the law firm Latham & Watkins (L&W). The company recently announced that it represented SEVEN CHINESE BANKS IN A RECENT DEAL.
“Latham & Watkins LLP Advises on Four of the Largest Project   Financings in Asia”.

7. One of the proud clients of the former DHS leader’s firm is Bank of China which is now implicated in money-laundering in Macau to FINANCE   THE NORTH KOREAN NUCLEAR PROGRAM. “U.S. Probes Banks’ North Korea Ties”…the source of this cite is ironic).

8. One of the other banks mentioned is Banco Delta Asia of Macau.
Banco Delta has a partner in the USA. The partner is HSBC which   happens to be tied to the hero of the New Orleans disaster, Michael “brownie’s doing a damned fine job” Brown, former head of DHS department FEMA or Federal Emergency   Management Agency. September, 16, 2005 -  
“Guess which banks have been correspondents for Macau’s Banco Delta Asia….” one of the two was HSBC.

Michael Brownie involvement in odd things at HSBC = and apparently
HSBC was running a “credit card cartel” as well - “HSBC sued   over credit card ‘cartel’.

Moving on to an even more dangerous breed of cards…


1. Oracle corporation of Larry Ellison stands shoulder-to-shoulder with DHS in protecting the motherland. . And it also helps the Chinese motherland. “Oracle Mounting full Scale Linux    assault in China”. / “Oracle , Legend Cluster in China”. There is now even an OracleChina.


“Can You hide from Accenture”?
regarding “interesting views” its chairman has regarding RFID (Radio Frequency ID) which many christians and others believe is the feared ‘mark’ of the book of revelations.

3. Accenture spun off from the Enron scandal tarred Arthur Andersen accounting/ book-cooking firm. There are concerns over what this company is doing in Canada as well. “Just Who is the company taking over BC

4. “Accenture believes in ‘Sensor ship” (or should that have been ‘Sensor chip’?)

Yes….the protector of America’s Virtual Border is in Asia. In fact it is doing a lot of hiring there.

5. “ACCENTURE TO HIRE UP TO 30,000 IN ASIA” In fact the number could  get to be 50,000 more from the current 19,000 it now has in that continent.


6. OTI - ON TRACK INNOVATIONS. It is involved in the new biometric microchip enabled RFID ePassport that American citizens will soon   have to have. One does not need it to leave, but entry will be denied without  it.

“OTI receives GSA contract award and FIPS Certification for homeland
security products”, Jan. 25, 2005
AND “US Government Awards RFID Passport Contracts” three companies were OTI from Israel,
Oberthur and ASK Contactless -of the greatest US ally in the world -

7. OTI in China -”China starts to Launch Electronic ID Cards Incorporating OTI’s Contactless Technology” (thank goodness no pesky   human rights concerns there!)

8. Oberthur - It is manufacturing the cards in South Africa, a country whose political leanings are very open to question vis-a-vis the   interests of the USA.”Oberthur Card Systems to acquire AfriCard…”.

9. Oberthur is making cards for the Turkish military, a nation becoming increasingly “islamist” and closer to China.  

(Oberthur will manufacture actual card for KeyCorp).

10. Oberthur - China “Oberthur wins China Smart Card Certification”. .

11. ASK Contactless - As noted earlier, OTI, ASK and Oberthur were awarded contracts for the development of ID technologies for the USA’s “security”. It recently sponsored a “Smart Labels China” exhibition in Beijing,  
April 19-21 of 2005 and conquered (that was the word used) Portugal andit also “conquers the Californian coast.” .

12. Transcore, privately held, based in Dallas , Texas, USA.
“TRANSCORE develops FAST system to boost Homeland Security along borders with Canada and Mexico” The FAST system uses RFID to track vehicles via a windshield sticker. The
system is called eGo.

13.Transcore is also helping Chinese customs keep their country’s border secure . We should all sleep better now knowing that all is well since this Texan company of which little is known, since it is not publicly traded and thus is not under SEC (Securities and Exchange Commission) scrutiny is dealing with BOTH CHINA AND THE USA SECURITY
AGENCIES USING THE SAME DEVICE FOR THE SAME PURPOSE - while chinese generals threaten the USA with nuclear incineration. “China Boosts Border Crossing
Efficiency and Security Using Transcore’s eGo Products”.

14.Transcore is also a proud partner of china in the ongoing genocide in Tibet by helping the chinese build the railway to Tibet that will   bring millions of Han chinese to finish the ethnocide begun by Mao when he invaded in 1959. “China Extends Transcore’s Railway Wireless Tracking System Nationwide”
“Protests, nature won’t stand in the way as China steamrolls into Tibet (IE). .

15. AXALTO - The KGB of Russia has its self respect too…it would not be left behind in this complex web of corruption and evil. “Axalto Gets Piece of Russian E-Passport Business” (Axalto is french-based). Russia under Putin is now an ally of Communist China.

16. AXALTO is a great friend of the USA in Homeland Security - it’s   mottocoincidentally is “YOUR FUTURE IN HAND” - precisely where the biblical mark of the beast is supposed to be implanted by the One World   Government
of the Anti-Christ.

The US and World headquarters for AXALTO smart cards is in Austin ,Texas, where Dubya used to be the Governor, busily signing nearly 160 death warrants, more than any Governor in US history far outpacing his brother in Florida who only has 19 or 20 so far….


There are many that believe that the Li bloodline of China is of Illuminati origin. “The Li Bloodline” AND

“Red Chinese Army Controls America’s Largest West Coast Container Port, Long Beach , California”

The article speaks of Hong Kong billionaire Li Kashing and his   Hutchinson Whampoa conglomerate which along with other companies has spread   tentacles all over the world . A subsidiary even has extensive business ties with
SAVI Technology the present employer of the first DHS leader Tom Ridge.

SEE: “US government officials further RFID “Mark of the Beast” agenda. . (
paragraphs 5,6 &7)

Li Kashing has a son that is a rising star (or should one say falling star?) He is being touted in messianical prose. “The Rise and Rise of   the Li Dynasty”


by Bruce Einhorn, October 3, 2005 . .


The Mao project started in Yale is not unique. The current President’s grandfather funded the rise of Hitler and others associated with the secret society helped bring about the Russian Revolution and kept Stalin in Power. There are also   ties to Pinochet, Manuel Noriega, Saddam Hussein and others that are   beyond the scope of this article. The one differentiation is that THIS PROJECT MIGHT SUCEED.  


, with one billion people and rising like an evil phoenix, could rule   the world unlike Saddam in Iraq or Noriega in Panama that were mere national or regional powers. The rise of Maoism in China did not happen by accident. It was guided
along by Skull and Bones and other evil networks. The rise of the red dragon from a rice paddy to RFID, from the barefoot doctor to man in space has been designed. China has not risen, it has been lifted.The Craftlove NWO
Education Project provides this information as one tiny piece of the puzzle. What the beast fears most at this
juncture is exposure. The reader must as always draw his or her own conclusions and decide what action to take. However, to do nothing is to allow the rise of evil.
Changsha was the site of Mao Zedong's conversion to communism

The 1903 Treaty of Shanghai between China and Japan opened the city to foreign trade. Consequently, factories, churches and schools were built. A college was started by Yale University bachelors, and later became a medical center named Xiangya and a secondary school named the Yali School.

Mao Zedong, founder of the People's Republic of China began his political career in Changsha. He was a student at the Hunan Number 1 Teachers' Training School from 1913 to 1918. He later returned as a teacher and principal from 1920 to 1922. The school was destroyed during the Chinese Civil War but has since been restored. The Former Office of the Hunan Communist Party Central Committee where Mao Zedong once lived is now a museum that includes Mao's living quarters, photographs and other historical items from the 1920s.

Yali School

Founded in 1906 by Yale-in-China (雅礼协会 now known as the Yale-china association), Yali School has been known throughout China for its quality instruction, both as an American-owned private school during the first half of the 20th century and as a public school since then. The name Yali 雅礼 (pinyin: Yǎ Lǐ) comes from the Analects of Confucius, meaning elegance of expression (ya 雅) and propriety of conduct (li 礼), and is a transliteration of Yale in early-20th century. Yali's school colors are blue, white (Yale colors) and red (China), as appear on the school uniform.

Founded in 1901, the Yale-China Association   is a private, nonprofit organization with more than a century of experience contributing to the development of education in and about China and to the furtherance of understanding and knowledge between Chinese and American people.

YALE (Yet Another Learning Environment)

Earlier Years
Brownell Gage, Warren Seabury, Lawrence Thurston, and Arthur Williams, all graduates of Yale Collge in the 1890s, founded Yale-in-China, and brought the mission to Changsha between the years of 1901 and 1905. In 1906, the mission's preparatory school, or the Yali School, began operations. During the same year, Edward Hume, M.D., commenced the medical work in Changsha. In 1912, Yali's first graduates received degrees.

Continued Success
The campus was dramatically expanded in 1914, and Yali became the most well-known and highly regarded education institution in the Republic of China era. By 1928, Yali started opening up its administrative and leadership roles to Chinese educators. While Yali students were known for their academic performance, they were also well trained athletes, with the school's many athletic teams - soccer, volleyball, track, for example - winning provincial and national tournaments.

World War II Years
In 1938, Yali students and faculty were moved to Yuanling in western Hunan to avoid bombing in Changsha during the Japanese invasion of China. Teaching continued in Yuanling for seven years before returning to Changsha in 1946.

Early PRC Years
In November of 1948, the US government started evacuating Americans in China; Dr. Dwight Rugh became the last Yale-China representative in China. In 1951, Dr. Rugh was brought to the new gym on the Yali campus in a school-wide meeting to condemn "American Capitalist Invaders"; he returned to Ameirca via Hong Kong soon after. During the same year, the municipal government of Changsha took over the administration of the Yali School and changed its name to Changsha Number Five Middle School to be integrated into the city's public school system. The School's tie with Yale-China was cut off. During the next few decades, Yali experienced political turbulances that swept much of China.

After the Cultural Revolution
In 1980, Yali, known at the time still as Changsha Number Five middle School, revived operations. With the new "reform and openning-up" policy instituted by Deng Xiaoping, more freedom to connect with the outside world was realized. Yali alumni from the first half of the 20th Century started working tirelessly between Changsha and New Haven. In 1985, the School revived its relationship with the Yale-China Association and was once again known as Yali. The next year, two Yale-China bachelors arrived on campus and resumed teaching responsibilities.

New Era
Since 1986, Yali has reinvented itself again as a leading institution of secondary education in China. While following a standard curriculum prescribed by the Ministry of Education of the People's Republic of China, it expanded its education philosophy to include extracurriculars and specialty education to offer students opportunities to engage themselves in campus life in and outside the classroom. The School has received numerous provincial and national recognitions for its excellence in providing high quality education to young minds. In 1992, it became formally recognized as one of the three Provincial Key Schools in Changsha, establishing it as a premier institution in China's public school system. At the same time, with its long history of international engagement, Yali has reached out to institutions in many other countries and established sister school relationships with foreign schools. In 2001, the School received a delegation from Yale University led by Yale's president, Richard Levin, in celebration of both the Centennial of Yale-China Association as well as the Tercentennial of Yale University. In 2006, Yali celebrated its own Centennial, bringing back alumni/ae and former teachers from all parts of the world.

Yali currently has two campuses: a day school located near city-center (on Laodong Road between Furong Street and Shaoshan Street) and a boarding school campus located in the southern suburbs. However, as the city's school board continues with the reforms of the school system under the intruction from the Hunan Provincial Education Bureau, the boarding school section is likely to become an independent private school, tentatively named "South Yali School (南雅中学)", as it is located south of the main day school campus.
To grow, Yale goes to China
Levin sees strategic opportunity in booming country

By Julie Post
Published Wednesday, September 28, 2005

Daniel Weisfield '08 thought he was leaving Yale thousands of miles behind when he traveled to China last year to study Mandarin in Beijing. But the humanities major soon discovered that he was far from being the only Yalie in the bustling city.

He bumped into fellow Elis at bars and restaurants; he saw Yale's insignia engraved on a giant plaque at the National Library of China; and whenever he told a local he was a Yalie, they would say, with familiarity, "Ah, Yelu daxue," or "Yale University!"

"Within Beijing, I sometimes felt I couldn't go out without running into a Yalie," Weisfield said. "Yalies are all over the place in a way that students from Princeton and Harvard are not."

The growing number of Yale students flocking to booming metropolises like Beijing and Shanghai surprises few observers, given the wide range of programs for students to visit East Asia, not to mention Yale President Richard Levin's efforts to forge ties to the Chinese government and universities.

The recent announcement that Chinese President Hu Jintao would deliver a major policy address at Yale sandwiched between a meeting with President Bush at the White House and the opening of the United Nations General Assembly was viewed by the Yale administration as validation of its efforts.

"I think that many universities are trying to strengthen those relations with China, but I think we're doing very well," Levin said. "The fact that we were chosen by the president of China to be the site for his only campus visit does reinforce the sense that Yale is more deeply committed than any of our peer institutions."

But Levin's courtship of government officials like Hu -- the head of an authoritarian communist regime that has been accused of human rights violations -- has left some students and faculty wondering exactly what role the University wants to play in China.

China has long been the centerpiece of Levin's broader goal to transform Yale into a global institution, and the University hopes to benefit strategically from its exchanges with the world's most populous nation as it emerges as a global superpower.

"In my opinion, it's likely to be one of the world's two great powers 15 or 20 years down the road," Levin said. "I think that to have a strong footprint there, a strong set of connections, will be very good for Yale."

Indeed, Yale is leaving its footprints throughout the Far East. Within the last six years, the University has formed partnerships between Yale and universities in China. The number of undergraduates studying in China under the Richard U. Light Fellowship has increased five times over since the program was launched eight years ago. The Law School in 1999 opened the China Law Center to influence human rights policy and help reform the country's legal system. And the century-old Yale-China Association continues along its missionary path in China, now focusing on training health workers and teaching English.


Still, Yale and China continue their mutual courtship. The University has also hosted senior administrators from major Chinese universities during the last two summers through the University Leadership Program, which was co-sponsored by Yale and the Chinese government.
An early mission

Yale is far from the only American university with a growing presence in China. Harvard also has burgeoning alumni clubs in Beijing and Shanghai, and Princeton's summer language institute in Beijing was the first of a host of similar institutes to be launched on Chinese soil.

Yale is also not the only school to have received top Chinese government officials and university administrators. In 2003, Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao spoke at Harvard during a trip to the United States, and schools like Princeton and Columbia have regular exchanges with Chinese faculty and administrators.

But Yale's storied history in China, which began nearly 200 years ago, and its early interest in Chinese language and cultural education have set the University apart from its peers. In 1854, Yale entered the record books as the first American university to grant a diploma to a Chinese student, Yung Wing.

"I think it's public knowledge that Yale has stronger ties," said Teng Kuan Ng, who coordinates Princeton's Beijing language program. "I think a lot of this has to do with one particular guy in the late 19th century [Yung] … Yale and Harvard are more well-received in Beijing than Princeton, because their names just ring more easily in the Chinese ear, and especially because Yale has a long history in China."

Yale's ties to China were forged in the mid-19th century with America's Second Great Awakening, which inspired many Christian missionaries from Yale -- at the time a religious school -- to seek converts in China's vast, uncharted lands.

At the turn of the century, Yale formalized its missionary involvement in China through the creation of the Yale Foreign Ministry Society, a private non-governmental organization that today is known as the Yale-China Association. In 1906, members of the society opened the Yali Academy, which was later known as the Yali Middle School, in the city of Changsha. The school, which exists to this day, was initially run by Yale graduates, who instructed students on a variety of Western and Chinese subjects.

The society retained a presence in China throughout the first half of the 20th century, founding Hsiang-Ya Hospital, Medical College and Nursing School and Huachung University in Wuhan.

But, with the establishment of the communist People's Republic of China in 1949 and Mao Zedong's Cultural Revolution in the 1960s, Yale's involvement in China came to an end. By 1951, most of Yale-in-China's staff had been evacuated from the country.

For the next three decades, Yale, like the rest of the western world, observed China from the outside. It was not until 1980, after China had reopened its doors to the West, that Yale-China returned to the country. The exchange between China and the West took off after then-President Deng Xiaoping's created an initiative to send Chinese students abroad to learn the ways of the West.

This thread pulls in more about WWII and why Mao was so favored against Chiang Kai-shek....

Webster G. Tarpley Debunks Pearl Harbor Myths (And British Spy Ring EXPOSED)

A Follow-up on the IPR and Sorge Spy Ring
Encyclopedia > Institute of Pacific Relations

The Institute of Pacific Relations (IPR) was established in 1925 to provide a forum for discussion of Asian problems and relations between Asia and the West. To promote greater knowledge of the Far East, the IPR established a large research program, which was supported financially by grants from the Rockefeller Foundation, the Carnegie Corporation, and other major corporations. While the IPR leadership maintained it was a nonpartisan body, others, including some former members, accused it of supporting the Communist line with respect to its analysis of political developments in the Far East.

The 1952 Senate Internal Security Subcommittee (SISS) reviewed some 20,000 documents from the files of IPR, including letters, memoranda, minutes and reports The finding was beyond all doubt, that the IPR was a vehicle for pro-Communist leverage on American policy in China, a strikingly different conclusion than that reached by the Tydings Committee. The Senate Internal Security Subcommittee or more commonly know as SISS was a key player in the role of finding communists during the McCarthy era in America. ...


Evidence points to breakdown in US / UK Relations  

Something interesting : British Security Coordination (Propaganda) Spy Ring in the U.S. prior to Pearl Harbor
It was 1940, the Nazis were in the ascendant, the Blitz at its deadliest, and Britain's last hope was to bring a reluctant United States into the war. So it was that the largest covert operation in UK history was launched. William Boyd sheds light on a forgotten spy ring
William Boyd  
The Guardian, Saturday 19 August 2006

"British Security Coordination". The phrase is bland, almost defiantly ordinary, depicting perhaps some sub-committee of a minor department in a lowly Whitehall ministry. In fact BSC, as it was generally known, represented one of the largest covert operations in British spying history; a covert operation, moreover, that was run not in Occupied France, nor in the Soviet Union during the cold war, but in the US, our putative ally, during 1940 and 1941, before Pearl Harbor and the US's eventual participation in the war in Europe against Nazi Germany.

Former US diplomat exposes how US actually helped communist China instead of KMT
The U.S. had now become aligned with the British which considered Chiang Kai-Shek an enemy.
Also they could not allow Shek to take Manchuria and the opium trade....

Many do not know that Japan was a British ally in the drug trade up until WWII.


War and Period                British Allies                British Opponent
Opium War, 184@1843   England and France   Chinese Dynasty
Revolution, 1867-1858   England and France   Chinese Nationalists
Storming of Pekin, 1860   England and France   Chines Dynasty
Revolution, 1860-1885   England and France   Chinese Nationalists
Yellow War, 1894-1895   Japan and (England)   Chinese Dynasty
Revolution, 1898                England-Frandapan   Chinese Nationalists
Boxer War, 1900-1901   All the Great Powers   Chinese Nationalists
Revolution, 1911                England-France-Japan   Chinese Nationalists
Revolution, 19281927   England, France, Japan, Portugal, Spain and Holland   Gen. Chiang Kai-shek
Manchurian Conquest, 1931   Japan                           Gen. Chiang Kai-shek
Manchuria was known for its shamanism, ginseng and tigers.
The Manchu imperial symbol was a tiger with a ball of opium in its mouth.
The Manchu imperial symbol was a tiger with a ball of blue opium in its mouth. This same symbol was carved in stone on many temple entrances and gates and was subsequently used on the imperial and national flag used by China from 1890 till 1912, the colour blue giving way to Imperial Yellow, as the government sought to distance itself from the trade of opium.
Japan’s Drug Policies in East Asia

Japanese narcotics sales had already been a common practice in China during World War I. The Japanese used drugs as a weapon of war to undermine China’s capacity for resistance. Prior to and during World War II, Japan’s military in occupied Manchuria (Manchukuo), had the task and cost of subjugating northern China, relied on drug sales to finance its operations. Japanese navy gun boats transported drugs manufactured in laboratories controlled by the army. In fact, the military had set up a system of some seven thousand pharmacies which sold opium and heroin to the population.

In occupied Manchuria, the Japanese not only promoted opium cultivation but its refinement into smoking opium and sale to the population. In 1931, it was estimated that one in 120 Manchurians was habituated to drugs. By 1938, one of every forty Manchurians was addicted. In fact, the League of Nations repeatedly admonished the Japanese drug policies in occupied Manchuria. In its 1937 report the League’s Opium Advisory Committee specifically referred to the clandestine manufacture and the illicit traffic in narcotic drugs undertaken by Japanese subjects in China in the territories under Japanese influences, claiming that the situation had deteriorated to an alarming extent. Japan earned US$300 million annually during the 1930s from the distribution and sale of Manchurian opium and heroin.

A Japanese army manual explained the strategy as follows: “The use of narcotics is unworthy of a superior race like the Japanese. Only inferior races, races that are decadent like the Chinese, Europeans, and the East Indians, are addicted to the use of narcotics. This is why they are destined to become our servants and eventually disappear.”

Chiang as an officer candidate in the Wehrmacht. The shoulder boards indicate the rank of Unterofizzier

Chiang Kai Shek's son Chiang Wei Guo (1916 - 1997)    

Chiang Wei Guo studied at several universities, including Soochow University and National Chiao Tung University, but did not complete his education at either school.

Chiang Kai-shek had sent his eldest son, Chiang Ching-kuo to the Soviet Union to study, but it became impossible for him to send Wei-kuo there after the KMT violently ended its alliance with the Chinese Communists in the Shanghai Massacre.

Consequently, he sent Wei-kuo to Nazi Germany for military training instead. During his time in Germany, he served as a Lieutenant commanding a panzer tank during the 1938 Anschluss with Austria. Afterwards, he returned to China and quickly rose through the ranks through his father's connections. He became a major at 28, a lieutenant colonel at 29, a colonel at 32, and major general at 34.

In 1969, Rockefeller Official Said US Would Be De-industrialized

Related article by Dennis Cuddy mentions Lawrence Dunegan and Dr. Richard Day
By Dennis L. Cuddy, Ph.D.
November 27, 2006

As I have mentioned many times before, the power elite's favorite means of controlling people is the dialectical process. This often involves creating a "threat" to a particular population. For example, the terrorist threat after 9/11 caused Americans to be willing to give up certain of their freedoms which they had been unwilling to give up before 9/11.
David Rockefeller meets Zhou Enlai almost 30 years after Baron Robert Rothschild left Zhou behind. The picture was probably taken in June 1973.
Whatever covertly happened between the globalist movement and China before the early 1970s, from this time on Henry Kissinger started conferring with Zhou Enlai, still China's prime minister and usually seen as less radical than Mao himself.
Kissinger made two secret trips to China in 1971 to lay the ground work for Nixon's 1972 public visit. In the following years, Kissinger made subsequent secret trips to China to make sensitive intelligence exchanges.
Robert C. McFarlane (Marine Corps colonel; said to be a good friend of George Griggs, according to Kay Griggs; CFR; National Security Adviser; chair National Security Planning Group; advisor Zionist Washington Institute for Near East Policy; vice-chair and co-founder America-China Society; director of Aegis Defence Services, a London-based mercenary company with large contracts in Iraq which is headed by Lord Peter Inge (Privy Council; Knight of the Garter; Pilgrims Society) and an SAS/MI6 officer) was among those who went with him, in his case between 1973 and 1976.
The National Council for US-China Trade was established in May 1973 (42), the same month in which Chase Manhattan Bank opened a Moscow office at 1 Karl Marx Square (43). This was also the first year that the secretive US-USSR Trade and Economic Council meetings were going on; its Overseas Development Council at one point chaired by David Rockefeller  (according to his digital Who's Who).
The US-China Council served as an unofficial discussion board between the Chinese government and the CEOs of the US and has been instrumental in opening up formal relations with China in the 1978-1979 period. David Rockefeller is known to have met with Zhou at least once in June of 1973 (44).

"During World War II, 'Yale in China' was a primary instrument used by the U.S. Establishment and its Office of Strategic Services (OSS) to install the Maoists into power. 'Yale in China' was run by OSS operative Reuben Holden, the husband of Bush's cousin, and also a member of Skull and Bones. "

The Maoists made China into the world's largest opium producer.
Reuben Holden, 77, College President And Yale Executive
Published: December 3, 1995
Reuben A. Holden, a former executive at Yale University who became a college president in North Carolina, died on Wednesday at Memorial Mission Hospital in Asheville, N.C. He was 77 and lived in Black Mountain, N.C.

The cause was cancer, said his son Reuben A. Holden 5th.

Mr. Holden was Yale University's third-ranking executive, with the title of secretary, from 1953 to 1971, when he began 15 years as president of Warren Wilson College in Swannanoa, N.C.

Radley H. Daly, the deputy secretary and marshal of Yale, said yesterday, "For almost two decades, he was a key adviser to two presidents of Yale and to the corporation," as Yale's board of trustees is called. Mr. Holden also functioned as chief of staff to the presidents, A. Whitney Griswold and Kingman Brewster, and to the corporation.

His responsibilities included overseeing the university's relations with the New Haven community. He was tested in that capacity in 1970, when civil-rights protesters -- largely from out of town -- held a mass rally on the New Haven Green, a park adjoining the Yale campus, to protest the bringing to trial in New Haven of civil-rights advocates who were members of the Black Panthers.

Mr. Brewster, striving to avoid confrontation with the protesters, quietly had the Yale campus made open to them and had food given to them there. Mr. Holden handled the arrangements.

He was born in Louisville, Ky., and graduated in 1940 from Yale College, where he was elected to Phi Beta Kappa and was managing editor of the campus newspaper. He was an infantry officer in World War II and later received a Ph.D. in education from Yale.

Besides his son, Reuben, of Charlottesville, Va., he is survived by his wife, Elizabeth Walker Holden; two daughters, Grace Holden of Arlington, Va., and Mary Holden Ayach of Black Mountain; another son, George W. Holden of Austin, Tex., and six grandchildren

5. China and the Opium Wars
Why all this interest in China? Well, China, among other things, is one of the largest producers and users of opiates in the world.

For a while, in the 1800s, the Yankee Clippers in Connecticut and Massachusetts were the fastest ships on the ocean. Speed was crucial to the opium trade; whoever made the trip from Turkey/India to Macao/Hong Kong/Shanghai first got the most for their goods.

During the Opium Wars, the U.S. chose to stand on the sidelines and cheer for the English and French, knowing that treaty obligations would bring the U.S. a share in the spoils. Russell and Company was at times the only trading house operating in Canton and used the opportunity to developed strong commercial ties and handsome profits.

Powerful national interests were behind the drug trade, because American traders were badly in need of some article the Chinese would buy, since by this time the seal breeding grounds had been nearly wiped out. If the Chinese had not bought opium from Americans, then United States imports of silk, porcelain and tea would have to paid in precious coin, which was in short supply. In 1843, when the Port of Shanghai was opened, Russell and Co. was one of its earliest traders.

In 1903, Yale Divinity School set up a program of schools and hospitals in China. Mao Zedong was among the staff. During the intrigues of China in the 1930s and '40s, American intelligence called upon the resources of "Yale in China", and George Bush's cousin and fellow "Bonesman" Reuben Holden.

After stints as UN Ambassador and Chairman of the Republican National Committee for the beleaguered Richard Nixon, George Bush was sent to look after the "China trade". The Bush family is still very much involved in the economic activities of "Red" China.

Many researchers contend that George Bush has been with CIA since the early 1950s, and that one of his jobs was to consolidate and co-ordinate the worldwide narcotics industry, the largest industry on Earth. Some say that one of the reasons behind the Vietnam "Police Action" was a cover for the consolidation of the "Golden Triangle".
 The Manuscripts and Archives section of Yale’s Library has the records of the Yale-China Association. See Reuben Andrus Holden, Yale in China: The Mainland, 1909-1951 (New Haven: Yale in China Association, 1964).

Yale, Professor of History, Gaddis Smith, said, "Yale has influenced the Central Intelligence Agency more than any other university, giving the CIA the atmosphere of a class reunion." And "Bonesman" have been foremost among the "spooks", virtually building the CIA into a "haunted house."

F. Trubee Davison (Skull and Bones '18), was Director of Personnel at the CIA in the early years. Some of the other Bonesmen connected with the "intelligence community" are: William Sloane Coffin, Jr. ('49); V. Van Dine ('49); James Buckley ('44); Bill Buckley ('50); Hugh Cunnigham ('34); Hugh Wilson; Reuben Holden; Charles R. Walker; "Yale's unofficial Secretary of War," Robert D. French ('10); Archibald MacLiesh ('15); Dino Pionzio ('50),
CIA Deptuy Chief of Station during Allende overthrow; William and McGeorge Bundy; Richard A. Moore ('3?); Senator David Boren ('63); Senator John Kerry; and of course George Bush. Bush "tapped" Coffin, who, tapped Buckley.

Cf. Reuben Holden, Yale in China : the Mainland, 1901-1951 (New Haven : Yale-in-China Association,
1964), p. 160. Holden remarks a parallel situation where the collegiate students in Yalein-China were found to be less susceptible to the emotional appeals of the Kuomintang Party.
The Summer of 1930 - American Policy and Chinese Communism

Reuben_A._Holden_IV's dad, The SS Morro Castle disaster and his mother's death:
Reuben Andrus Holden III (March 14, 1890 in Cincinnati, Ohio – February 27, 1967), was a tennis player during the early part of the 20th Century.

Holden played on the Yale University tennis team
In 1934, just two years after he reached his last doubles final here, tragedy struck the Holden home. The holiday liner SS Morro Castle, bound for home after a trip to Havana with 549 passengers and crew aboard, was engulfed in flames while off the coast of New Jersey. The passenger list that night included Mr. Holden, his two sons Reuben IV and John, and his wife, Grace Morgan Holden. Grace was among the 137 who died in the fire.
Now, remember, if we get separated in the water we'll all meet at the Roosevelt Hotel in New York" said Mrs. Grace Holden of Cincinnati , Ohio, before she, her two sons John (1922-1995) and Reuben, (1918-1995) and husband, Yale tennis player Reuben A. Holden (1890-1967) jumped from the ship together.

An article in the Brooklyn Eagle described how they were parted in the water, and how the males of the family were put to bed in three separate locations, none at the Roosevelt Hotel, not knowing that Mrs. Holden's body had already been identified in New Jersey by the manager of the Monmouth Hotel. Mr. Holden later gave this brief account:

My wife and I were awakened by the commotion in the hallway outside our cabin. Looking out our porthole, we could see the flames. Mrs. Holden and I went across the passageway and got our two sons out of their cabin. We went out on deck and found groups of people huddled about the deck rails by the stern

Reuben Andrus Holden IV graduated from Yale University, Class of 1940. He served as Secretary of Yale during the 1960s, authored several books, and married the cousin of U.S. President George Bush, senior.

The IPR was investigated by the Senate in 1951 (McCarthy)

The IPR was investigated by the Senate in 1951 (McCarthy)  a must read:

Full text of Institute of Pacific Relations_ Hearings before the Subcommittee to Investigate the Administration of the Internal Security Act and Other Internal Security Laws of the Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate, Eighty-second Congress SEPTEMBER 14, 18, 19, 20, 25, 1951 :

Tonight, Ambassador at Large Philip C. Jessup, who had been accused by Senator McCarthy of "accepting" contributions for the American Council of Institute of Pacific Relations from Frederick Vanderbilt Field, denounced this as a false "insinuation" that the council was "being paid to peddle the Communist Party line."

Mr. Jessup declared in the first place that he was not, as alleged by Mr. McCarthy, largely in control of the organization. At the time in question, 1942 and 1943, the Ambassador added, its head was Dr. Robert Gordon Sproul, president of the University of California, and sponsors for a drive for funds included  Henry Luce, the magazine publisher, and Juan Trippe of Pan-American Airways.

Mr. Field's contributions of $3,500, Mr. Jessup said, were part of $200,000 taken up, much of it from the Rockefeller Foundation, the Carnegie Corp., and large industrial concerns.

Of Messrs. Luce and Trippe, Ambassador Jessup observed :

"Surely these gentlemen would never have accepted payments from Mr. Field or anyone else for 'selling the Communist Party line.' Neither would I if I had been in control."

Senator McCarthy had called Mr. Field a known Communist.

[From the New York Times, April 4, 1950]
Text of Lattimore's Memorandum on United States Far Eastern Policy

Mr. Lattimore, head of the Walter Hines Page School of International Relations at Johns Hopkins

Washington, April 3 (AP). — Following is the text of Owen Lattimore's memorandum on United States policy in the Far East, drafted for a State Department advisory committee last August and made public today by Mr. Lattimore :

1. The type of policy represented by support for Chiang Kai-shek does more harm than good to the interests of the United States, and no modification of this policy seems promising

2. China cannot be economically coerced by such measures as cutting off trade.
Nothing could be more dangerous for the American interest than to underestimate the ability of the Chinese Communists to achieve the minimum level of economic stability that will make their regime politically secure.

3. It is not possible to make Japan a satisfactory instrument of American policy.

4. South Korea is more of a liability than an asset to the interests and policy of the United States.

Mr. Morris. Mr. Chairman, may I point out at this time that Mr.  Ozaki was in 1936 the Japanese council delegate to the IPR conference  at Yosemite?

General Willoughby. Yes. That makes Ozaki doubly interesting  to this committee specializing in the quality of the membership of the  Institute of Pacific Relations. Ozaki is a type member in good standing of the Institute of Pacific Relations in his days.


In order to once more emphasize the character of Sorge's organization — apparatus is the pseudo or Russian term for it — I would like to quote from his diary, duly authenticated reference in the hands of
the counsel. This is Sorge speaking :

As head of the Japan spy ring, I was directly affiliated with the central committee of the U. S. S. R. Communist Party. I was also under the fourth bureau (intelligence) of the Red army with respect to the technical aspects of my work and a few subject matter in'oblems.
As I see it —

this is Sorge speaking —

my espionage group should be considered a special arm of the central committee of the U. S. S. R. Communist Party. That was its essential characteristic.

Another distinguishing feature was its technical and organization connection with the fourth bureau (intelligence) of the Red army. The espionage group which I operated in Japan, all of its members have frankly confessed that they were working to advance the cause of commiunism and not for money or  personal gain.

Mr. Morris. General, approximately how many members were there in that ring ?

General Willoughby. Fifteen to twenty. While the personnel of this ring varied from time to time, this skillful bank of spies — agents, if you wish — worked for nine productive years before their discovery. The famous Canadian spy case was one of the best examples of this type of espionage. I believe, however, that the Sorge efforts in Tokyo compare most favorably with this famous case.

Senator Ferguson. How many nationalities were in this ring?

Sorge was a German ?

General Willoughby. Yes.

Senator Ferguson. Guenther Stein was British?

General Willoughby. British citizen of German origin.

Senator Ferguson. Smedley was an American ?

General Willoughby. Was an American.

Agnes Smedley(far right) with her friends Mao Tsetung(left) and general Chu Teh in Yenan guerilla base. 1937
Photographer: Helen Foster Snow Magnum Acc# 93-1116

Agnes Smedley, a triple agent who worked for the Soviets, the Chinese Communists, and the Indian nationalists, was one of the most prolific female spies of the 20th century. Unlike most agents of the day, who were reasonably erudite, Smedley lacked a formal education and came from a poor, undistinguished family.

At New York University circa 1912, Smedley befriended a group of students from India who were agitators in their country's nationalist movement. She soon joined the Friends of Freedom for India, a secretive organization closely monitored by the U.S. government.

In 1918, while she was a student at the University of California, Smedley was arrested in the company of Salindranath Ghose, a prominent Indian nationalist, and charged with aiding and abetting espionage

Soon after the indictment Smedley left the U.S. for Berlin. She became involved with the Communist faction of the Indian nationalist movement in Germany and entered into a common-law marriage with Virendranath Chattoopadhyaya, a Communist Indian nationalist leader.

In 1928, Smedley left for Shanghai, China by way of Moscow. Agents there assigned her to keep tabs on the British-trained and British-directed police in Shanghai and to support the Communist cause there.

Smedley began a professional and romantic relationship with Richard Sorge, a Russian-born spy for the Soviets based in Shanghai.

During World War II Smedley lived intermittently in the U.S. and served as an advisor to the U.S. general Joseph Stilwell, who was the military advisor to Chiang Kai-shek, the leader of non-Communist China.

Smedley used her position to recommend that Stilwell secretly send a limited amount of U.S. military supplies to the Chinese Communists in the event that they could help the U.S. against a potential Japanese attack. Stilwell agreed to Smedley's request.

By 1950, rumors began to circle among government officials about Smedley's identity as a Soviet agent. The FBI assigned a team of agents to monitor her activities. Feeling pressured, Smedley left for England. The House Un-American Activities Committee subpoenaed her shortly after she left. Smedley died in England less than three years later, never having appeared before the committee.

Her ashes were spread in a cemetery for revolutionaries in the Chinese capital.
The Wuhan Gang, including Joseph Stilwell, Agnes Smedley, Evans Carlson, Frank Dorn, Jack Belden, S.T. Steele, John Davies, David Barrett and more, were the core of the Americans who were to influence the American decision-making on behalf of the Chinese communists. It was not something that could be easily explained by Hurley's accusation in late 1945 that American government had been hijacked by i) imperialists and ii) communists. At play was not a single-thread Russian or Comintern conspiracy against the Republic of China but an additional channel that was delicately knit by the sohphiscated Chinese communist saboteurs to employ the above-mentioned Americans for their cause"
Network of CCP Secret Agents Inside Of KMT & Nanking Puppet Governments

 Gao Hua classified CCP's espionage activities into three lines: Kang Sheng's CCP Central Social Department, Wu Kejian's CCP Southern Bureau behind-enemy-line-committee (i.e., under Zhou Enlai/Li Kenong control), and Pan Hannian's Southern China Bureau (in charge of Shanghai-HK nexus). Yu Maochun, in "OSS In China", had presented the line of dual status agents under the control of both Chinese communists and Comintern.

Update:  Remember Japan defeated the Czar in 1911 This article is apologetic to Japan and skips over Manchurian Opium....
Communist Spies Sent to Japan and China

In Asia, Japan was the only country which turned strongly against the communists, while the USA was very slow to realize the danger of communism. And for the Soviet Union, Japan was the biggest impediment to communize Asia. That was why the Soviet Union tried to use the American armed forces to destroy Japan. For that purpose, the Soviet Union sent many secret agents of the Communist International to China, the USA and Japan.
Some of their agents were sent to Japan, but the Japanese police strictly discovered and arrested them. It is famous in Japan that a German communist, Richard Sorge, entered Japan and succeeded in sending some secret documents on important Japanese policies to the Soviet Union. The information he sent later contributed to the victory of the Soviet Union against Germany and Japan. Due to the information provided by Sorge, the Soviet Union was able to delay invading Japan until the USA defeated Japan in 1945. Sorge himself was arrested as a spy suspect just before the Pacific War and later executed.
The Communist International also sent many agents to China to help Chinese communists and make China a communist country. The Soviet agents worked with the Chinese communist leader Mao Zedong in every way, and also around Chiang Kai-shek were many communist agents. Chiang himself was not a communist but was shrewdly managed by the communists.
For the communists, the biggest desire was to drag the USA into the war against Japan, for Japan was the biggest impediment to communizing China, and the only country with the power to destroy Japan was the USA. If they fought against each other, there would be a big opportunity of communizing China. In fact, on July 19, 1935, American ambassador to the Soviet Union, W. Bullitt, informed his country that it was the biggest desire for the Soviet Union to drag the USA into a war against Japan. In order to realize this, the communists used every method to make the USA look upon Japan as the enemy.

Chiang Kai-shek was caught by communists during a careless moment in Xi'an in 1936, and was taken to Mao Zedong, who really wanted to kill him. But before killing Chiang, Mao asked Moscow what to do. The answer was, "Do not kill him. Force him to fight against Japan." Mao followed this order and said to Chiang, "I will save your life if you fight against the Japanese military forces!" Chiang accepted it and then on, he was always being watched by the communists who had infiltrated his troops.

Mao Zedong (left) and Chiang Kai-shek (right).
This photo was taken in 1945. Chiang's change  of mind drove Japan to the war.

By Chiang's change of mind, Japan was dragged into the Chinese civil war, for Chiang's soldiers began attacking the Japanese people to provoke them to war. .
U.S. assist Communists gain power in China

Wall Street intervention in the Sun Yat Sen revolution of 1911

Under the Secretary of War Henry L. Stimson (B 1888), During World War II, General Joseph W. Stilwell, acting on orders from General George C. Marshall in Washington to stop the supply of ammunition so as to disarm Chinese forces fighting communists.

“By about the year 2000 Communist China will be a “superpower” built by American technology and skill.” Antony C. Sutton, American Secret Establishment published 1984

This is not the place to tell the whole story of American involvement in China. It began with Wall Street intervention into the Sun Yat Sen revolution of 1911 -- a story not yet publicly recorded.

During World War II the United States helped the Chinese Communists into power. As one Chinese authority, Chin-tung Liang, has written about General Joseph W. Stilwell, the key U.S. representative in China from 1942 to 1944: "From the viewpoint of the struggle against Communism . . . [Stilwell] did a great disservice to China." [2]

Yet Stilwell only reflected orders from Washington, from General George C. Marshall. And as Admiral Cooke stated to Congress, "... in 1946 General Marshall used the tactics of stoppage of ammunition to invisibly disarm the Chinese forces. [3]

But when we get to General Marshall we need to remember that in the U.S. the civilian branch has final authority in matters military and that gets us to then Secretary of War Henry L. Stimson, Marshall's superior and a member of The Order (1888). By an amazing coincidence, Stimson was also Secretary of War in 1911 -- at the time of the Sun Yat Sen revolution.

The story of the betrayal of China and the role of The Order will have to await yet another volume. At this time we want only to record the decision to build Communist China as a new arm of the dialectic -- a decision made under President Richard Nixon and placed into operation by Henry Kissinger (Chase Manhattan Bank) and George "Poppy" Bush (The Order).

As we go to press (early 1984) Bechtel Corporation has established a new company, Bechtel China, Inc., to handle development, engineering and construction contracts for the Chinese government. The new President of Bechtel China, Inc. is Sydney B. Ford, formerly marketing manager of Bechtel Civil & Minerals, Inc. Currently Bechtel is working on studies for the China National Coal Development Corporation and the China National Offshore Oil Corporation -- both, of course, Chinese Communist organizations.

It appears that Bechtel is now to play a similar role to that of Detroit based Albert Kahn, Inc., the firm that in 1928 undertook initial studies and planning for the First Five Year Plan in the Soviet Union.

By about the year 2000 Communist China will be a "superpower" built by American technology and skill. It is presumably the intention of The Order to place this power in a conflict mode with the Soviet Union.

There is no doubt Bechtel will do its job. Former CIA Director Richard Helms works for Bechtel, so did Secretary of State George Shultz and Defense Secretary Caspar Weinberger. That's a powerful, influential combination, if any Washington planner concerned with national Security gets out of line sufficiently to protest.

| -----
Diplomat, scholar and jurist His Excellency Philip Caryl Jessup (January 5, 1897- January 31, 1986).

A graduate of Hamilton College (B.A.) and Yale University (LL.B.), Jessup had been Assistant Secretary-General of the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA) conference in 1943 and the U.N. Monetary and Financial Conference (the "Bretton Woods" Conference) in 1944 before serving as a member of the American delegation to the U.N. charter conference in San Francisco in 1945.

In addition to serving as a technical expert and advisor to various U.N. committees, Jessup also prepared the U.S. State Department's "White Paper" on China. His praise of Communist Party forces and condemnation of Kuomintang forces in the country led to his scrutiny by Senator Joseph McCarthy. Jessup became a primary target of McCarthy, who charged in the 1950 Tydings Committee hearings that Jessup was a security risk who had "an unusual affinity ... for Communist causes." Although Jessup was cleared of all charges the the Loyalty Board of the State Department and the Tydings Committee, and McCarthy was rebuked by many fellow senators and other statesman, McCarthy's allegations severely damaged Jessup's reputation and career.

President Harry S. Truman appointed Jessup as the U.S. delegate to the United Nations in 1951. When the appointment came before the Senate, however, it was not approved, largely because of McCarthy's influence. To circumvent the Senate's action, President Truman assigned Jessup as United States delegate to the United Nations on an "interim appointment."

Shortly after John F. Kennedy took office as president, the State Department approved the appointment of Jessup as the U.S. candidate for the International Court of Justice, a post that did not need Senate confirmation.

Yet Stilwell only reflected orders from Washington, from General George C. Marshall. And as Admiral Cooke stated to Congress, "... in 1946 General Marshall used the tactics of stoppage of ammunition to invisibly disarm the Chinese forces. [3]

But when we get to General Marshall we need to remember that in the U.S. the civilian branch has final authority in matters military and that gets us to then Secretary of War Henry L. Stimson, Marshall's superior and a member of The Order (1888). By an amazing coincidence, Stimson was also Secretary of War in 1911 -- at the time of the Sun Yat Sen revolution.

Henry L. Stimson - NYT OBIT:
Henry L. Stimson Dies at 83 In His Home on Long Island
HUNTINGTON, L.I., Oct. 20-- October 21, 1950

Henry L. Stimson, former Secretary of War, died here at 4 P. M. today in his home, Highhold, West Hills. He had celebrated his eighty-third birthday on Sept. 21.
As President Truman's senior adviser on military use of atomic energy, Henry L. Stimson made the deciding recommendation to drop the first atomic bomb, one of the most significant events in the history of mankind.
Attracted Elihu Root
It was Mr. Stimson's great good fortune as a young man of solid social background and education at Yale and Harvard to attract the attention of Elihu Root, then near the zenith of his long and influential career as a conservative Republican statesman and lawyer.
Young Henry was sent to Phillips Andover Academy, where, he recalled in later life, the students enjoyed "perfect freedom, tempered by expulsion."   [Andover Academy had a Pre-S&B society]

Mr. Stimson entered Yale in 1884 and spent the summer of his freshman year roughing it in the wilds of Canada. He was elected near the end of his junior year to Skull and Bones, oldest of the senior societies. He was graduated in 1888. After two years at Harvard Law School he was admitted to the bar in New York in 1891. By the end of 1905, as a member of Senator Root's law firm, he was making some $20,000 a year, and in January, 1906, President Theodore Roosevelt appointed him United States Attorney for the Southern District of New York, his first public post. The salary was half what he had been making in private practice.
When a vacancy occurred in the post of Secretary of War, President Taft took thought to the political needs of the Republican party in this state and appointed Mr. Stimson, probably on the recommendation of Mr. Root who, as Secretary of War in the Cabinets of McKinley and Roosevelt, had taken the far-reaching step of forming the Army's first General Staff.

When Mr. Stimson took office on May 22, 1911, the United States Army consisted of some 4,300 officers and 70,250 enlisted men, most of them distributed among obsolete military posts. Major Gen. Leonard Wood was Chief of Staff when Mr. Stimson became Secretary of War, and with Wood's aid the new Secretary was able to effect a new and more-efficient regrouping of the nation's tiny forces. But the nation was almost completely uninterested in army matters, and Mr. Stimson's post was easily the most unimportant in the Cabinet.

The outbreak of the first World War in 1914 found the United States Army almost completely unprepared, much to Mr. Stimson's regret. [ Really? you really think so?]
Secretary of State in '31
Mr. Stimson was Secretary of State during the 1931 Manchurian crisis [always there for a crisis], which with the Ethiopian crisis of 1936 and the Munich appeasement of 1938, constituted the major retreats made by the Western powers before the nationalistic aggression that led to the second World War. President Hoover, who himself had considerable personal knowledge of Far Eastern affairs, had great confidence in Mr. Stimson's judgment in this field and gave him virtually a free hand. The Manchurian storm broke almost without warning.

On Sept. 17, 1931, Mr. Stimson received Katsuji Dubuchi, Japanese Ambassador, and both agreed that tensions in the Far East seemed to be relieved and that Japanese-American relations were much improved. Two days later Japanese troops occupied the Manchurian arsenal city of Mukden and other points in south Manchuria, territory claimed by China.
The beginning of the second World War in 1939 found the War Department split by a feud between Secretary of War Harry H. Woodring and Assistant Secretary Louis Johnson. In a typically Rooseveltian stroke of political daring, the President decided to invite Mr. Stimson to accept the War post which the harassed Secretary Woodring finally vacated. It was formally offered in a telephone call from President Roosevelt on June 19, 1940. At the same time another Republican, Frank Knox of Chicago, was invited to become Secretary of the Navy, and accepted.

Mr. Stimson was 73 years old when he accepted the colossal task of carrying forward his country's preparation for taking part in a war from which it was almost certain that it could not keep free.[ Just in time AGAIN for Pearl Harbor!!!] He was remembered for the failure of his Manchurian policy, and his advanced years caused it to be said openly in Washington that he would collapse under the strain.

With an energy that would have been astonishing in a man twenty years younger, Secretary Stimson grappled with the task of making the ground and army air forces ready for almost certain war service. When he had been Secretary of War in 1911, there had been almost endless time to prepare for war, but no money. Now there was almost inexhaustible money and no time.

United States Attacked by Japan
The Japanese attacked us on Dec. 7, 1941, and then and later, Mr. Stimson became involved in the controversy over who was to blame for the fact that the American land and sea forces were surprised at Pearl Harbor. Secretary Stimson maintained that Lieut. Gen. Walter Short, commanding in Hawaii, had been adequately warned before the attack. Another and very tenacious school of thought held that the warning had not been sufficiently explicit.
In the fall of 1941 President Roosevelt named Secretary Stimson to a committee to advise on nuclear fission policy [Before Pearl Harbor!] , and from May 1, 1943, until he resigned as Secretary of War, Mr. Stimson was the President's senior adviser on the military employment of atomic energy.
Secretary Stimson selected four targets, two of which were subjected to the atomic bomb attack--Hiroshima on Aug. 6, 1945, and Nagasaki three days later. Both attacks caused great loss of life among civilians as well as among members of the Japanese armed forces and also vast property damage.

When the armies that he had helped to raise were victorious in Europe and Japan in the greatest conflict of all time, Mr. Stimson resigned as Secretary of War on Sept. 21, 1945 [Mission completed!] , and retired to Highhold, his Long Island estate, which he had occupied since 1903.
Stimson had the Bomb
Part III: The Manhattan Engineer District
... Bush, with the help and authority of Secretary of War Henry L. Stimson, setup the Military Policy Committee, including one representative each from the Army, the Navy, and the Office of Scientific Research and Development

Yet Stilwell only reflected orders from Washington, from General George C. Marshall. And as Admiral Cooke stated to Congress, "... in 1946 General Marshall used the tactics of stoppage of ammunition to invisibly disarm the Chinese forces. [3]

But when we get to General Marshall we need to remember that in the U.S. the civilian branch has final authority in matters military and that gets us to then Secretary of War Henry L. Stimson, Marshall's superior and a member of The Order (1888). By an amazing coincidence, Stimson was also Secretary of War in 1911 -- at the time of the Sun Yat Sen revolution.

For even more information read the A Secret Government! - By Sibel Edmonds  Thread which goes into Origins of RAND - Radar development at Tuxedo Park - Alfred Lee Loomis - multimillionare and the ultimate insider - after the war and retiring he never gave an interview (the unknown Howard Hughes)

Origins of RAND - Tuxedo Park - Alfred Lee Loomis

Alfred Lee Loomis  is the nephew of Henry L. Stimson and developed LORAN and other radars used in the war.

Toward the end of the war, when Secretary of War Henry L. Stimson and Lt. Gen. Leslie Groves, head of the Manhattan Project that developed the atomic bomb, were trying to decide which Japanese cities to bomb, a chance visit by Mr. Loomis helped persuade the two men to spare the ancient city of Kyoto. Mr. Loomis had studied Japanese history at Harvard and was passionate about the ancient city's art treasures.

Then his son Henry Loomis, He served on the board of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology-affiliated Mitre Corp. for 13 years and worked with the Central Intelligence Agency and the Defense Department before being named Voice of America director in 1958.

And :
Henry Loomis - Eisenhower Administration - Working for the CIA - Came up with Biological and chemical warfare plan for the US.

Walmart - America-China Chamber of Commerce (USCCC) - Prescott Bush Jr.  Hmmm...
Yale China Association Biennial 2001-2003

Contributers July 1 2001 - June 30 2003 :
The Officers and Trustees of Yale-China Association extend their sincere thanks...
Prescott S. Bush Jr.

Prescott Bush, Jr. (born 1922), Prescott Bush's eldest son, served as chairman of the U.S.-China Chamber of Commerce.  (George HW Bush's Brother)
Executive summary: Brother of George H.W. Bush

Father: Prescott Bush
Mother: Dorothy Walker
Brother: George H.W. Bush
Sister: Nancy Bush
Brother: Jonathan J. Bush
Brother: William Trotter Bush
Wife: Elizabeth Louise Kauffman
Son: Prescott Sheldon Bush III
Son: Kelsey Bush
Son: James L. Bush

    High School: Phillips Academy Andover
    University: Yale University

    Archer Daniels Midland Consultant
    Anheuser-Busch Consultant
    Member of the Board of Pan-Am (1942-50)
    George Bush Presidential Library Board of Trustees
    AmeriCares Advisory Committee
    Black America's PAC
    Bush-Cheney '04
    Friends of Joe Lieberman
    George W. Bush for President
    National Republican Congressional Committee
    National Republican Senatorial Committee
    New Republican Majority Fund
    Pete Coors for Senate
    Bush Family

The United States of America-China Chamber of Commerce (USCCC) is a not-for-profit, bi-national membership organization dedicated to developing increased U.S.-China trade and investment activities by assisting American and Chinese companies, professionals and the general public to better understand the business environments and cultural traditions relevant to successfully doing business in both countries.

The USCCC conducts a wide range of activities - such as seminars, conferences, workshops, executive briefings, trade missions and networking events - to identify the technological, economic, financial, demographic and cultural trends that are critical for successful economic development between the U.S. and China.

The USCCC also aids both American and Chinese companies in locating suitable business partners for trade and investments, and provides important governmental and business introductions for companies of all sizes in the U.S. and China.

President George H. W. Bush, Siva Yam and Bush's Brother Prescott Bush

His Excellency, Premier Zhu Rongji and Prescott Bush, Chairman (retired) of US-China Chamber of Commerce  


Founded in 1993 in St. Louis by a group of Chinese and American businessmen led by Prescott S. Busch, Jr. and with initial funding from several major corporations and its Directors, the United States of America-China Chamber of Commerce has evolved and grown into a well recognized non-profit, bi-national membership organization with three offices in the U.S. and a representative in Shanghai, China. With a membership of over 200 corporations and professionals, the U.S.-China Chamber of Commerce has broadened its reach with the addition of new members, and the participation of companies and professionals from various parts of the world.
by Sherman H. Skolnick 8/14/02

Wal-Mart, through relying heavily on cheap if not slave labor from Red China, has become the largest corporation in the world. When they did not advertise much on the television, the tv pundits occasionally would criticize them, just a little, not too much.

Chairman Prescott S. Bush, Jr, (USA—China Chamber of Commerce)

Some of the reportedly corrupt and bloody deals between Wal-Mart and Red China, and their Secret Police, have been arranged by Prescott S. Bush, Jr., uncle of George W. Bush. Prescott is the brother of Daddy Bush. Prescott has been the head of the United States of America-China Chamber of Commerce, 55 W. Monroe St., Suite 630, Chicago IL 60603. (312) 368-0430 or (312) 368-9022. FAX (312) 368-0418. E-Mail [And according to published accounts, Prescott has had similar dirty deals with the Japanese mafia, the Yakuza. Put in his name in a good search engine.]

The abrupt changes in government policies in China, the sudden collapse of the global economy, and the dramatic drop in export sales have forced many Chinese to think outside of the box: export is no longer the only way to prosperity.   Hundreds of thousands of factories in Guangdong and Zhejiang have been closed.  Now, many of those surviving factories are looking to reposition themselves, align with strategic partners, and identify products that they can market domestically.  Despite the slowdown of the economy, the consumer market in China continues to grow.  For instance, some of the biggest international retailers such as Walmart, Tesco, and Carrefour are going ahead with ambitious expansion plans in China.  Chinese companies are looking for products, technologies, brands, and concepts to market and partners to strengthen their companies.  


To assist U.S. and Chinese companies in capturing these opportunities, USCCC has expanded the organization.  Beginning 2009, we will focus on working with U.S. and Chinese companies to take a proactive approach to identify business opportunities, generate quality deal flows, provide match making services, and expand our network of investors from both the U.S. and China.

As an aside who has ever heard of : Brother: William Trotter Bush Huh

"Bucky" Bush

William H.T. Bush ("Bucky" Bush; William Trotter Bush) (1938- ) is the brother of former President George Herbert Walker Bush and uncle of President George W. Bush.[1] Bush chairs Bush-O'Donnell & Co., "a holding company with interests in insurance, money management, investment banking and manufacturing
In January 2003, the Prince George's Journal (Maryland) reported [3]:

"William H.T. (Bucky) Bush, an uncle of George W. Bush, is on the Board of Directors of a company which will benefit substantially from war with Iraq, according to financial analysts. The company, Engineered Support Systems, is based in St. Louis. William H.T. Bush was also a major Bush donor and campaign fund-raiser... Defense Department databases list Engineered Support Systems 54th in the Department of Defense's top 100 contractors for fiscal 2001 (up from 62nd for 2000). The company received over $297.5 million in military contracts in 2001, including $120.5 million from the Army. Since 2000, following the presidential election and 9/11, the company's federal contracts have gone up, its revenues have gone up, and its stock price has gone up. Net revenues for the first nine months of 2002, when the company acquired two new subsidiaries in Northern Virginia, increased to $289.7 million."

In February 2005, the Associated Press reported that William Bush had cashed in some of his ESS stock [4]:

"An uncle of President Bush made more than 450-thousand dollars last month by selling stock in a defense contractor whose profits are growing because of the Iraq war. In a filing with the Securities and Exchange Commission, it's been learned that William Bush made the money by exercising stock options in Engineered Support Systems, where he's also a board member. The youngest brother of former President Bush insists he had not pulled any strings in Washington for the company."
In a deal which closed January 2006, the sale of Engineered Support Systems Inc. to DRS Technologies of New Jersey netted Bucky about $1.9 million in cash, plus stock valued at $800,000, according to an SEC filing, reported the Los Angeles Times on 23 March 2006. [5]

"Before DRS purchased it, Missouri-based ESSI experienced record growth as a result of expanded U.S. military contracts — many to supply U.S. efforts in Iraq and Afghanistan."

"Now, call me silly, but with Marvin Bush on the board of the security companies responsible for the World Trade Center, Dulles International and United Airlines and this guy [William H.T. Bush] helping to build 'quarantine' centers, I have to ask: What do the Bush's know and when did they decide it?"

Mr. Bush is a co-founder, Director and shareholder of Bush O’Donnell & Co., Inc., serves as its Chairman and as a Principal of Bush O’Donnell Smith Capital Services.

Mr. Bush was born in Greenwich, Connecticut and holds a BA (1960) from Yale University.

Prior to forming Bush O’Donnell & Co., Inc. Mr Bush was President and Director of Boatmens National Bank (1978-1986), a commercial bank then headquartered in St. Louis. Prior to that he was Executive Vice President of the Hartford National Bank and Trust Company in Hartford, Connecticut where he had spent 16 years in various capacities within both the commercial and international divisions.

Mr. Bush founded the firm with Mr. O'Donnell in 1988. In addition to Bush O'Donnell, Mr. Bush is a member of the board of WellPoint, Inc. of Indianapolis, Maritz, Inc. of St. Louis, and the Lord Abbett Family of Mutual Funds in Jersey City, NJ.

Bio on Siva Yam - Bush's/Rockefeller's front... "Asia Society"

Surface Transportation and the Global Economy: April 16, 2008
Last updated on 04/16/2008

Siva Yam
President United States of America-China Chamber of Commerce
Siva Yam
President United States-China Chamber of Commerce

Yam, Siva, CPA, CFA, is President of the United States-China Chamber of Commerce (USCCC), a non-profit organization co-founded by a member of the Bush Family that is dedicated to promoting trade and investment activities between US and China, and Managing Director of Siva Yam & Associates, LLC, a private consulting and investment banking boutique, which specializes in cross border business activities between the U.S. and Asia, in particular, The Greater China Region.

As an investment banker with over 15 years experience in mergers, acquisitions, public offerings and private placements of securities, venture financing, and privatization, Mr. Yam has extensive international experience in the U.S. and the "Emerging Markets" including China and has provided his corporate and governmental clients with a wide range of investment banking and consulting services in their domestic and cross border business activities.

Before he became President of U.S.-China Chamber of Commerce, Mr. Yam founded the organization’s Midwestern Regional Office and served as its Managing Director. At the request of Prescott S. Bush, Jr., Chairman Emeritus, he assumed the Presidency of U.S.-China Chamber of Commerce and turned the organization into one of the most dynamic and influential organizations in the U.S. and China.

Mr. Yam’s other professional experience includes Co-Founder and Senior Managing Director of Investment Banking of Chicago Capital, Inc., Managing Director of Stifel International Capital Markets, Inc.

Mr. Yam has authored and co-authored many investment research reports. He also speaks frequently at various conferences, seminars, and television interviews such as CNN, People’s Daily and China Daily. He was a guest lecturer at St. Louis University Graduate School of Business MBA Program and Smurif Center for Entrepreneurship.

Mr. Yam received his MBA from Duke University on a Fuqua Fellowship and his Bachelor of Business Administration, Magna Cum Laude, from the University of Wisconsin. He also graduated from the Hong Kong Polytechnic University with honors and is fluent in both English and Chinese.

North American Representative Office of Shenzhen, P.R. China
350 S. Figueroa Street, Ste 288, Los Angeles, CA 90071
E-mail: Phone: 213-628-9888 Fax: 213-628-8383

In 1903, Yale Divinity School established a number of schools and hospitals throughout China that were collectively known as 'Yale in China.'

Rockefeller in China:

Dynastic America, and those who own it ([c1921]) Author: Klein, Henry H., 1879-1955
The Standard Oil Company did a gross business in 1920 of two and a half billion dollars, of which about twenty per cent or half a billion dollars was outside the United States. China takes more than $20,000,000 of Standard Oil products a year.

The Standard Oil Company of New York has a contract for 60 years with the Chinese Government to develop oil and mineral resources in two provinces, larger than New York State.

Standard Oil stockholders and banks also took a loan of $15,000,000 from the Chinese Government.
Chief among Mr. Rockefeller's agents was Rev. Frederick T. Gates who is director in the Western Maryland R. R., Montclair Trust Co., Lake George Real Estate Co., Rockefeller Foundation, General Education Board, Peking 'Union Medical College, China Medical Board and International Health Board.
$3,171,853 for land and buildings for the Peking Union Medical College in China (where Standard Oil has concessions worth tens of millions of dollars), and for hospitals of missionary societies;
China Medical Board History
It was founded in 1914 as the China Medical Commission of the Rockefeller Foundation and became independent in 1928.
It mainly funded the development of the Peking Union Medical College until 1951.
It resumed its activities in China in 1980.

Medicine in China By Rockefeller Foundation. China Medical Board - 1914

Lancet Southeast Asia Series: Authors Workshop, Gadjah Mada Medical School, Yogyakarta, February 22-23, 2010
February 23, 2010

An ambitious and unusual Lancet series will engage scientists from 10 countries in Southeast Asia mapping health in this region which has a population size of over half a billion people, spanning wealthy countries like Singapore to extremely poor countries like Laos, populous countries like Indonesia to small states like Brunei spread across vast oceans.  Strategically important because the region controls the energy supply lines to Japan and China, and economically important because the region has long been a crossroads of trade between China, India and Africa, health conditions in the region vary enormously between extremes.  Indeed, within this single region, global health diversity is mirrored.  How the region manages cooperation can offer lessons and insights into global health cooperation.

To review six draft theme papers, a Lancet Series on Health in Southeast Asia: Author’s Workshop was conducted at the Faculty of Medicine at Gadjah Mada University, engaging about 40 participants that included representatives from the sponsoring organizations: Lancet, Rockefeller Foundation, Atlantic Philanthropies, and China Medical Board.  At least two authors for each of the six theme papers attended along with members of the Regional Steering Committee and the Scientific Advisory Group.  The meeting was hosted by the medical school, and CMB's Dr. Rebecca Firestone coordinated the series.
... fascinating materials on the origins of Rockefeller involvement in China ...
Rockefeller Foundation and China’s Wartime Nursing, 1937-1945

The Rockefeller Foundation and its major investment in China, the PUMC, played a most crucial role in developing modern nursing in the first half of the twentieth century.

The Rockefeller Foundation (RF) created the Peking Union Medical College in 1921, but soon turned over its administration and funding to the new China Medical Board (CMB) of New York in 1928.
The RF continued to make grants to specific programs, however, after the open hostility broke out in 1937, emphasis was given to protecting the needs of PUMC staff and students and to facilitating China’s medical needs through grants for purposes such as salaries, student aid, teaching supplies and emergency building needs. When the war erupted, the Chinese military suffered gravely for its lack of necessary medical personnel. For example, by 1937, the Central Military Medical School located in Nanjing only had “a dozen student nurses in training,” which left the nationalist army severely unattended by medical care

| -------------

Quote from: TahoeBlue on March 02, 2010, 05:03:34 PM
Dynastic America, and those who own it ([c1921]) Author: Klein, Henry H., 1879-1955
Rockefeller is the Colossus that bestrides the world. The Rothschilds in Europe, whose wealth is estimated at Two Billion Dollars, and the Guggenheims, DuPonts, Vanderbilts and Astors, whose family possessions approximate half a billion dollars each, are subordinate to Rockefeller.

In a single lifetime, John D. Rockefeller has amassed a fortune greater than that of any other individual or family. His wealth is estimated at TWO BILLION, FOUR HUNDRED MILLION DOLLARS, including the holdings in the Foundations.

[ This is equivilant to approx. : 3,600,000,000,000 or 3.6 Trillion Dollars today ]

Mr. Rockefeller is worth one billion dollars in oil alone. His railroad holdings are estimated at $400,000,000. His holdings in industrial corporations outside of Standard Oil, are appraised at $400,000,000, and his interest in gas, electric light and traction, is fixed at several hundred millions more. He has several hundred million dollars in bonds of the United States and other countries and in the bonds of cities and states. He owns many millions in real estate and mortgages. Part of this vast wealth is held in the Foundations.

When Mr. Rockefeller dies, his estate will show far less than he owns, because a large share of his fortune has already been transferred to his children.

A Classification of American Wealth - History and genealogy of the wealthy families of America
This post is dedicate to Henry Luce (Time Magazine) , an early 1900's Yale - Skull and Bones man, Born in China and major supportor of Chiang Kai-Shek .... .

One can see that all bets were covered : Luce with Chiang Kai-Shek and Rockefeller with Mao
Henry Robinson Luce (April 3, 1898 – February 28, 1967) was an influential American publisher.

Luce, was born in Penglai City, China, the son of Elizabeth Middleton (née Root) and Henry Winters Luce, who was a Presbyterian missionary. He received his education in various Chinese and English boarding schools and at 10, traveled to the China Inland Mission Chefoo School, a boarding school at Yantai on the Shandong coast. At 14, he traveled to Europe alone, then to the U.S. arriving at the age of 15 to attend the Hotchkiss School in Connecticut.

Luce split his time between waiting tables after school and editing for the Hotchkiss Literary Monthly, holding the position of editor-in-chief. In 1920, he graduated from Yale College, where he was a member of Alpha Delta Phi. During his senior year at Yale, Luce was tapped into the elite secret society, Skull and Bones.

At Hotchkiss, he first met Briton Hadden, who would become a lifelong partner.

After being voted "most brilliant" of his class at Yale, he parted ways with Hadden to embark for a year on history studies at Oxford University. During this time he worked as a cub reporter for the Chicago Daily News. In December 1921, Luce rejoined Hadden to work at The Baltimore News.

Nightly discussions of the concept of a news magazine led the two, both age 23, to quit their jobs in 1922. Later that same year the two formed Time Inc. It is said that the two originally thought of TIME Magazine during their time in the "tomb" of Skull and Bones.[by whom?] Having raised $86,000 of a $100,000 goal, the first issue of Time was published on March 3, 1923
Gordian Knot

About China and Chiang Kai-shek in particular, Luce was strongly opinionated and, when speaking through foreign editor Whittaker Chambers, avidly anti-Communist. Conflict between Luce and his talented reporters in the field was inevitable and well illustrates the overall problems the China journalist faced in getting the news published as he/she saw it. The forced departure from Time-Life in 1944–45 of T. H. White and John Hersey mirrored the confrontations that were occurring in the State Department at the same time between Foreign Service officers in the field like John Service and John Davies and Washington politicians-turned-diplomats such as Patrick Hurley. The result was a double tragedy, producing over the rest of the decade both an indecisive US China policy and uncertain coverage of the Chinese Civil War.
Henry Luce underwent a profound change between 1937 and 1948. These were the years of his greatest involvement with China. I was his employee during all but the last three of those years.
Henry Robinson Luce's foremost model and mentor—his father, Henry Winters Luce, called, as his son was to be, Harry. ... I have done a great deal of research, and I must say I have found no other missionary figure quite like Harry Luce the First. He was a wheeler and dealer. He thought big; the minute he saw a small missionary college, he wanted it to be a university. He had a life-long romance, sometimes stormy, with money. It was his fate to be, not a soulsaver, but a fundraiser. Sherwood Eddy, who roomed with Luce and Horace Pitkin at Union Theological Seminary before they went out, tells that one night the three of them talked so fervently about money that in bed later he dreamed he saw a hand up near the ceiling holding a fistful of cash; he leaped out of bed to reach for it and crashed to the floor.

Of the senior Luce's thirty years as a missionary, he spent eleven back in the States raising money for Tengchow College, Cheeloo University, and Yenching University, for the last of which he attracted more than $2 million.

The Henry Luce Foundation annually selects fifteen to eighteen Luce Scholars in various fields to participate in one-year internships in the Far East.

The Luce Scholars Program, established in 1974, is built around individual internships and work/study arrangements developed by representatives of the Asia Foundation and based on the participants' career interests, qualifications, and experience. Each Scholar spends July and August abroad studying the language of the placement country; work assignments run for approximately ten months, from September until July of the follow year. Rather than offer training for future Asia specialists, this program concentrates exclusively on providing an intensive cultural experience in Asia to young Americans from other fields who would not otherwise expect to have such an opportunity during the normal course of their careers. Placements can be made in the following countries in East and Southeast Asia: Brunei, Cambodia, China and Hong Kong, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Mongolia, Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand, and Vietnam.
The China Lobby

"China lobby" is a pejorative phrase first applied in the 1940s to a disparate collection of Chinese and Americans who tried to influence the people and government of the United States on behalf of the Nationalist regime of Chiang Kai-shek (Jiang Jie-shī) and in opposition to the Chinese communists.


Pressure group activity on behalf of the Nationalist regime dates back to the Nationalist revolution (1925–1928), when Chiang Kai-shek was struggling to unite China with Soviet and Chinese communist assistance. Fearing intervention by the United States and other governments, a group of American missionaries and educators, led by individuals like A. L. Warnshuis, secretary of the International Missionary Council; J. Leighton Stuart, president of Yenching University (Beijing); and Roger S. Greene of the China Medical Board of the Rockefeller Foundation, worked to alert policymakers, members of Congress, and the public to the need for an accommodation with Chinese nationalism. Links between Chiang's government and American missionaries and reformers continued into the 1930s as Madame Chiang Kai-shek and other American-educated Chinese leaders sporadically attempted to gain American assistance in the modernization of China. Major lobbying activities did not begin, however, until after the outbreak of the Second Sino-Japanese War in 1937.
the Price Committee
Roger Greene and Henry L. Stimson served respectively as chairman and honorary chairman; Harry Price, as executive secretary; and Walter Judd, a former medical missionary, proved to be its most effective speaker. Frederick McKee and Geraldine Fitch, wife of the well-known missionary George A. Fitch, were also important members of the organization.
The central program of the Price Committee called for an embargo on supplies of military value to Japan. Beginning in 1939, it worked closely with key figures in the U.S. government, especially with Stanley K. Hornbeck of the Department of State and with Stimson, who became secretary of war in 1940.
Ironically, it was the Democratic senator Pat McCarran of Nevada, an archconservative whose reelection McKee had earlier tried to prevent, who chaired the congressional committee that investigated the Kohlberg-McCarthy charges against the Institute of Pacific Relations. The 1952 hearings were used to discredit and intimidate American critics of Chiang Kai-shek. But from 1951 to 1953 it was McCarthy—advised by Kohlberg, Sokolsky, and Roy Cohn—who succeeded in driving some of the State Department's ablest men from Chinese affairs and from the foreign service.

Whether from McCarran or McCarthy, Kohlberg or Sokolsky, the story was always the same: China had been lost to the communists because disloyal Americans had prevented Chiang from receiving the aid with which he could have won; and American boys died in Korea because they had been betrayed by disloyal and stupid liberals who had turned China over to the communists

son of Elizabeth Middleton (née Root)

Interesting that Mark David Chapman is a distant relative of Henry Luce....
The following material on the immediate ancestry of Mark David Chapman should not be considered either exhaustive or authoritative, but rather as a first draft.

Thomas Leonard, b. ... , d. ...
Lydia White, b. ... , d. ...

.Josiah Leonard m. Sarah Dumbleton
|.Mary Leonard m. John Root
| .Hewit Root m. Experience Pomeroy
| |.James Root m. Nannie Robb
| | .Elihu Root m. Achsah Pomeroy
| |  .Oren Root m. Nancy Whitney Buttrick
| |  |.ELIHU ROOT (1845-1937), US Secretary of State
| |  .Philander Sheldon Root m. Elizabeth Bloodgood
| |   .Lynott Bloodgood Root m. Anna Robbins
| |    .Elizabeth Middleton Root m. Henry Winters Luce
| |     .HENRY ROBINSON LUCE (1903-1987), editor

Pressure group activity on behalf of the Nationalist regime dates back to the Nationalist revolution (1925–1928), when Chiang Kai-shek was struggling to unite China with Soviet and Chinese communist assistance.

Now everyone knows that KMT and CCP are two opposing parties.

But their history of cooperation goes back a long way.

Basically, you can summarize the history between the two in one sentence: the KMT had killed a lot of communists and the CCP had released a lot of KMT prisoners.

Some readers might never have guessed that Mao himself was a committee member of the KMT Party, as the following picture will show.

It was only later that they actually split and went on their separate ways.

In 1924, one year before he died of liver cancer, Sun Yat-sen promulgated a policy of "unite with the Russians and accommodate the communists."

In 1927, Chiang Kai-shek betrayed the "accommodative policies" of Sun and killed a great many CCP members on April 12, 1927.

How did Sun Yat-sen get to where he was -- the leader of the KMT, and how did Chiang Kai-shek get to inherit Sun's mantle in the KMT after Sun died?

Actually there was some hanky-panky business involved.

Sun Yat-sen was a revolutionary upholding the anti-Manchu banner outside the country.  Huang Xing was the actual military commander of the revolution doing all the work fighting the Manchus.  But you only rarely hear about Huang because the KMT party from the very beginning discouraged the mention of his name in the government-issued textbooks

When the Manchus were toppled in 1911, Sun found that he had a political rival embedded in the KMT organization who would not be at his beck and call.

So Chiang Kai-shek acted upon the orders of Tao Chen-zhang -- Sun's good friend and mentor of Chiang -- to exterminate the political rival in a Shanghai hospital where the man was recuperating from illness.  History never tells you these shady things done by people whose characters are deemed impeccable by their contemporaries.

Chiang went to the hospital, shot the man and escaped to Japan.  Despite all the subsequent ballyhoo surrounding his credentials as a return student from Japan, Chiang was actually never enrolled in a formal military academy in that nation.  His ascendancy in the hierarchy was due to the fact that he knew about Sun's secret.

So when Sun started the Huang Po Military Academy at Guangzhou, Chiang became its first school principal as a result of his unswerving loyalty to Sun and not because of his military training.  It helps to know the secrets of the Father of the nation, especially during power struggles in which Sun's choices were of decisive importance.  

btw, Zhou En-lai was the first political commissar at Huang Po.

Can you find Mao in the following picture taken at Sun's residence, showing his status in the KMT in 1924?   Hint: last row

the history we think we know we really don't know at all.


In fact, on July 19, 1935, American ambassador to the Soviet Union, W. Bullitt, informed his country that it was the biggest desire for the Soviet Union to drag the USA into a war against Japan. In order to realize this, the communists used every method to make the USA look upon Japan as the enemy.

The WWII geo-political strategy was already made in 1935:

Distorted mirrors: Americans and their relations with Russia and China in ...
By Donald E. Davis, Eugene P. Trani

July 18, 1935: Their [USSR] overall aim, Bullitt claimed, was to produce "world revolution"...It regarded a European war as inevitable, even ultimatetly desirable...
It hoped for a U.S. war with Japan, preventing simultaneous attacks on it from east and west.
If a Pacific war followed, The USSR would avoid an alliance until Japan was defeated and then take Manchuria and Sovietize China.
August 21,1935:
"in this decade the Soviet Union either will be the center of attack from Europe and the Far East or will develop rapidly into one of the greatest forces in the world."

Who was W. Bullitt?,_Jr.

William Christian Bullitt, Jr. (January 25, 1891 – February 15, 1967) was an American diplomat, journalist, and novelist. Although in his youth he was considered something of a radical, he later became an outspoken anticommunist

He was graduated from Yale University in 1913, after having been voted "most brilliant" in his class. He briefly attended Harvard Law School, but dropped out on the death of his father in 1914. At Yale he was a member of Scroll and Key.

First U.S. Ambassador to the Soviet Union
Franklin D. Roosevelt appointed him as the first U.S. ambassador to the Soviet Union, a post that he filled from 1933 to 1936. At the time of his appointment, Bullitt was known as a liberal, and thought by some to be something of a radical. The Soviets welcomed him as an old friend because of his diplomatic efforts at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919. But although Bullitt arrived in the Soviet Union with high hopes for Soviet-American relations, his view of the Soviet leadership soured on closer inspection. By the end of his tenure he was openly hostile to the Soviet government. He remained an outspoken anticommunist for the rest of his life.

Ambassador to France
Bullitt was re-posted to France in October 1936 as Ambassador.
In 1939 Prime Minister Édouard Daladier informed him French intelligence knew that Alger Hiss in the United States Department of State was working for Soviet intelligence. Bullitt passed the information along to Hiss' superior at the State Department
After the German invasion of France in 1940, Bullitt fell out with FDR. Bullitt insisted on remaining in Paris as the only ambassador of a major nation left when the Germans marched in.
Denied a commission in the U.S. armed forces by FDR, Bullitt joined the Free French Forces to oppose Nazi and Vichy government control over France and her colonial holdings
Between 1941 and 1945 Bullitt wrote volumes of stories and social commentary on the dangers of both fascism and communism. In an article for LOOK Magazine, (August 24, 1954: "Should We Support an Attack on Red China) he proposed an immediate attack on Communist China, and argued that the United States should "reply to the next Communist aggression by dropping bombs on the Soviet Union". ref. THE PITIFUL AND THE PROUD, by Carl Rowan, Random House, 1956, p. 62.

A note about Mao: He was picked up to play puppet leader with resources funneled through Yale University (whose symbol has Hebrew on it), in a Skull and Bones type scheme.

The location was Yali Highschool in Changsha, Hunan Province - a branch of Yale.
Mao was a disturbed young man - a completely controllable, blackmailable puppet for their purposes.

Israel Epstein, second from right in front, standing in front of Mao 1944.
He later became the minister of appropriations, an extremely powerful position in a practically cashless era.

Epstein's cover was journalism. His parents were Russian Jews who were imprisoned in Siberia for espionage.

This is Israel Epstein chatting with Chairman Hu, just before his death.

Rewi Alley hanging out with the supposedly ultra-powerful Zhou Enlai.

"Rewi Alley," the man who organized communes in China ... (in the 1920's, well before 1949)
Israel Epstein, Prominent Chinese Communist, Dies at 90- June 2, 2005

Israel Epstein, a journalist, author and propagandist for China whose passion for Communism was fueled in long interviews with Mao in the 1940's and was not dimmed by imprisonment during the Cultural Revolution, died last Thursday at a hospital in Beijing. He was 90.
After the outbreak of World War I, his father was sent by his company to Japan to develop business in the Pacific region. As the German Army approached Warsaw, his mother, with him in her arms, fled the city and traveled east to be reunited with her husband. After experiencing anti-Jewish sentiment in several places, they settled in Tianjin in north China. He was then 2.

Mr. Epstein began his career as a journalist at 15, working for the Tianjin-based Peking and Tientsin Times, an English-language newspaper. He covered China's struggle against Japanese invaders for United Press and other Western news organizations.
Snow and Mao
Mr. Epstein became acquainted with Mr. Snow after his editor assigned him to review one of Mr. Snow's books, and Mr. Snow showed him his classic "Red Star Over China" before it was published. Mr. Snow reciprocated by reading Mr. Epstein's unpublished works.

In Hong Kong, Mr. Epstein worked with Soong Ching Ling, Sun Yat-sen's widow, whom he had met in left-wing political activities in the 1930's. She arranged for him to visit Mao, Zhou Enlai and their revolutionary comrades at their base in China's northwest in 1944, and Mr. Epstein said his conversations in a cave with Mao had changed his life.

In 1944, Mr. Epstein visited Britain, then spent the next five years in the United States, where he published "The Unfinished Revolution in China" to good reviews. Other books he wrote were first published in Chinese and included "From Opium War to Liberation" in 1954, "Tibet Transformed" in 1983 and "Woman in World History: Soong Ching Ling" in 1993.

In 1951, Ms. Soong invited him to return to China to edit China Reconstructs, later renamed China Today. He was editor in chief until his retirement at 70, and then editor emeritus.

His five years in prison during the Cultural Revolution, on charges of plotting against Zhou, ended in 1973 with a personal apology from Zhou and a restoration of his exalted position.

His prominence in China was suggested by the annual talks Mao had with him. Deng attended Mr. Epstein's retirement reception in 1985. On April 17, the Chinese president, Hu Jintao, visited him and praised his "special contributions" to China.

Mr. Epstein first wife, Elsie Fairfax-Cholmeley, died in 1984. He is survived by his wife, Wan Bi, two children and two stepchildren.

He will be buried at the Babaoshan Cemetery for Revolutionaries.

© The New York Times
Famous people buried at Babaoshan
Zhu De
Peng Dehuai
Ren Bishi
Israel Epstein
George Hatem
Agnes Smedley
Anna Louise Strong
Wang Guangmei
Qian Xuesen
Emperor Puyi
Douglas Springhall

CCP Chairman Mao Zedong with Israel Epstein (first left), Anna Louise Strong (third left), Frank Coe (second right), and Solomon Adler (first right).

New Deal economists Coe and Adler defected to Maoist China rather than face prosecution in the United States.

Chinese history recalls the time their economic theories were implemented as the Three Years of Disasters. By 1959, Coe was writing articles justifying the Rectification campaign, which the Epoch Times in 2004 referred to as the "darkest and most ferocious power game ever played out in the human world".[92]
The temple was built to honour General Gang Bing, a Ming Dynasty soldier who castrated himself in a show of obedience to his emperor - Emperor Yongle, who ruled China from 1402 to 1424.
Unfortunately, the section that holds the ashes or bodies of the highest ranking leaders of China is off limits to ordinary visitors
Babaoshan Revolutionary Cemetery feels somewhat like a grand garden with its shrubbery neatly planted along pathways that wind in and around the graves. I was fascinated by the tombs of various artists, poets, musicians and politicians.

Among the graves were those of people such as the great Marxist and revolutionist Ren Bishi, who died in 1950. His grave was, in fact, the first grave at Babaoshan Revolutionary Cemetery. Other famous Chinese lying here include the much-loved artist Xu Beihong who died in 1953. Xu, who is renowned for his ink paintings of horses and birds, was one of the first Chinese artists to push for artistic expressions that reflected the spirit of a new modern China at the beginning of the 20th century. I also saw the grave of the poet and academic, Wen Yiduo, who was assassinated by the Kuomintang secret agents in Kunming in 1946.

However, I was particularly intrigued to see the graves of so many foreigners here, and learn something about their connections with China. I saw the graves of Indonesians, Vietnamese, Russians, Europeans and Americans, all who had embraced Communist ideologies. Some of these foreigners had also been close to Mao Zedong and other influential Chinese leaders. Among the graves were those of American journalists Agnes Smedley and Anna Louise Strong, as well as the resting place of the American medical doctor George Hatem.

Between 1938 and 1941, Agnes Smedley visited both Communist and Kuomintang forces in the war zone. The American covered what was the longest tour of the Chinese war front by any foreign correspondent, male or female. During her time in Shanghai, she had an affair with Richard Sorge, the Russian spymaster, and was herself later accused of being a spy by her own countrymen. After the war, Smedley returned to the U.S., but after being accused of espionage she moved to Britain in 1949. She died in the U.K. the following year, and later her ashes were brought to Babaoshan Revolutionary Cemetery.

Israel Epstein, meanwhile, was a Pole who had been raised in China from the age of two. His parents considered China a safe haven after being on the receiving end of anti-Semitism elsewhere. In 1957, while in his early forties, Epstein became a Chinese citizen, and seven years later he became a member of the Communist Party of China. During the Cultural Revolution Epstein was accused of plotting against Zhou Enlai and was imprisoned in 1968. He was subjected to solitary confinement, but on his release, Zhou Enlai apologized, and Epstein had all his privileges restored. Epstein remained loyal to the ideals of Communism right up to his death in 2005. His funeral ceremony was attended by both President Hu Jintao and Premier Wen Jiabao.
In 1718, the College was renamed Yale College to honor a gift from Elihu Yale, a governor of the British East India Company.
In 1861, the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences became the first U.S. school to award the Ph.D
The Reverend Ezra Stiles, president of the College from 1778 to 1795, brought with him his interest in the Hebrew language as a vehicle for studying ancient Biblical texts in their original language (as was common in other schools), requiring all freshmen to study Hebrew (in contrast to Harvard, where only upperclassmen were required to study the language) and is responsible for the Hebrew words "Urim" and "Thummim" on the Yale seal.

Motto אורים ותמים (Hebrew) (Urim V'Tumim) Lux et veritas (Latin)

has traditionally been translated as lights and perfections - revelation and truth, or doctrine and truth
Urim and Thummim -  is a phrase from the Hebrew Scriptures or Torah associated with the Hoshen (High Priest's breastplate), divination in general, and cleromancy in particular. Most scholars suspect that the phrase refers to specific objects involved in the divination

The Reverend Ezra Stiles, president of the College from 1778 to 1795, brought with him his interest in the Hebrew language

Ezra Stiles valued education and religion above all. He graduated from Yale University in 1746, and was licensed to preach and tutor at Yale three years later. He became a member of the Bar Association in Connecticut in 1753, and in 1756 was the librarian of the Redwood Library in Newport, Rhode Island, where he was quite influential in obtaining works for the library. ... He wrote the charter founding Rhode Island College (1764, later Brown University), and taught ecclesiastical history during his tenure as a secularizing president of Yale". While at Yale he also encouraged the sciences. Ezra was a good friend of Benjamin Franklin -- they corresponded while Franklin was Ambassador to France


The American Slave Trade and Rhode Island share similar origins; Newport, Bristol, and to a lesser degree Providence, were among the most prosperous of colonial American seaports that saw unprecedented growth throughout the 18th century - mostly from the export and trade of rum, spermaceti candles, and slaves.

The first slaves arrived in Rhode Island somewhere around 1652, and the first documented slave ship was the Sea Flower arriving in Newport in 1696. As early as 1708 African slaves outnumbered indentured servants in Rhode Island eight to one. In fact, between 1705 and 1805, Rhode Island merchants sponsored at least 1,000 slaving voyages to West Africa and carried over 100,000 slaves back to America...

Several Rhode Island merchants not only distilled and sold rum, but also controlled large sugar plantations  men like Abraham Redwood of Newport who inherited from his father a large sugar plantation in Antigua that consisted of over 200 slaves. Redwood would use the profits from his plantation and slave trading activities to underwrite the founding of Redwood Library in Newport, America's oldest existing library.

1658 - 15 Sephardic families fleeing Barbados came directly to Newport. Rhode Island - Newport became the home of many Quakers, another despised religious group who had become experts in the banking and commercial fields and in the selling of slaves. - Several Rhode Island merchants not only distilled and sold rum, but also controlled large sugar plantations – men like Quaker Abraham Redwood of Newport who inherited from his father a large sugar plantation in Antigua that consisted of over 200 slaves. At one point the Quaker Church in Newport asked Redwood to either leave the African trade or leave the church.  He left the church.

Now what is interesting is how Victor Rothschild at Cambridge connects with Soloman Adler:
1949: On October 1, Mao Tse Tsung declares the founding of the People's Republic of China in Tiananmen Square, Beijing.

He is funded by Rothschild created Communism in Russia and also the following Rothschild agents:
Solomon Adler, a former United States Treasury official who was a Soviet Spy; Israel Epstein, the son of a Jewish Bolshevik imprisoned by the Tsar in Russia for trying to forment a revolution there; and Frank Coe, a leading official of the Rothschild owned IMF.
Solomon Adler (August 6, 1909 — August 4, 1994) was an economist who worked in the U. S. Treasury Department, serving as Treasury representative in China during World War II. He was identified by Whittaker Chambers and Elizabeth Bentley as a Soviet intelligence source and resigned from the Treasury Department in 1950. After several years teaching at Cambridge University in England, he returned to China in the 1950s and was a resident there from the 1960s until his death, working as a translator, economic advisor, and possibly with the Central External Liaison Department, a Chinese intelligence agency.

The Cambridge Five were a ring of spies, recruited in part by Russian talent spotter Arnold Deutsch in the United Kingdom who passed information to the Soviet Union during World War II and at least into the early 1950s
Both Blunt and Burgess were members of the Apostles, an exclusive and prestigious society based at Trinity and King's Colleges. John Cairncross, long suspected of having been the 'Fifth Man', and formally identified as a Soviet agent in 1990, was also an Apostle.

Other Apostles accused of having spied for the Soviets include Michael Whitney Straight, Victor Rothschild, research fellow Lewis Daly and Guy Liddell.

In 1941 Adler was sent to Chungking, China as a U.S. Treasury representative at the Stabilization Board of China, to help that country cope with the hyper-inflation it was then experiencing...April 25, 1945, when he took part in a discussion on the issue of the “export of gold to China...Adler had been one of the subjects of a large-scale FBI investigation of pro-Soviet espionage activities in the United States for more than two years. The investigation was based on allegations by a former Communist courier, Elizabeth Bentley, who defected to the FBI on November 8, 1945.
Around 1961 or 1962 (date still to be established), Adler moved to China, where he had been invited to work as an advisor on international economic matters. He was assigned to a Chinese economic think tank, the Institute of World Economics, where he advised on international trade and global macroeconomic conditions. He reportedly continued consulting the Chinese leadership in the period of China’s economic transition.

I started hearing these stories back when I was in college (late 1970's ). It's just amazing how Republican's thought how great it all was that Nixon and Kissinger were flying to china to end the vietnam war (what bs! USSR was Vietnam's sugar daddy, see: THE FORTY YEARS WAR - Nixon gave up Vietnam  ) the waterboy's for Rockefeller/Rothschild.

We didn't have the internet back then, and these stories were impossible to prove or shed any light on. It has been great after all these years to find and see all this material on-line and finally say "No, we weren't crazy".

Just came to my attention that Dennis Hopper's father , Jay Hopper was in the OSS and "fought with Mao"

Warhol's Mao print was unique because it included bullet holes fired after Hopper mistook the portrait of the Communist leader for Mao himself, according to Christie's. The actor, later showed Warhol the bullet holes. Instead of reacting angrily, the artist called the star a collaborator.  

Quote from: TahoeBlue on May 20, 2011, 10:08:00 PM
Wow... that fits in with: Mao was a Yale Man - Yali and the Skull and Bones
I need to dig deeper on this....
Dennis .Hopper. That was it! My father had all these things he had brought back from China, when he fought with Mao.
He was there for three months with 40 other Americans.

He went around and bought all these incredible tapestries that were really old—500 years, 600 years, thousands of years old.

| - - - - - - -
Dennis Hopper is that his dad was a spy and his mom, an embittered champion athlete.

Dennis Hopper's father, Jay, worked for the Office of Strategic Services (OSS), the well-known precursor to the CIA, in China, India and parts of Southeast Asia during the war. Later, while the family lived in San Diego, Jay Hopper went to work for the United States Postal Service. His mother, Marjorie, meanwhile, was a lifeguard instructor.

When the family lived in Kansas, Marjorie was the state backstroke champion. According to Andrew Billen, interviewing Hopper in 2001 for The Evening Standard, she was supposed to go to Hitler's Berlin in 1936 to swim in the Summer Olympics. Her pregnancy with Dennis prevented it, something she never let her son forget

I am finding more info on this:Notice this is published by the "YALE PRESS"

February 1997  368 p., 6 1/8 x 9 1/4 20 b/w illus. SBN: 9780300066982  Cloth: $60.00 tx

"Based on newly declassified U.S. documents and newly published Chinese Source materials, Yu's book provides a fascinating narrative of the activities of the Office of Strategic Services (OSS) in China during WWII. . . . For specialized graduate collections on foreign policy and security studies."—

The first comprehensive scholarly study of US wartime intelligence operations to be based on recently declassified archival sources.

Yu (history, U.S. Naval Academy) has based his work on recently declassified materials at the National Archives in Washington, D.C. He presents a fascinating story of the intelligence activities of the Office of Strategic Services (OSS) in China during World War II. (The OSS was the precursor of the CIA.) First, Yu examines President Roosevelt's decision to dispatch emissaries to England, China, and the war-torn Mediterranean area in 1941. Then he depicts how OSS/China director General William Donovan used Koreans as surrogates in China to build an intelligence empire. He explores the intricate espionage among the Americans, the British, the Chinese Nationalists, and the Chinese and Soviet Communists. Finally, Yu probes deeply into the demise of the OSS and the creation of the CIA. This is an expertly structured, exhaustively researched book.

... The fighting among the 20 US bureaucratic agencies and dozen independent intelligence organizations in Chungking seems to have exceeded in intensity anything they were able to mobilize against the Japanese, at least until the last months of the war. The main contenders were the US army commanders Stilwell and later Wedemeyer; Tai Li, the head of Chinese intelligence; Milton Miles, the head of naval intelligence; William Donovan, chosen by Roosevelt to set up the OSS; the crusty American ambassador Gauss; and a swirling, ever-changing group of contending individuals and agencies seeking to push themselves and sabotage everyone else. These included--though for a long time the US participants seemed oblivious to it--both the British, who didn't want China to be too strong after the war, and the Communists, who wanted to undermine the Nationalist government, get weapons and money from the US, and build up a reputation as the main enemy of the Japanese at the very time that they were engaged in making deals with them. The main winners were the OSS, which seems to have emerged largely unscathed almost in spite of itself; and the Communists, whose shrewd infiltration of the British, the French, and above all the Nationalists was truly remarkable. On the critical question of the extent to which the Communists infiltrated the Americans, Yu is circumspect. He describes, for example, the extraordinary assistance given them by a second-ranking State Department employee like John Paton Davies without analyzing his motives. It is one of the few deficiencies in an important if profoundly depressing story of bureaucratic infighting, jealousies, incomprehension, and ultimate failure

Jay Millard Hopper
Jay Millard Hopper was born in 23 Jun 1916 in Kansas, possibly in Scott City where the family is living in 1920.  Jay's parents were James C Hopper and his wife Bertie E Bell.  A posting to the Hopper Genforum states that Jay "grew up in La Junta, Colorado", but as we can see this is wrong.  Jay married on 21 Aug 1935 to Marjorie Davis, probably in or near Dodge City where he was already living with his own parents in 1930.  In 1936 the family was living in Dodge City, Ford County, Kansas when their son Dennis was born there.  

After World War II, the family moved to Kansas  City, Missouri.  About 1949, they moved to San Diego, where they lived until at least 1954 when Dennis graduated from high school there.  Jay Hopper died 7 Aug 1982 in San Diego county; residing last in Lemon Grove, San Diego County, California.
Primary Sources for 2
Scott City, Kansas, US Federal Census 1920, hosted at Ancestry showing : "James C Hopper, age 24, born in Missouri; Bertie E, age 25, born in Kansas; Jay M, age 3 6/12; Clarence R, age 1 0/12"
Scott City, Kansas State Census Collection, 1925, hosted at Ancestry showing : "I C Hopper, 30, born in Missouri; Bertie Hopper, 31, born in Kansas; Jay Millard Hopper, 8, born in Kansas; Ray Hopper, 6, born in Kansas"
Dodge City, Ford County, Kansas, US Federal Census 1930, hosted at Ancestry showing : "James C Hopper, 36; Bertie 36; J Millard Hopper 13; Ray C Hopper 11"
Obituary, "Marjorie D Hopper", Dodge City Daily Globe, 26 Jan 2007, cached at Ancestry : "...On August 21, 1935 she married her high school sweetheart, Jay Millard Hopper."
WWII Army Enlistment Records: "Jay M Hopper, born 1916 Kansas, resident of Ford County Kansas, enlisted 20 Jan 1944 at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas as a private, signing up for the 'duration of the war', married, four years of high school, civilian occupation: Retail Manager"
US Public Record Index: "Jay M Hooper, living in Lemon Grove in 1970"

SSDI : "Jay Hopper, born 23 Jun 1916, died Aug 1982, last resided Lemon Grove, San Diego County, California, SSN issued by Kansas"
CADI : "Jay M Hopper, born 23 Jun 1916 Kansas, died 7 Aug 1982 San Diego County, mother's maiden name: Bell"
The US-Korea relations: 1910-1945
A brief history of the US-Korea relations prior to 1945
Kim Young-Sik, Ph.D. 10/22/2003

Photo: Kim Gu's Korean Independence Army 2nd Brigade officers with US OSS instructors in 1945. The man in the middle front row is Lee Bom Suk. Gen. Ji Chung Chun, a graduate of the Japanese Military Academy, commanded the Army.

Officers and men of the OSS who instructed Chinese commandos in parachute jumping and commando tactics at the commando training camp in Kunming, China (U.S. Army photograph)

am reminded of the Beatles song-- Revolution

You say you want a revolution
Well, you know
We all want to change the world
You tell me that it's evolution
Well, you know
We all want to change the world
But when you talk about destruction
Don't you know that you can count me out?

Don't you know it's gonna be

You say you've got a real solution
Well, you know
We'd all love to see the plan
You ask me for a contribution
Well, you know
We are doing what we can
But if you want money for people with minds that hate
All I can tell is, brother, you'll have to wait

Don't you know it's gonna be

You say you'll change the constitution
Well, you know
We all want to change your head
You tell me it's the institution
Well, you know
You'd better free your mind instead
But if you go carrying pictures of Chairman Mao
You ain't gonna make it with anyone anyhow

Don't you know it's gonna be

Quote from: TahoeBlue on May 21, 2011, 12:06:21 PM
So an OSS/China person in Bilderberg and an Ambassador....
David Bruce as a "Mellon" person is also "Pilgrim Society" and a "Rockefeller/Rothschild person"...

Bruce, David K.E.  Ambassador to the United Kingdom from 1961 to 1969 [First Documented Bilderberg Attendance 1965 ]

OSS in China: prelude to Cold War By Maochun Yu
Hemingway & David Bruce

OSS Col. David Bruce, later JFK's ambassador to the Court of St. James, and NANA newspaper correspondent Ernest Hemingway shortly before entering Paris and liberating the bar at the Hotel Ritz.  [Photo from the book OSS - by Smith.]

From the Soviet Union, Lee Harvey Oswald wrote a letter to John Connally, the man Oswald is later accused of shooting while also assassinating President John F. Kennedy.

When Oswald wrote the letter Connally was Secretary of the Navy, and Oswald was trying to put his affairs in order so he could return to the United States after defecting a few years earlier.
David Bruce, who would be best man at Hemingway's wedding, also became U.S. Ambassador to the Court of St. James, a position he held during the Kennedy administration, personally keeping the President updated on the latest developments in the Profumo Affair, which could have entangled Kennedy himself.

As a senior OSS Colonel, Bruce was the highest ranking Office of Strategic Services officer in the field, and is shown in the photo with Hemingway shortly before they entered Paris.

According to Smith, and other accounts, while the French generals officially accepted the surrender of the Nazi generals at the railway station, Hemingway and Bruce liberated the bar at the Hotel Ritz, where Hemingway counted the heads of his motley troop of commandos, and ordered 60 dry martinis, no doubt shaken, not sturred.
David K. E. Bruce AKA David Kirpatrick Este Bruce

Executive summary: US Ambassador to England, France, Germany

Military service: US Army

Father: William Cabell Bruce (US Senator)
Brother: James Bruce
Wife: Ailsa Mellon (richest woman in America, b. 1901, m. 1926, div. 1945, d. 25-Aug-1969)
Wife: Evangeline Bell (former OSS official, d. Dec-1995)
Daughter: Audrey Bruce Currier (by Alisa, disappeared 1967)
Son: David Bruce
Mother: Louise Fisher

OSS Agent (1941-45)
US Ambassador to France (1949-52)

US Ambassador to the United Kingdom (1961-69)
US Ambassador to China Diplomatic Liaison (1973-74)
US Ambassador to NATO (1974-76)
Presidential Medal of Freedom 1976

Pilgrims Society
The Profumo Affair was a 1963 British political scandal named after John Profumo, Secretary of State for War. His affair with Christine Keeler, the reputed mistress of an alleged Russian spy, followed by lying in the House of Commons when he was questioned about it, forced the resignation of Profumo and damaged the reputation of Prime Minister Harold Macmillan's government. Macmillan himself resigned a few months later due to ill health.

Henry Luce (Time Magazine) , an early 1900's Yale - Skull and Bones man, Born in China and major supportor of Chiang Kai-Shek ....
One can see that all bets were covered : Luce with Chiang Kai-Shek and Rockefeller with Mao
LIFE'S COVER June 30 1941: Mme. Chiang Kai-shek, whom Henry R. Luce and Clare Boothe Luce met and admired in Chungking, is in a very real way as much a warrior as her Generalissimo husband

Henry R. Luce, editor of LIFE, and his wife, playwright Clare Boothe, clippered across the Pacific to China in May to have a look around that embattled country. They flew to Chungking, went through many a Japanese air raid, had their first of several meetings with the Generalissimo and Madame Chiang Kai-shek, and traveled by airplane, train and pony to the Northern Front where Chiang's troops face the Japanese across the Yellow River.

from the June 30, 1941 issue of LIFE.  Portions copyright 1941 Time, Inc.

At the Tungkwan front, General Chow, Hollington Tong and Henry Luce walk down a narrow communications trench up to the front lines on the bank of the Yellow River

Henry R. Luce and U.S. Ambassador Nelson Johnson chat on parapet of Embassy. Now assigned to Australia, Mr. Johnson has been succeeded in Chungking by Clarence Gauss.

The Generalissimo's son, Chiang Wei-kuo, is a second lieutenant stationed at Sian. He was a student in Germany, came home by way of the U.S. last year to join the Army.

Edgar Snow and Mao

Edgar Snow (17 July 1905 in Kansas City, Missouri – 15 February 1972 in Geneva) was an American journalist known for his books and articles on Communism in China and the Chinese Communist revolution. He is believed to be the first Western journalist to interview Chinese Communist leader Mao Zedong, and is best known for Red Star Over China (1937) an account of the Chinese Communist movement from its foundation until the late 1930s.

Edgar Snow (left) with Zhou Enlai and his wife Deng Yingchao approx. 1938.

Snow studied journalism at the University of Missouri, where he joined the Zeta Phi chapter of Beta Theta Pi, but moved to New York City before graduating. He made some money in the stock market and sold out before the Wall Street Crash of 1929. Wanting to use the money he embarked on an around the world tour in 1928, but never made it past Shanghai. He stayed in China until 1941.

Writing 'Red Star Over China'
In June 1936, Snow and his friend George Hatem, whose presence was kept secret, went to Xi'an and from there were taken through the military quarantine lines to Bao'an, where he spent nearly three months. Snow had been preparing to write a book on the Communist movement in China for several years, and had even signed a contract at one point. However, his most important contribution was the interviews he conducted with the top leaders of the party. After he returned to Beijing in the fall, he wrote frantically.

First he published a short account in China Weekly Review, then a series of publications in Chinese.

Red Star Over China, published first in London in 1937, was given credit for introducing both Chinese and foreign readers not so much to the Communist Party, which was reasonably well known, but to Mao Zedong.

Mao was not, as had been reported, dead, and Snow reported that Mao was a political reformer, not the purely military or radical revolutionary he had been during the 1920s. After the outbreak of war in 1937, the Snows were founding members of the Chinese Industrial Cooperatives. Edgar again visited Mao in Yan'an in 1939.

In April 1942 the Saturday Evening Post sent him abroad as a war correspondent. Snow traveled to India, China and Russia to report on World War II from the perspective of those countries

By 1944, Snow was wavering on the question of whether Mao and the Chinese Communists were actually "agrarian democrats" and not dedicated Communists bent on totalitarian rule, a view encouraged by Mao and his party leadership.[3] His 1944 book People On Our Side emphasized their role in the fight against fascism
Because of his relationships with communists and his highly favorable treatment of them as a war correspondent, Snow became an object of suspicion following World War II. During the McCarthy period, he was questioned by the FBI and asked to disclose the extent of his Communist
... in the 1950s. He moved with his second wife, Louis Wheeler Snow, to Switzerland, but retained his American citizenship.
In 1970, he made a final trip to China and was told that President Richard Nixon would be welcome to visit either officially or as a private citizen. The White House followed this visit with interest but distrusted Snow and his pro-communist reputation.[5] When Snow came down with pancreatic cancer, Zhou Enlai dispatched a team of Chinese doctors to Switzerland, including George Hatem. Snow died on February 15, 1972, the week President Nixon was traveling to China, and did not live to see the normalization of relations.[6]

After his death, his ashes were divided into two parts, one of which was buried near the Hudson River and the other scattered at Peking University, which had taken over the campus of Yenching University, where he had taught in the 1930s.

Quote from: TahoeBlue on May 28, 2011, 08:23:08 PM
Life Sept 1945 - Colonel Jimmy Stewart Cover -
Dewey knew [found out] the full story of Pearl Harbor in the autumn 1944:

LIFE - Sept_1945 The Hull Note

Keep in mind that Life was owned and published by Henry Luce and he certainly knew what was going on, he was backing Shek in China while the CFR's are backing Mao. It seems these elites want the same things, ruling the world, there's just a disagreement to the body count and which bodies.

Think about what emboldened Hitler and ToJo and Mussolini. What made them think they could take on the world and murder millions? It started with the Russian revolution and the communist purges, they murdered the czar and anyone that got in there way, then they got in power and murdered more and starved millions of others. That was the story for twenty years in the U.S.S.R. with Lenin/Stalin. So they got away with it. And because they got away with it. These other dictators felt they could do it to. Of course they were encouraged to via Rockefeller/Rothschild financing who just by no coincidence financed the communist revolution in Russia in the first place (Lenin on the train with the gold box cars)...

In 1936 publisher Henry Luce paid $92,000 to the owners of Life magazine because he sought the name for Time Inc.
Life got its own building at 19 West 31st Street, a Beaux-Arts architecture jewel built in 1894 and considered of "outstanding significance" by the New York Landmarks Preservation Commission.
Later it moved editorial offices to 9 Rockefeller Plaza.


We never here much about James Roosevelt - he survived the war:
James Roosevelt (December 23, 1907 – August 13, 1991) was the oldest son of U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt. He was a U.S. Representative, officer in the United States Marine Corps, aide to his father, official Secretary to the President, Democratic Party activist, and businessman.
In October 1939, after World War II broke out in Europe, Roosevelt resigned the lieutenant colonel's commission he had been given in 1936, and was commissioned as a Captain in the Marine Corps Reserves. In November 1940, he went on active duty. In early 1941, the President sent him to the Middle East as a military attaché with the British forces. He travelled extensively in the area, and observed several important campaigns. [3]

In August 1941, he joined the staff of William J. Donovan, Coordinator of Information, with the job of working out the exchange of information with other agencies.[1]

After Japan's Attack on Pearl Harbor, Roosevelt requested assignment to combat duty. He transferred to the Marine Raiders, the Marines' commando force, and became second-in-command of the 2nd Raider Battalion under Evans Carlson who Roosevelt knew when Carlson commanded the Marine Detachment at the Warm Springs, Georgia residence of Franklin Roosevelt. His influence helped win Presidential backing for the Raiders, who were opposed by Marine traditionalists.

Roosevelt served with the 2nd Raiders at Midway, and in the Makin Island raid, where he earned the Navy Cross. He was given command of the new 4th Raiders, but was invalided in February 1943. He served in various staff positions during the rest of the war. In November 1943, he accompanied Army troops in the invasion of Makin, and was awarded the Silver Star by the Army. He retired from active duty in October 1945, with rank of Colonel.

He continued in the Marine Corps Reserves, and retired in 1959 at the rank of Brigadier General.[3]

James suffered from having flat feet, so while other Marines were required to wear boots, he was allowed to wear sneakers
Donovan had not been present at dinner but had been summoned by the President from New York, where he had been watching a football game at the Polo Grounds. Football fans heard an unusual announcement over the public address system about 2:30 that afternoon: "Colonel William Donovan, come to the box office at once. There is an important phone message." The message was from James Roosevelt, the President's son and a member of Donovan's staff; he told Donovan about the Japanese attack.

Throughout the evening of December 7, Roosevelt conferred with congressional and military leaders. He decided his first wartime move would come the next morning, December 8, when he would ask Congress to declare that a state of war existed between Japan and the United States. He prepared a rough draft of what later became his "Day of Infamy" speech.

Then he invited Murrow and Donovan into the study for a midnight snack of sandwiches and cold beer. Chief Usher Crim noted that the three men spent twenty-five minutes together in the study before Roosevelt retired to his adjoining bedroom. Crim's arrival and departure notations in the Usher Book comprise the only official record; there were no official minutes of the meeting.

FDR and son James


The Raiders were created by an order from President Franklin D. Roosevelt, acting on proposals from Colonel William J. Donovan and Major Evans F. Carlson.

Carlson had been a soldier in the Punitive Expedition to capture Pancho Villa in Mexico and World War I, became a Marine officer during the American occupation of Nicaragua, and served as an Intelligence Officer of the 4th Marines in China.

He had seen the tactics and strategy of Communist Chinese irregulars, Zhū Dé and the Eighth Route Army in particular, as they fought the occupying Japanese and became enthralled with their version of guerrilla warfare.

In 1933 Carlson had commanded the Marine Detachment at the Warm Springs, Georgia vacation retreat of President Roosevelt, where he formed a close friendship with both Franklin D. Roosevelt and his son James.

Carlson resigned from the Marines to speak to American businessmen to warn them against providing materials to Japan.

Carlson rejoined the Marines in April 1941, gaining a commission from the Commandant as a reserve major. Carlson still had the President's ear as well as FDR's son James Roosevelt, who was now a Marine Captain and was his friend and protégé.
The Raiders were given the best of the Marines' equipment, and were handpicked from available volunteers. The two units approached their common mission from different directions. Carlson utilized egalitarian and team-building methods learned from the Communists during his years in China: he treated officers and enlisted men with minimum regard to rank as leaders and fighters, gave his men "ethical indoctrination," describing for each man what he was fighting for and why, and used the Chinese phrase "Gung-ho!" as a motivational slogan. He also eschewed standard Marine Corps organization, forming six rifle companies of two platoons each, and innovating 3-man "fire teams" as its basic unit.[4] Edson's battalion, however, more closely followed standard Marine Corps doctrine in training, organization, and discipline.

United States Marines of the Second Raider Battalion gather around officers (kneeling left to right) Lt. Col. Evans F. Carlson, Capt. M.C. Plumley, and Maj. James Roosevelt as they plan an attack during the Makin Island raid, one of America's earliest offensives in the Pacific during World War II.

Friendship with the Roosevelts
Returning to the United States in 1933, Captain Carlson served as executive officer of the Marine Corps Detachment at President Roosevelt's alternative White House and vacation retreat at Warm Springs, Georgia where he became closely acquainted with President Franklin D. Roosevelt and his son James.

[edit] Second and third China tours
After his Warm Springs tour Carlson was posted to the 4th Marines in Shanghai. Shortly afterward he was transferred to the Marine Detachment, American Legation, Peiping, China, where he served as Adjutant and studied the Chinese language. In 1936, he returned to the United States via Japan. At home he served at Quantico while attending Marine Corps Schools, and studying International Law and Politics at George Washington University in Washington, D.C.

He went back to China for the third time in 1937 as an official student of the Chinese language and as a military observer with Chinese forces. There he was afforded the opportunity to learn the tactics of the Japanese soldier.

He met Edgar Snow in China and read Snow's Red Star Over China. This encounter led him to visit the Chinese communist troop headquarters in northern China, where he met Chinese Communist leaders such as Mao Zedong, Zhou Enlai and Deng Xiaoping. Traveling thousands of miles through the interior of China with the communist guerrillas, often on foot and horseback over the most hazardous terrain, he lived under the same primitive conditions. He was impressed by the tactics used by Chinese Communist guerrillas to fight Japanese troops.

When he left China in 1938, he was commended by the Commander in Chief of the Asiatic Fleet for his services. He was so impressed with the danger of Japanese aggression in the Far East that in 1939 he resigned his commission as a captain in order to be free to write and lecture on that subject

Brigadier General Evans Fordyce Carlson (26 February 1896 – 27 May 1947) was the famed U.S. Marine Corps leader of the World War II "Carlson's Raiders". He is renowned for the "Makin Island raid" on August 17, 1942 and their "Long Patrol" (aka Carlson's patrol or Carlson's Raiders) from November 4, 1942 to December 4, 1942 behind Japanese lines on Guadalcanal, in which 488 Japanese were killed, 16 Raiders were killed and 18 wounded, during the Guadalcanal campaign. Carlson is also credited with first coining the term "Gung-ho" as it is most popularly used today.
Rewi Alley - Great New Zealander in China
In 1939, Rewi Alley paid two visits to Yan’an and met Chairman Mao Zedong four times. In his old age, he still remembered well that he was asked in particular to find ways and means for producing grenades to support General He Long’s troops fighting in the northwest. Earlier in Wuhan, Rewi Alley met with Communist leaders Zhou Enlai and Bo Gu, who made suggestions and expressed hopes for the development of Gung Ho. Wang Bingnan was sent to take part in several meetings held by Gung Ho in its initial period.

Rewi Alley’s mind was very much on the southeast area where the New Fourth Army was waging fierce battles with the Kuomintang armies. In early 1939, he took charge of the Gung Ho Southeast Headquarters personally, and in 1940 he was invited by the Snows to the Philippines to raise fund for the work of Gung Ho in the New Fourth Army area in particular.

Later, together with Evans Carlson, a former US marine officer and now representative of the US Committee for the Promotion of Chinese Industrial Cooperatives, visited and revisited the New Fourth Army area, where they met Communist leader Liu Shaoqi near the army headquarters.

After the outbreak of the Pacific War, Carlson wrote to President Roosevelt and won his approval for organizing the Raider Battalion known as Carlson’s Raiders of the US Marine Corps. Using Gung Ho as its battle cry, this special fighting force, with Roosevelt’s son and his own son in it, adopted the surprise-attack tactics of the Eighth Route Army and won splendid victories over the Japanese army on Makin Island and on Guadalcanal, making its name known throughout the United States.

Edgar_Snow and Evans_Carlson Phillippines_1940

Eleanor Roosevelt Visiting Colonel Carlson at Naval Hospital
Original caption: Eleanor Roosevelt visits San Diego Naval Hospital. San Diego, Calif.... Mrs. Eleanor Roosevelt learns first-hand details of the Battle for Saipan from Lieut. Col. Evans F. Carlson, USMCR, famous Marine Raider leader, during her visit to the San Diego Naval Hospital. With her are Capt. Morton D. Willcutts (left), (MC) USN, and Col. James Roosevelt USMCR, who fought with Colonel Carlson on Makin.

Wedge: from Pearl Harbor to 9/11 : how the secret war between the FBI and the CIA... By Mark Riebling

FOIA - FBI - William Donovan:
Fearless 'Wild Bill' Donovan ran wartime agency that evolved into CIA
Sunday, February 27, 2011  02:59 AM  By Jerry Harkavy

William Donovan, center, conferring in Xi'an, China, on plans for the Office of Strategic Services during World War II
A hawkish conservative during the postwar years, Donovan became ambassador to Thailand, where his mission of stemming communist advances in Southeast Asia landed him in the emerging troubles of what, a decade or so later, became America's all-consuming quagmire, Vietnam.
Famous people buried at Babaoshan - George Hatem

George Hatem

George Hatem was born in Buffalo, New York in 1910. His parents had emigrated from Lebanon and were quite poor, working in factory jobs and building a new life. They moved to North Carolina to find better jobs and George went to school there and then on the University of North Carolina. He was an extraordinary student and won a scholarship to attend the American University in Beirut to study medicine. From there he went on to the University of Geneva, one of the premiere research institutions. After graduating, he and Lazar Katz and Robert Levinson decided to go to China [ RIGHT!!! ] to learn more about tropical diseases and treat the needy. He had made several friends from Asian countries in school and was interested in spending some time there and doing what he could to help. They had planned to stay two years and then return to their homes to open practices and begin their careers.

What they found in Shanghai was not what they expected. The health problems weren't due so much to disease as to lack of food and clothing.

George Hatem and Mao


He traveled there with Edgar Snow and Snow's young translator. The permissions and papers for each of them were obtained separately. They joined with a larger group, converging from different places. There was a civil war going on and the Japanese invasion begun in 1931 had pushed the government to the south, while the communist troops were in the northwest mountains. It was both difficult to get permissions to travel and dangerous.

When Ma Haide (George Hatem) arrived in Yan'an, he immediately set up to deliver medical care. One of his first patients was Mao Zedong.

There had been rumors that Mao was dying and one of the jobs given Ma Haide was to confirm or deny the rumor. Mao was in perfect health and it was felt that the message would be believed if it came from a neutral source, such as a western doctor. It was.
In 1949, Ma Haide became a Chinese citizen. He was the first foreigner to be granted citizenship. He now knew where his life's work would be. In 1949, Mao sent him to Yunnan in southwest China to set up a public health system for the Miao and other minorities of the region. Mao Zedong was very interested in the minorities at that time, and wished to bring services to this long neglected and forgotten section of China. At that time, the policies were to maintain the language, customs and cultures of the people. Those policies would only change later. There was a lot of work to do. Some of the minorities of the area were in slavery, literally. Most were close to starvation. Ma Haide set up the infrastructure to begin the long road to modernization of healthcare and returned to Beijing.
In 1969, he transferred to Beijing's Fu Wai Hospital to continue the same work and then, in 1977, he moved to the Union Medical College Hospital of Dermatology and was appointed a consultant to the People's Republic of China Ministry of Health. Ma Haide received a number of international awards both for his work in venereal disease, but especially for advances in the treatment of leprosy.

George Hatem

He was active in politics to advance the cause of medical research and the expansion of medical care to remote areas. He was a member of the sixth and seventh Standing Committees of the CPPCC National Committee during the 1980s until his death in 1988.

In the background and to the right is the tomb of Dr. Ma Haide 马海德 (George Hatem)
In the foreground are the graves of Hou Baolin — and his third wife, 王雅兰 (Wáng YÇŽlán, as shown on the previous page.

The people's doctor: George Hatem and China's revolution By Edgar A. Porter
Beijing: Poor migrants locked up in 16 containment zones

Millions of migrants live in the PRC’s large cities. Some have been there for generations or are born into a migrant status. Many of them illegal migrants, denied residence permits, and not entitled to many health services, public education, and other benefits available to legal residents. Most of the migrants work for very low wages, in factories and other low-status jobs, under very exploitative conditions, since their employers can threaten them with summary dismissal and deportation. Many legals associate the illegals with prostitution, drug-dealing, and theft. An increase in supervision means an increase in corruption, especially bribes and abuse of authority.

Political, Social, Cultural, Historical Analysis Of China

US Army & US State Department personnel in Communist-Controlled China, 1944:
Raymond P. Ludden, 1st Lieutenant Louis M. Jones, Captain Charles G. Stelle, Sergeant Walter Gress, Captain Paul C. Domke, Technician 4th Class George Itsuo Nakamura, Major Ray Cromley, Colonel David D. Barrett, Major Charles E. Dole, John S. Service, Major Wilbur J. Peterkin, Staff Sergeant Anton H. Remeneh, Lieutenant Simon H. Hitch, 1st Lieutenant Henry S. Whittlesey, Captain John G. Colling, Captain Brooke Dolan
[Absent: Major Melvin A. Casberg & Lieutenant Colonel Reginald E. Foss] [Nakamura received a Bronze Star and a promotion for his work in China, where he liased with Nosaka Sanzō (野坂参三, the Soviet spy who co-founded the Japanese Communist Party and was its first president). Nakamura was then transferred to work in Internazi-Occupied Japan. He then obtained a Master of Science degree in International Relations from Columbia University.] [Gesse worked with the Lebanese Communist George Hatem , the first foreigner granted PRC citizenship.
Hatem first went to China with  Lazar Katz and the Robert Levinson.]

General Marshall & Comrade Chairman Mao
December 1945, President Harry Truman sent Marshall to China to broker a coalition government between the Nationalist allies under Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek and Communists under Mao Zedong. Marshall had no leverage over the Communists, but he threatened to withdraw American aid essential to the Nationalists. Both sides rejected his proposals and the Chinese Civil War escalated, with the Communists winning in 1949. His mission a failure, he returned to the United States in January 1947.[24][25] As Secretary of State in 1947–48, Marshall seems to have disagreed with strong opinions in The Pentagon and State department that Chiang's success was vital to American interests, insisting that U.S. troops not become involved.

Comrade Chairman Mao & Colonel David D. Barrett

David Dean Barrett (1892 – February 3, 1977) was an American soldier, diplomat, and an old Army China hand. Barrett served more than 35 years in the U.S. Army, almost entirely in China. In that time period, Barrett was part of the American military experience in China, and played a critical role in the first official contact between the Communist Party of China and the United States government.

Barrett arrived in Beijing in 1924 and assumed the post of Assistant Military Attaché for Language Study...By 1931, he was permanently assigned at the Fifteenth Infantry in Tientsin as a regimental intelligence staff officer....By 1938, Hankow fell and the Nationalists again retreated, this time to Chungking. It was in Chungking that Barrett remained until 1943....Barrett was assigned to be the military attaché to the Nationalist government after it had fled the mainland in 1949. This was his last post before retiring from the U.S. Army
John Stewart Service (3 August 1909 - 3 February 1999) was an American diplomat who served in the Foreign Service in China prior to and during the World War II. Considered one of the State Department's "China Hands," he was an important member of the Dixie Mission to Yan'an. Service correctly predicted that the Communists would defeat the Nationalists in a civil war, but he and other diplomats were blamed for the "loss" of China in the domestic political turmoil following the 1949 Communist triumph in China. In the immediate postwar years, Service was accused in the Amerasia Affair in 1945, of which a Grand Jury cleared him of wrongdoing.[1] In 1950 U.S. Senator Joseph McCarthy launched an attack against Service, which led to investigations of the reports Service wrote while stationed in China. Secretary of State Dean Acheson fired Service, but in 1957 the U.S. Supreme Court ordered his reinstatement in a unanimous decision.
Amerasia was a journal of Far Eastern affairs best known for the 1940s "Amerasia Affair" in which several of its staff and their contacts were suspected of espionage and charged with unauthorized possession of government documents.

Kenneth Wells, an analyst for the Office of Strategic Services (OSS), noticed that an article printed in the January 26, 1945, issue of Amerasia was almost identical to a 1944 report he had written on Thailand.[3] OSS agents investigated by breaking into the New York offices of Amerasia on March 11, 1945, where they found hundreds of classified documents from the Department of State, the Navy, and the OSS.

John S. Service, US Department of State: “The impressive personal qualities of the Communist leaders, their seeming sincerity, and the coherence and logical nature of their program leads me, at least, toward general acceptance of the first explanation — that the Communists base their policy toward the Kuomintang on a real desire for democracy in China under which there can be orderly economic growth through a stage of private enterprise to eventual socialism without the need of violent social upheaval and revolution

Nosaka first became interested in Communism following the 1917 Bolshevik Revolution in Russia. He graduated in 1917 from Keiō University, where as a student he had joined the Yūaikai, a labour organization formed by Suzuki Bunji. After studying in England, he joined the English Communist Party in 1920 and was deported  [ Rothschild connection?]
The JPEL engaged in the "re-education" of numerous Japanese prisoners of war and created propaganda on behalf of the Chinese Communists
Shortly after Japan's surrender in 1945, Nosaka began to march with approximately 200 other Japanese Communists across northern China. They arrived at the coast after picking up hundreds of other Japanese along the way. Demanding immediate repatriation from the first Americans they found, they declared their intention to return and work "for the democratization of Japan and the establishment of peace in the Far East." Although there are no records of the exact number of Japanese "re-educated" by Nosaka who elected to remain in Communist-occupied China after 1945, it is estimated that "the number must have been considerable
This is a story of five Americans of Japanese descent, Nisei, who were members of the US Army Observer Group, nicknamed the Dixie Mission

Nomura had his appendix removed in Yan’an by Ma Haide, the Communist physician’s Chinese name for George Hatem, whose parents immigrated to the US from Lebanon.
The Nisei had unimpeded access to the prisoners, who provided valuable intelligence.
They also worked with Susumu Okano, known in Japan as Sanzo Nozaka, head of the Japan Communist Party who escaped from Japan in the early 1930’s to the Soviet Union and finally to China.

Nozaka was responsible for the POWs. After the war Nozaka returned to Japan to lead the JCP. The Nisei met socially with Mao, Zhou and other communist leaders and found them friendly and accessible.

On July 22, 1944, eighteen American military, diplomatic and intelligence personnel arrived by plane in Yan’an, where they were met planeside by Zhou, the Number 2 leader in the Communist hierarchy, and escorted to their quarters, which were caves dug in the steep hillsides. Within this contingent were Sho Nomura and George Itsuo Nakamura.

Ariyoshi and Mao

They would be followed in the fall of 1944 by Koji Ariyoshi, a psychological warfare (psywar) specialist

Ariyoshi was born and raised on a coffee farm in Kona, Hawaii. He worked as a laborer at a sugar plantation, a pineapple cannery and on a sugar beet farm in Idaho, as a longshoreman on the docks of Honolulu and San Francisco, and as a journalist. After he obtained a college degree from University of Georgia, he settled in California and then Japan attacked Pearl Harbor. He was incarcerated at the Manzanar Internment Center, California. This background and his view of the hardships endured by his parents, other plantation workers, and the African Americans in America’s Deep South caused him to sympathize with the downtrodden.

In December 1942 Ariyoshi enlisted and trained at the MIS Language School at Camp Savage. Following his graduation, he joined the Office of War Information, led a 10-man psywar team to New Delhi, India.

In June 1944, he was deployed to Burma, where he was picked to serve on the Dixie Mission. He could not overcome his joy when he arrived at Yan’an, because only five years before he organized collection programs in Hawaii to help the children of Yan’an. Ariyoshi spent 18 months in Yan’an, October 1944 to March 1946. He passed away on October 23, 1976 at age 62. He is survived by a son, Roger, and five granddaughters.

This has nothing to due with Yale - yet. But concider the first american to join the Chinese Communist Party CCP: Sidney Rittenberg

Mao with Sidney Rittenberg.

Rittenberg's "consultancy business" is in fact one of the largest, or largest, advertising agencies in the world. Was he the actual Chinese minister of propaganda

Sidney Rittenberg (August 14, 1921; Chinese: 李敦白; pinyin: Lǐ Dūnbái) is an American journalist, interpreter and scholar who lived in China from 1944 to 1979. He worked closely with People's Republic of China (PRC) founder Mao Zedong, military leader Zhu De, statesman Zhou Enlai, and other leaders of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) during the war, and was with these central Communist leaders at Yan'an. He witnessed first-hand much of what occurred at upper levels of the CCP and knew many of its leaders personally. Later, he was imprisoned in solitary confinement, twice, for a total of 16 years.

He was the first American citizen to join the CCP.

Rittenberg's connections and experience have enabled him to run a successful consultancy business representing some of the world’s biggest brands, such as Intel, Levi Strauss, Microsoft, Hughes Aircraft and Teledesic.

Rittenberg was born into a Jewish family in Charleston, South Carolina, and lived there until his college studies. After attending Porter Military Academy, he turned down a full scholarship to Princeton University and instead attended the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, where he majored in philosophy. While attending this institution, he became a member of the US Communist Party. In 1942, following the entry of the US into World War II — and after his leaving the Communist Party — Rittenberg joined the Army and was sent to Stanford's Army Far Eastern Language and Area School to learn Japanese. Rittenberg did not wish to be assigned to study Japanese, and was able to be assigned to learn Chinese instead. This led to his being sent to China in 1944. After the end of the war, he decided to stay in China as part of the United Nations famine relief program. This led to his meeting the leaders of the Communist movement at Yan'an.

Yan'an was also the site of an ongoing Yan'an Rectification Movement launched by Mao Zedong in the previous year. Artists — cartoonists and novelists in particular — were falling under the influence of Chairman Mao, whose nascent personality cult Rittenberg soon began to observe. More immediately than Chairman Mao, however, a young female cadre soon lured Rittenberg into a romantic liaison which was immediately exposed and nearly resulted in his expulsion from the communist Mecca. With the slow but inexorable march toward civil war in 1946, Rittenberg would be drawn out, and into the next painful phase of his involvement with the Chinese Communist Party.
In 1949, Rittenberg was imprisoned in solitary confinement for supposedly being a member of a spy network in connection with an international spy network "uncovered" in the Soviet Union. For one year, he was kept in a completely dark room, and was kept for five years after that before he was finally released
In February 1968, several members of the "Dr. Norman Bethune - Yan'an rebel group" were arrested, among them Israel Epstein and his wife Elsie Fairfax-Cholmeley, Michael Shapiro and Rittenberg. This time, the reason for his arrest was supposed actions and criticisms against the dictatorship and bureaucracy. Ironically, he was also charged with connections with the "Chinese Nikita Khrushchev" Liu Shaoqi, whom Rittenberg had strongly criticised in the previous campaigns. His wife, Wang Yulin (Chinese: 王玉琳) was sent to a "May Seventh Cadre School". During his stay he penned a new Confucian saying: "Man who climbs out on limb should listen carefully for sound of saw." According to him, he couldn’t hear the saw until it was too late.

On International Women's Day, March 8, 1973, there was a reception for foreign experts in the Great Hall of the People, most of whom had been released by that time. Zhou Enlai spoke and apologised to the foreigners, but also said: "There are also some foreigners who during the Cultural Revolution participated in a certain organisation, who participated in destructive activities of bad elements. Sidney Rittenberg is one of those people; he was involved in the counterrevolutionary clique of Wang Li, Guan Feng and Qi Benyu."

In November 1977, Rittenberg was released and rehabilitated — probably as the last of all the foreigners. In March 1980, he moved back to the United States.
Rittenberg is a faculty member in the Chinese Studies Program at Pacific Lutheran University. He is married to Yulin, and has four children. In 1993, he wrote a book entitled The Man Who Stayed Behind, with the aid of Amanda Bennett.

Rittenberg and his wife operate Rittenberg & Associates, a consulting firm that provides assistance to businesses who work with Chinese companies. Some of their best-known clients include Billy Graham and Mike Wallace.

Go to USC and become a Communist/Capitalist:

USC Marshall provides powerful global experiences across a range of disciplines and interests. USC Marshall was the first school to require international travel and study projects as an integral part of every MBA degree
USC = APBO 2011 Keynote Speakers

Sidney Rittenberg - President, Rittenberg and Associates, Inc. [ Communist ]
Fox Island, WA
He became a leading translator for the works of Mao Zedong, and was the only American citizen accepted into the Chinese Communist Party, until the Cultural Revolution...

Sixteen of Rittenberg's 35 years in China were spent as a prisoner in solitary confinement on charges of being an American spy. He was freed in 1977 and declared a true friend of China. His family became a myth and a legend, giving them easy entry to China's leaders - a great advantage for their consulting work.

As consultants, Mr. Rittenberg and Yulin have helped clients such as Intel, Nextel, Levi Strauss, Teledesic, and ICO, as well as CBS's Dan Rather and Mr. Rittenberg's close friends, Mike Wallace and the Reverend Billy Graham.

Gary Locke - U.S. Secretary of Commerce

Gary Locke was appointed by President Obama as the 36th Secretary of Commerce and sworn into office on March 26, 2009. At the Department of Commerce, Locke is charged with helping implement President Obama’s ambitious agenda to turn around the economy and put people back to work.

As the first Chinese-American to hold this post in a president’s cabinet...Prior to his appointment, Locke helped U.S. companies break into international markets as a partner in the Seattle office of the international law firm, Davis Wright Tremaine LLP. There, he co-chaired the firm’s China practice and was active in its governmental relations practice.

Locke earned a bachelor’s degree in political science from Yale University and a law degree from Boston University. He is married to Mona Lee Locke. They have three children, Emily, Dylan and Madeline.

The USC Marshall School of Business is a private research and academic institution at the University of Southern California. It is the largest of USC's 17 professional schools. The current Dean is James G. Ellis.

In 1997 the school was renamed following a US$35 million donation from alumnus Gordon S. Marshall.[4]
Global Executive Education: The Global Executive MBA (GEMBA), an international version of Marshal's EMBA program, began in Shanghai, China in collaboration with Jiao Tong University in 2004. Classes are taught primarily in Shanghai by USC Marshall professors...
The Marshall School has over 67,000 alumni worldwide in 44 countries. USC has the largest population of foreign alumni of any university in the United States. Its members often refer to themselves as part of the Trojan [Horse] Family

Gordon S. Marshall -  Marshall Industries, based in El Monte, California, was one of the nation's five largest distributors of industrial electronic components and production supplies. Marshall Industries was bought by Avnet in 1999.

Avnet, Inc. (NYSE: AVT) is a technology Business-to-business B2B distributor headquartered in Phoenix, Arizona. Electronics Supply & Manufacturing magazine reports that Avnet Inc., a Fortune 500 company, may be the world's largest franchised distributor of electronic components and subsystems. Avnet has 16 centers and locations in more than 34 countries

Just to prove Rittenberg's been to YALE:

Interesting symbology...
Yale -> Intellectual Life ->  The China Law Center   -> Workshop on Chinese Legal Reform  -> Past

Yale Law School enhances the intellectual life of its academic community by sponsoring [ COMMUNISTS ]a variety of centers, programs, and workshops, inspired by the interests of its faculty and students...

Spring 2007 (Gewirtz, Horsley, Kellogg)
April 16: Sidney Rittenberg (President, Rittenberg & Associates; faculty, Chinese Studies Program, Pacific Lutheran University):  “A 60-Year China Odyssey”

Sidney Rittenberg and Mike Wallace:

Sometimes the crucible is a tragedy. Pioneering television journalist Mike Wallace was uncertain whether he should give up his prestigious, well-paying job with a local station and try for a network slot when, in 1962, his oldest son, Peter, a student at Yale, fell off a mountain while on vacation in Greece. Two weeks after Peter disappeared, Wallace found the boy’s body. “That was really the turning point when I said, ‘To hell with it,’ ” Wallace recalled. “I’m going to quit everything and do what I want to do now.”

One of the harshest crucibles in our study was that which shaped businessman Sidney Rittenberg, 79. In China in 1949 Rittenberg was jailed as a spy by former friends in Chairman Mao’s government. He spent sixteen years in prison, the first year in solitary confinement and total darkness except when he was being interrogated and the remaining fifteen years in permanent lighting without the benefit of darkness. He emerged certain that absolutely nothing in professional life could break him.

The Man Who Stayed Behind Author(s): Sidney Rittenberg, Amanda Bennett Contributor(s): Mike Wallace, Michael Hunt

Amanda Bennett is now a Co-Chair for the Pulitzer :

Amanda Bennett is Managing Editor of The Oregonian in Portland, Oregon and former Bureau Chief of the Wall Street Journal in Atlanta.

Sidney Rittenberg has done four “Sixty Minutes” specials with his close friend, Mike Wallace
Under Mao Tse Tung and the 1949 Communist Revolution, the opium trade was dramatically reduced to almost nothing. OR . Another version however indicates that Mao sold opium overseas to earn money much like the British did with China.
January 6, 2007 - Hatchet job or horror story? Scholars have doubts over Jung Chang and Jon Halliday’s Mao – now in paperback – 2005, Mao: The Unknown Story

In 1991, Jung Chang’s phenomenally successful Wild Swans gave the Western public its first clear glimpse of the suffering under Chairman Mao

Although Wild Swans was banned in China, Chang, who moved to Britain in 1978, and her husband, a specialist on Soviet archives, were allowed into the country in a decade of work on this book.

From Russian archives, more-over, there are records showing that Mao encouraged the opium trade to subsidise his hold on northern China. These show that the trade — for which the Chinese despised 19th-century British — brought $6 million in revenue.

Mao Zedong was born in 1893 into a peasant family as the Qin dynasty was fading. He later said that the dismemberment of China was then imminent and heroic action by youth was needed.  At the age of 19 he wrote an essay protesting against the ancient Chinese laws, saying: “At the beginning of anything out of the ordinary, the mass of the people always dislike it.”

He became a headmaster by 1920, marrying a teacher’s daughter with whom he had two sons. He had more children with later wives, and may have fathered [many] illegitimate children.

RISE TO POWER  - He attended the first meeting of the Chinese Commmunist Party in 1921, and, after the split with the Kuomintang (KMT), began building a guerrilla army.

Many wealthy families in the United States made their money trafficking in drugs. Yale's "secretive Order of the Skull and Bones" was involved in the Opium trade and founding family were the Russells. Samuel Russell established "Russell and Company" in 1823 and acquired opium in Turkey, smuggled it into China and in 1830 established the Perkins Opium syndicate of Boston and Connecticut. Warren Delano Jr, grandfather of Franklin Roosevelt was involved as were Coolidge, Perkins, Sturgis, Forbes and other well known families.

The Order became prominent in the US and membership in the Order included wealthy American families: Whitney, Taft, Bundy, Harriman, Weyerhauser, Pinchot, Rockefeller, Goodyear, Lord, Whitney, Sloane, Simpon, Phelps, Pillsbury, Perkins, Kellogg, Vanderbilt, Bush, and Lovett and the Order has had a very close association with the U.S. Intelligence Community. The Bush family was a member and George Bush was the Director of the CIA before he became President. And, that same relationship exists with his son, the current president Bush.

The Bayer Company also was a big player in opium and "Heroin" was a trade name of the Bayer Company [1898].

Yale also established schools and hospitals in China and Mao Zedong was on staff in 1903.
US intelligence used this connection in China. [OSS ]

The League of Nations banned Heroin and Cocaine in the 20s and use increased but during the war years "addiction" was practically eradicated.
In Laos, General Vang Pao, leader of the Meo tribesman fought the CIA's secret war. He would collect raw opium in Northern Laos and transport it via CIA's "Air America" to a U.S. complex at Long Thien - known as "Spook Heaven" and "Alternate 20," where it was processed into white heroin. Vang Pao had his own airline courtesy of the CIA known as "Air Opium," which transported the heroin to Saigon [Ton Sohn Nut Air Base]. There part of the opium was sold to hooked US servicemen and the Corsican syndicate shipped the bulk to Marseilles and then to Cuba and Mafia boss Santos Trafficante and from there on to the United States. Some heroin were sealed in body bags of returning dead American soldiers.

In 1949, DOCTUR George Hatem - Ma Haide became a Chinese citizen. He was the first foreigner to be granted citizenship. He now knew where his life's work would be. In 1949, Mao sent him to Yunnan in southwest China to set up a public health system for the Miao and other minorities of the region. Mao Zedong was very interested in the minorities at that time, and wished to bring services to this long neglected and forgotten section of China.

Now I would think that
Doctor George Hatem in China would have quite a bit of experience with Opium and Heroin

The Miao (Chinese: 苗; pinyin: Miáo; Vietnamese: Mèo or H'Mông; Thai: แม้ว (Maew) or ม้ง (Mong); Burmese: mun lu-myo) are a linguistically and culturally related group of people recognized by the government of the People's Republic of China as one of the 55 official minority groups.

Miao is a Chinese term and does not reflect the self-designations of the component sub-groups, which include (with some variant spellings) Hmong, Hmu, A Hmao, and Kho (Qho) Xiong.

The Miao live primarily in southern China, in the provinces of Guizhou, Hunan, Yunnan, Sichuan, Guangxi, Hainan, Guangdong, and Hubei.

Some members of the Miao sub-groups, most notably Hmong people, have migrated out of China into Southeast Asia (northern Vietnam, Laos, Myanmar (Burma) and Thailand). Following the communist takeover of Laos in 1975, a large group of Hmong refugees resettled in several Western nations (United States, France, Australia, and elsewhere.)
Historically, the term "Miao" had been applied inconsistently to a variety of non-Han peoples often with the connotation of "barbarian." This former meaning has not kept members of the modern nationality from self-identifying as Miao. Outside of China, "Meo", a variation of "Miao" still exists in Southeast Asia where it is often used in a highly derogatory way.

found an good history of the Rothschild/Yale/China operation:
The Power Elite Playbook, China: Shanghaied by Communism - Part 15 By Deanna Spingola 2 November 2008

"After Britain’s First Opium War (1839-1842) against China, the real power behind the Chinese Emperor was the Soong family who were agents of the House of Sassoon, multi-national opium traders originally from Baghdad who were later forced to flee to Bombay, India.

They obtained exclusive rights from Great Britain to market opium to Shanghai and Hong Kong from which the queen received a healthy share of the millions of dollars of profit.

By 1890, about 10 percent of China's total population were opium smokers. [10] In 1874, attention was drawn to China’s alleged pervasive decadence by members of the Yale School of Divinity – no doubt because of all that opium. [11] So, in 1903, a year after the Japan/Great Britain alliance, Yale Divinity School established schools and hospitals throughout China – known as Yale in China."’s-investors-are-get-freer-hand-abroad
Yale and China: History Fosters Dragon Investment Opportunity
Filed in archive Private Equity on April 24, 2006

In the wake of President Hu Jintao's visit with Yale University's President Richard Levin last Friday, it's noteworthy that China had recently authorized the distinguished university's ability to trade domestic stocks and bonds, making it the first foreign university to be granted access to the country's tightly controlled securities market.

The decision allows Yale's endowment investors to tap one of the world's fastest growing economies. The university's endowment stands at nearly $15 billion and is one of the world's largest. China allows foreign investors to buy only a limited number of stocks and bonds, referred to as B shares, that are quoted in U.S. and Hong Kong dollars. The much larger domestic stock exchange, which trades stocks known as A shares, is restricted to Chinese investors and a select group of approved foreign institutions.

It doesn't hurt that Levin, a distinguished economist, is an avowed free trader [ en-slaver ] and does not support those prevalent views in Washington that the US impose punitive tariffs on Chinese products. After all, there is an impressive China story about opportunity not protectionism, that warrants daily reaffirmation.

Yale and China have a strong historical link since the first Chinese student, Yung Wing, came to study in the U. S. at Yale in 1854. In 2006, more faculty are engaged in China than in any other country and the university hosts more students and scholars from China than from any foreign nation. According to the Yale Bulletin, there are over 80 Yale-China academic collaborations currently underway and more than 26 study sites across the Chinese Republic. More Yale faculty conduct academic projects in China than in any other country, and Yale hosts more students and scholars from China than from any other foreign nation.

Check out Nayan Chanda's Yale Global Online, where economist, Daniel Rosen deftly examines the economies of the US and China and their respective financial habits.

Part 2


OSS recruits IPR members : Internationalizing the Pacific: the United States, Japan, and the IPR ... By Tomoko Akami - "The American World Order"

"The OSS also recruited IPR members...."

Many interesting facts....  considering Sumner Welles was a member of the American branch of the Institute of Pacific Relations,

Owen Lattimore with Chiang Kai-shek in Chongqing in 1941
Owen Lattimore was U.S. political advisor to Chiang Kai-shek in 1941; after Pearl Harbor he became director of Pacific Operations for the United States Office of War Information.[1] According a unanimous report of the Senate Judiciary Committee, he was also "from some time beginning in the 1930's, a conscious articulate instrument of the Soviet conspiracy."[

During the Nazi-Soviet pact, Lattimore was added to Roosevelt's Custodial Detention Index,[14] listed as "Nationalistic tendency—Communist."[15] Later the same year President Franklin Roosevelt appointed Lattimore U.S. adviser to Kuomintang Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek on the surreptitious and out-of-process recommendation of Lattimore's personal friend and patron at the White House,[16] Roosevelt adviser and NKVD agent Lauchlin Currie.[17] While serving in this capacity, according to Chinese military intelligence, Lattimore was sending coded messages to the Communist Chinese rebels.[18]

On November 25, 1941, twelve days before Pearl Harbor, Lattimore dispatched an anxious cable to Currie in the White House arguing against a proposed diplomatic understanding between the United States and Japan. When Congress later investigated the Pearl Harbor attack, U.S. Secretary of State Cordell Hull testified that he took a tough line with the Japanese because of this cable from Lattimore to Currie reporting on Chinese morale in the Kuomintang. This cable was the only documentary evidence Hull presented which influenced his decision to reverse himself and send the ultimatum to Japan.
Lattimore was a combative witness and waged verbal duels with McCarthy. In April 1950, the surprise witness, Louis F. Budenz, former editor of the Communist Party organ Daily Worker. testified Lattimore was a secret Communist, but not a Soviet agent, that is, he was a person of influence who often assisted Soviet foreign policy. Budenz said his Party superiors told him Lattimore's "great value lay in the fact that he could bring the emphasis in support of Soviet policy in non-Soviet language."[21] The majority report for the Tydings committee cleared Lattimore of all charges against him; the minority report accepted Budenz's charges.

In February 1952, Lattimore was called to testify before the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee (S.I.S.S), headed by McCarthy's ally, Senator Pat McCarran. Before Lattimore was called as witness, investigators for the S.I.S.S. had seized all of the records of the Institute of Pacific Relations (I.P.R). The twelve days of testimony were marked by shouting matches which pitted McCarran and McCarthy on one hand against Lattimore on the other. Lattimore took three days to deliver his opening statement; the delays were caused by frequent interruptions as McCarran challenged Lattimore point by point.

Related to this is Lauchlin Currie Assitant to FDR and Soviet Spy who recommended Lattimore for his job....
Lauchlin Bernard Currie (8 October 1902 - 23 December 1993) was Administrative Assistant to President Franklin Delano Roosevelt, and a Soviet spy.
Currie became Administrative Assistant to President Franklin Roosevelt in July of 1939[1], and was empowered to coordinate "the work of the various departments in their relations to the Executive." [2]

Whittaker Chambers, a former affiliate of the Soviet Secret Intelligence Service in Washington, D. C., for the purpose of developing a government underground, stated that Lauchlin Currie was a 'fellow Traveler' who helped various Communists. This statement was made to a representative of the State Department when Chambers was questioned relative to individuals in the Government who were allegedly active in behalf of the Communist Party and the Soviet Union.
Soviet archives likewise identify Currie as a Soviet intelligence source. In 1948, Anatoly Gorsky identified Currie in the "Gorsky memo"as the Soviet agent code-named "PAZh/Page,"[10] who is recorded in Venona giving information to Akhmerov and "handing over documents" to Silvermaster.
In the early part of 1941, Currie was sent to be Head of the Economic Mission to China as personal envoy of the President to confer with Chiang Kai-shek and other leading executives of the Kuomintang. Currie studied Chinese arsenals, military training schools, and industrial cooperatives while in China.

Amerasia scandal
Currie was listed as one of the individuals who attended the Institute of Pacific Relations Conference held at Mont Tremblant, Canada, from December 5 to 19, 1942. In the early part of September 1943, Currie was appointed as Acting Deputy Administrator and he remained until the early part of 1945. He then resumed his former White House duties.

It was Currie who recommended Owen Lattimore to President Roosevelt to serve as a special advisor to Jiang Jieshi(Chiang Kai-shek). [18]

Currie with Madame Chiang Kai Shek

Currie was a top-level adviser in President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s New Deal and served as FDR’s economic adviser in the White House from 1939-1945. From 1949 until his death in 1993, he was a top-level development economist in Latin America.

In 1944-1945, he took part in loan negotiations with the United States’ British and Soviet allies, as well as in preparations for the United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference at Bretton Woods, New Hampshire (July 1-22, 1944), which led to the creation of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund.
Currie was hired by the World Bank in 1949 despite earlier allegations of Soviet espionage made by two defectors from the Communist cause – Elizabeth Bentley and Whittaker Chambers. Bentley claimed that Currie, whom she had never seen, had been part of an espionage ring headed by Nathan Gregory Silvermaster.

Precious Fire: Maud Russell and the Chinese Revolution
Russell and a few other western YWCA secretaries developed a shared vision of feminist social change that included support for the Chinese Communist Party and its leadership.
Her notoriety as a proponent of friendship with the People's Republic of China soared during the restoration of U.S -- China diplomatic relations in the 1970s, only to dissolve in the 1980s as she denounced the revival of capitalist economics in China on ideological grounds
Maud Russell, 96; Aided Chinese Published: November 10, 1989

Maud Russell, who spent a quarter of a century in China as a welfare worker and teacher for the Young Women's Christian Association and lobbied for American recognition of the Chinese Communist Government after World War II, died of lung cancer Wednesday at her home in Manhattan. She was 96 years old.

Miss Russell went to China in 1917 as part of the Y.W.C.A.'s missionary service and spent much of her time in Changsha, the capital of Hunan province. When the revolutionary army of Chiang Kai-shek advanced on the city in 1930, she refused to leave with other British and American missionaries, who gave her up for dead and held a memorial service in her honor.

She survived that siege and others in the years of civil war and the war with Japan that began in the mid-1930's, remaining in China until her return to the United States in 1943.

After World War II, she became executive director of the Committee for a Democratic Far Eastern Policy, which promoted friendship with the Communist forces that soon drove Chiang and the Nationalists from the continent and onto Taiwan. She published a journal, Far East Reporter, from 1953 until this year and lectured for many years on China and other Asian countries.

Was Reagan a Spy for the government in the 40's? :
Reagan's "subversive" ties

The FBI's background report on Kerr contrasts with the bureau's background investigation of Reagan after he was elected governor in 1966 and became a regent ex officio, FBI records show.

That process began when Reagan filled out a federal form required to get a security clearance, and stated that he never belonged to any group deemed officially subversive, a copy of the form shows.

According to FBI records, the bureau knew Reagan had been in two such groups in the 1940s - the Committee for a Democratic Far East Policy and the American Veterans Committee  (Tim Leary and Cord Myer)- but the FBI background report failed to note that Reagan's denial was untrue. Hundreds of people in the 1940s and 1950s had faced hearings and sometimes dismissals from federal employment for failing to disclose membership in groups deemed subversive.

[ 1947-48: As a graduate student in psychology, Leary attends the first two national conventions of the American Veterans Committee (AVC), a left-wing veterans group, as a California state delegation leader. At the second AVC convention, in Milwaukee, Leary meets Cord Meyer, who is then spearheading an anti-communist purge of the organization. Meyer lectures Leary about communism, and the importance of liberal resistance to it. Leary will later credit Meyer with "helping me understand my political-cultural role more clearly."  ... Late 1950: Cord Meyer joins CIA and begins working in its International Relations Division]

The man who sold the world: Ronald Reagan and the betrayal of Main Street ... By William Kleinknecht
Committee for a Democratic Far Eastern Policy

In 1948, Maud Russell was Executive director of the New York based Committee for a Democratic Far Eastern Policy.[1]

Consultants to the Committee included;[2]

Charles Bidien
T. A. Bisson
Hugh Deane
Israel Epstein
Harrison Forman
Kumar Goshal
Philip J. Jaffe
The Hon. Michael Lindsay
Kate L. Mitchell
Bernard Seeman
Gunther Stein
Maxwell S. Stewart
Ilona Ralf Sues
Chu Tong

She survived that siege and others in the years of civil war and the war with Japan that began in the mid-1930's, remaining in China until her return to the United States in 1943.

After World War II, she became executive director of the Committee for a Democratic Far Eastern Policy, which promoted friendship with the Communist forces that soon drove Chiang and the Nationalists from the continent and onto Taiwan. She published a journal, Far East Reporter, from 1953 until this year and lectured for many years on China and other Asian countries.
YWCA of the U.S.A. Records.  Record Group 5. International

Worship Service, YWCA Girls Camp, Chengdu, China, 1940

World War I significantly impacted the international work of the YWCA by diverting resources from places like Latin America and Turkey to organized relief efforts in Europe and elsewhere. The National Board organized the War Work Council in 1917, and the bulk of the National Association's war relief work in Europe and the Near East was carried out under the auspices of the War Work Council. [See World War I for more details]
Maud Russell Papers, 1914-1990
Maud Muriel Russell was born on August 9, 1893, in Hayward, Alameda County, California, near San Francisco. The oldest of four children, she was the daughter of Thomas Bartlett Russell, a fruit grower and civil engineer, and Lelia Smalley Russell. Russell attended Hayward public schools and the University of California at Berkeley, where she was active in the campus chapter of the Young Women's Christian Association. It was through the Berkeley YWCA that she met Mary Ingle Bentley (1878-1940), who later became her closest friend and life companion.

In the spring of 1917, the office received a visit from a recruiter for the YWCA of China. Intrigued, Russell arranged to meet with her. Although a graduate degree in social work was usually a prerequisite for overseas work with the YWCA, Russell was chosen for work in China on the condition that she spend part of her furloughs (roughly every seven years) in graduate study in the U.S. She sailed for Shanghai in August 1917.
The western women who worked for the China YWCA were expected to help their Chinese colleagues establish YWCAs in their communities, then to turn over the leadership of those Ys to an all-Chinese staff. Russell's first posting, after language study in Nanking, was with the newly-formed YWCA in Changsha, Hunan Province. She was there from 1919 until her first furlough in 1924, and again from 1928 to 1930 and 1932-1933.
The spring of 1927 was a turning point for Russell. She began to question more closely the various roles played by foreigners in China; at the same time, she began to read Marxist theory and to learn more about the 1917 Russian Revolution and the founding of the Soviet Union, with its implications for China. While on furlough in 1932, she spent some months in Leningrad and Moscow observing Soviet society before returning to China via Siberia and Manchuria.
While in Shanghai in the early 1930s, she participated in a Marxist study group comprised of westerners and Chinese. Among them were the New Zealander Rewi Alley, later a founder of Indusco (Chinese Industrial Cooperatives), and YWCA colleagues Lily K. Haass, Talitha Gerlach, and Cora Deng (Deng Yu-shih). All four remained lifelong friends of Russell.
By early 1946, she had become an active member of the Committee for a Democratic Far Eastern Policy (CDFEP), a progressive organization whose goals included opposition to American intervention in China, in particular the Truman administration's backing of the Nationalist government headed by Chiang Kai-shek.

Russell assumed the executive directorship of the CDFEP in June 1946, a position she held until the Committee's dissolution six years later. She moved from Passaic to New York in 1947, where she found an apartment on West 93rd Street with a China acquaintance, Ida Pruitt, the field director for the American Committee in Aid of Chinese Industrial Cooperatives. (Russell and Pruitt continued to share quarters until June 1961, when their building was slated for demolition. Pruitt moved to Philadelphia and Russell took an apartment on Riverside Drive, where she lived until her death in 1989.)
University of Missouri - Kansas City

Edgar Snow - personal, business, and general correspondence

This section consists of personal, business, and general correspondence. Special correspondence regarding Indusco, the International School of America, World Law Fund, manuscripts, and the film documentary, "One Fourth of Humanity," are located elsewhere in the collection. ...

Throughout this section there are also subject groupings. Edgar Snow himself may not have assigned all these subject headings; some may have been assigned by the individuals Lois Snow hired to process the papers. Regardless, the groupings have been retained and placed in the listing chronologically.
Folder 13. Evans and Peggy Carlson 1938, 1945, 1947, 1951

The 1939 correspondence includes letters regarding the Chinese Industrial Cooperatives and correspondence with James Bertram and Agnes Smedley.

Folder 25. Correspondence 1948-49
includes correspondence with Maud Russell, Agnes Smedley, and the Committee for Democratic Far Eastern Policy and Committee newsletters

Folder 26. Correspondence 1949-70
with Agnes Smedley and correspondence regarding her books and estate

Folder 28. Correspondence 1951

The correspondence for 1952-56 includes discussion of the Senator Joseph McCarthy Hearings for the House Un-American Activities Committee and Snow’s questioning by the FBI.

Brigadier General Evans Fordyce Carlson (26 February 1896 – 27 May 1947) was the famed U.S. Marine Corps leader of the World War II "Carlson's Raiders". He is renowned for the "Makin Island raid" on August 17, 1942 and their "Long Patrol" (aka Carlson's patrol or Carlson's Raiders) from November 4, 1942 to December 4, 1942 behind Japanese lines on Guadalcanal, in which 488 Japanese were killed, 16 Raiders were killed and 18 wounded, during the Guadalcanal campaign.

Carlson is also credited with first coining the term"Gung-ho" as it is most popularly used today.
He was survived by his wife, Mrs. Peggy Tatum Carlson, and a son by a previous marriage, Evans C. Carlson.–_ICCIC
The International Committee for the Promotion of Chinese Industrial Cooperatives (ICCIC, also known by its nickname Gung Ho International Committee) was founded in 1939 in Hong Kong to form cooperatives in China. The organization's nickname and slogan, Gung Ho, means "work hard and work together".

Rewi Alley, Edgar Snow, Helen Snow, and others initiated the Gung Ho (工合 "Gong He", literally "work together") movement in Shanghai in 1937. The movement aimed to organize unemployed workers and refugees, increasing production to support the Chinese people's war of resistance against Japanese aggression. Subsequently, the Chinese Industrial Cooperative Association was established in 1938

Edgar Snow and Evans Carlson - Phillippines - 1940
Günther Stein or Gunther Stein was a German print journalist.

Stein was a foreign correspondent in China for the Manchester Guardian, the Christian Science Monitor, and the Associated Press.

Erwin D. Canham, editor of The Monitor during this period wrote later in his 1958 history of the newspaper, "Commitment to Freedom," of Stein's brief contribution to the paper from Japan and China which ended in 1945. He refers to reports of Stein as working for the Soviet Union while in Japan and the connection with the Sorge spy ring. He refers to Stein as "enigmatic" and says that "too little was known."

Senator Joseph McCarthy accused Stein of spying for China during the Red Scare, as part of the Sorge spy ring.

Edgar Snow was connected with James Munro Bertram:

James Munro Bertram (11 August 1910 – 24 August 1993) was a Rhodes scholar, a journalist, writer, relief worker, prisoner of war and a university professor.
In 1932 Bertram received his Diploma in Journalism and was awarded a Rhodes Scholarship.

Studying at New College, Oxford, he came first in English and second in Modern Languages. He was active in left-wing clubs and rugby.

Following Oxford he became an international correspondent with The Times. In 1935 he received a travelling fellowship from the Rhodes Trust to visit China, where he learnt Mandarin in Beijing for a year. The fellowship was renewed for 1937 and he travelled to Xi'an where General Chiang Kai-shek had been captured by communist sympathisers.

He was the first British journalist to interview Mao Zedong and travelled for five months with the Eighth Route Army in northern China. He wrote two books on these experiences: Crisis in China (1937) and North China Front (1939).

Bertram began to more actively support China, and performed aid work with the China Defence League, for whom he gave fund-raising lectures in a tour of the US, and led a convoy of supply trucks from Haiphong in Indochina to Yan'an. Part-way through this journey England declared war on Germany, and he returned to New Zealand. Shortly later he returned to Hong Kong to continue work for the China Defence League.
For some years he remained active in communist groups such as the Society for Closer Relations with Russia and the New Zealand China Society, and tried unsuccessfully to persuade Victoria University to develop an Eastern Studies department.

James Bertram died in Lower Hutt on 24 August 1993,

[Notice the they all got together in the Philippines in 1940 - Edgar Snow seems to be the Coordinator ....]

James Bertram during visit with the. Snows in the Philippines, 1940. figure.
Edgar Snow and Soong Qingling (Madame Sun Yat-sen), in later 1930s

Soong Ching Ling founded the China Defence League in Hong Kong in June, 1938. The picture shows Soong Ching Ling with members of the Central Committee of the China Defense League in Hong Kong. From right to left: Liao Cheng Zhi, Norman France, Hilda Selwyn-Clarke, Soong Ching Ling, Liao Meng Xing, Deng Wen Zhao, Israel Epstein.

Season of High Adventure - Edgar Snow in China

Gung Ho for a Wartime China

From the Philippines in 1940 they also drew up and orchestrated a petition to Roosevelt for a $50 million American loan for CIC. Sponsored by Indusco committees in the Philippines and the United States, the document was signed by an illustrious list of Americans. Snow pushed the idea in his first meeting with the apparently sympathetic president early in 1942. Roosevelt sidestepped these efforts on grounds of nonin-terference in Chinese domestic affairs.
But in truth, Snow was a leader at every stage of the CIC saga through 1941. Rewi Alley's later apt description of Ed as "standard bearer of Gung Ho" was closer to the reality than Snow's own disclaimers.

Reagan - Lilley - HWBush  -  Cord Meyer

Interesting:CIA agent Cord Meyer was a member of  the Yale Club of Washington
So was James R. Lilley Amb. to China 1989 - both a CIA asset and an Amb. hmmm...
George J. Tenet, the C.I.A. director, released a statement calling Mr. Meyer "a passionate defender of freedom around the world."

Born here in 1920, the son of a diplomat and grandson of a New York State Democratic chairman, Mr. Meyer attended elite schools and entered Yale University in 1939. In 1942, he enlisted in the Marine Corps Reserve. He was sent to the South Pacific, where, as a machine-gun platoon leader, he took part in the assault on Guam. He was wounded in a grenade attack and lost his left eye. He was later awarded the Purple Heart and Bronze Star.

Mr. Meyer's twin brother, Quentin, was killed at Okinawa.

Mr. Meyer was a founding member of the United World Federalists, where he fought for controls on the use of atomic weapons. He also helped establish the American Veterans Committee, a liberal group that sought to deny preferential treatment for veterans. While in that organization, he came in direct contact with Communist infiltration techniques, said his son, Mark Meyer. Mr. Meyer's moves to thwart Soviet agents helped exonerate him from accusations that he would soon face, his son said.  

With the explosion of an atomic bomb by the Soviet Union in 1949, Mr. Meyer saw his hopes for arms control dissipate and was troubled by the Berlin blockade and the invasion of South Korea. He left his postgraduate work at Harvard and signed up with the C.I.A.  

Two years after joining the spy agency, Mr. Meyer was accused by the F.B.I. of Communist sympathies. A C.I.A. hearing board eventually acquitted him of all charges.

A fluent writer whose dispatches from the war were published in The Atlantic Monthly, Mr. Meyer at age 26 completed a short story, "Waves of Darkness," that won the O. Henry Prize in 1946 for best first-published story.

See: "Bion - his “beams of darkness"

| - -- - -

Now read the following  and tell me that Lilley did not know Downey  in 1952:
Welcome to the Yale Club of Washington!
Ambassador James R. Lilley '51

Ambassador Lilley will discuss his newly published book, China Hands, a memoir of his career as a CIA Officer in Asia during the Cold War and, subsquently, as a diplomat serving as the de facto US Ambassador to Taiwan in the early 1980s and as Ambassador first to South Korea and then to China during the Tiananmen Massacre in 1989.

This book, which has been favorably reviewd by critics, begins with his childhood growing up in China. After graduation from Yale in 1951, he joined the CIA and served in Japan, Taiwan and Hong Kong with the mission to learn as much as possible about mainland China, including training guerrillas and dropping agents into the mainland.

His insider accounts of US-China relations during the Nixon years through Tiananmen Square are fascinating, particularly his letter to President George H. W. Bush warning about imminent violence that was intercepted and went unheeded by the Washington diplomats.

Date: Wednesday, October 13

James Roderick Lilley (simplified Chinese: 李洁明; traditional Chinese: 李潔明; pinyin: Lǐ​ Jié​míng​); born January 15, 1928 in Qingdao, China; died November 12, 2009 in Washington, DC; was an American diplomat who served as United States Ambassador to China at the time of the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989.

Born to American parents in China, he learned Mandarin at a young age before his family moved back to the United States at the outbreak of World War II. Lilley served in the United States Army before earning an undergraduate degree from Yale University and a masters in international relations from George Washington University. He then joined the Central Intelligence Agency,
[ A Rockefeller boy: ]
His father, an oil executive who had moved to China to work for Standard Oil in 1916, and his mother, a teacher, hired a Chinese nanny to help raise him, and he spoke Mandarin fluently from a young age in addition to French and English...
 In the United States, he attended Phillips Exeter Academy and served in the United States Army at Fort Dix, New Jersey from 1945-1946. During his army service, Lilley's elder brother, whom he revered and who was an American soldier stationed in Hiroshima, Japan, committed suicide
As a CIA operative, Lilley worked in countries across Asia, including Laos, Japan, Hong Kong, Taiwan, and China.[3] In Laos, he worked to undermine the Communist insurgency, and he helped to insert a number of CIA agents into China.[1] By 1975, Lilley was appointed to the position of national intelligence officer for China, which made him the highest-ranked expert on China in the American intelligence community
Lilley was appointed by President George H.W. Bush to be Ambassador to China in 1989, becoming the only American diplomat to head diplomatic missions in both mainland China and Taiwan

| - - - - - CIA/Yale in China 1951:
Two CIA Prisoners in China, 1952–73

Beijing’s capture, imprisonment, and eventual release of CIA officers John T. Downey and Richard G. Fecteau is an amazing story that too few know about today. Shot down over Communist China on their first operational mission in 1952, these young men spent the next two decades imprisoned, often in solitary confinement, while their government officially denied they were CIA officers.

Fecteau was released in 1971, Downey in 1973. They came home to an America vastly different from the place they had left, but both adjusted surprisingly well and continue to live full lives
John Downey and Richard Fecteau were youthful CIA paramilitary officers: Downey, born in Connecticut, had entered CIA in June 1951, after graduating from Yale; Fecteau, from Massachusetts, entered on duty a few months later, having graduated from Boston University. Both men had been varsity football players, and both were outgoing and engaging with noted senses of humor. They were on their first overseas assignment when the shootdown occurred.

By late 1952, the Korean War had been going on for more than two years. Accounts often identify that war as the reason for the operation Downey and Fecteau were participating in. While largely true, the flight the men were on was part of operations that had antecedents in the US response to the communist takeover of China in 1949. In accordance with US policies, CIA took steps to exploit the potential for a Chinese “Third Force” by trying to link Chinese agents, trained by CIA, with alleged dissident generals on the mainland. This Third Force, while anticommunist, would be separate from the Nationalists, who were assessed to be largely discredited on the mainland

This Third Force project received new emphasis after the Communist Chinese intervened in the Korean War. At that point, the project aimed to divert Chinese resources from the war in Korea by promoting domestic antigovernment guerrilla operations. This was to be accomplished by small teams of Chinese agents, generally inserted through airdrops, who were to link up with local guerrilla forces, collect intelligence and possibly engage in sabotage and psychological warfare, and report back by radio.[3] The operational model was the OSS experience in Europe during World War II, which assumed a cooperative captive population—a situation, as it turned out, that did not prevail in China.

By the time of Downey and Fecteau’s involvement in the Third Force program, its record was short and inauspicious. Because of resource constraints, the training of Chinese agents at CIA facilities in Asia was delayed, and the first Third Force team to be airdropped did not deploy until April 1952. This fourman team parachuted into southern China and was never heard from again.

The second Third Force team comprised five ethnic Chinese dropped into the Jilin region of Manchuria in midJuly 1952. Downey was well known to the Chinese operatives on this team because he had trained them. The team quickly established radio contact with Downey’s CIA unit outside of China and was resupplied by air in August and October. A sixth team member, intended as a courier between the team and the controlling CIA unit, was dropped in September. In early November, the team reported contact with a local dissident leader and said it had obtained needed operational documents such as official credentials. They requested airexfiltration of the courier, a method he had trained for but that the CIA had never attempted operationally.

Mission Gone Awry

The C47, with its CAT pilots and CIA crew, was heading for a trap. The agent team, unbeknownst to the men on the flight, had been captured by Communist Chinese security forces and had been turned.[5] The request for exfiltration was a ruse, and the promised documentation and purported contact with a local dissident leader were merely bait. The team members almost certainly had told Chinese authorities everything they knew about the operation and about the CIA men and facilities associated with it. From the way the ambush was conducted, it was clear that the Chinese Communists knew exactly what to expect when the C47 arrived at the pickup point
Whether due to gunfire, the impact, or the fire, the pilots died at the scene.[9] Fecteau later remembered standing outside the aircraft with Downey, both stunned but conscious, telling each other that they were “in a hell of a mess.” The Chinese security forces descended on them, “whooping and hollering,” and they gave themselves up to the inevitable.
Over the years, various explanations arose within CIA to explain Downey and Fecteau’s participation in the illfated mission. It seemed incredible to operations officers that two CIA employees, familiar with operations, locations, and personnel, would be sent on a mission that exposed them to possible capture by the Chinese Communists

"It may have been poor judgment on the part of Downey and Fecteau’s boss, the CIA unit chief"
The men were never tortured physically or, after their initial capture, beaten.[12] Fecteau reported that he wore leg irons constantly for the first 10 months and that he was made to stand during interrogations to the point of falling down from exhaustion, especially after being caught lying or bluffing. Downey remembered the leg irons and the intense psychological pressure of interrogations, plus the added mental stress from concocting new stories after the cover story evaporated—as he later acknowledged, telling lies requires an extraordinarily good memory.

Eventually both men—isolated from each other, battered psychologically, threatened with torture and execution—talked, albeit divulging varying degrees of truth. Downey, hemmed in by the disclosures of the team he had trained, confessed his CIA affiliation on the 16th day. He later recalled that telling what he knew was liberating: “I’m free and they have got to leave me in peace, and thus relieve the psychological strain of resisting…. [They] can’t come at me anymore mentally because it is all out there.”
That day, 23 November 1954, almost a year after the CIA had pronounced Downey and Fecteau “presumed dead,” Beijing declared them alive, in custody, and serving their sentences as convicted CIA spies. The first that the Agency learned of it was through a New China News Agency broadcast. At the same time, the Chinese announced the sentencing, also for espionage, of the officers and crew of a US Air Force B29 aircraft, shot down over China some weeks after Downey and Fecteau’s C47 flight.
CIA comes clean about failed Cold War spy mission
By ROBERT BURNS, AP National Security Writer Published: Jun 19, 2010

WASHINGTON (AP) - Detail by painful detail, the CIA is coming to grips with one of the most devastating episodes in its history, a botched cloak-and-dagger flight into China that stole two decades of freedom from a pair of fresh-faced American operatives and cost the lives of their two pilots.

In opening up about the 1952 debacle, the CIA is finding ways to use it as a teaching tool. Mistakes of the past can serve as cautionary tales for today's spies and paramilitary officers taking on al-Qaida and other terrorist targets
Three years ago, the CIA declassified an internal history of the affair. Now it's hired a filmmaker to produce an hourlong documentary. The CIA does not plan to release the film publicly. But the agency premiered it for employees on Tuesday at its Langley, Va., headquarters, and an AP reporter attended.

Downey and Fecteau declined through CIA officials to be interviewed for this story. They attended the film screening and were flooded with applause and agency autograph seekers.

He joined the Central Intelligence Agency soon after Yale and became one of two CIA officers (the other was Richard G. Fecteau, a Boston University graduate) who survived the shoot-down of their mission over the People's Republic of China in November 1952, were captured, and spent approximately the next two decades in Chinese prisons before release. Today, the episode is less well known than that of Gary Powers, the United States Air Force spy plane pilot who was shot down over the Soviet Union in 1960.
In late June 1998, CIA Director George Tenet awarded Downey and Fecteau the CIA Director's Medal for their service to their country, in a private ceremony described in an Associated Press article on July 3, 1998.

The AP account quoted Ambassador James R. Lilley, a retired CIA officer and Yale classmate of Downey's who served as U.S. envoy in both Seoul and Beijing a speaker at the event, saying that Downey was released after Nixon publicly admitted he had been on a CIA operation.


Harrow School
Elite schools lead education boom in Asia
By Adrian Addison (AFP) – Jun 1, 2011

HONG KONG — A strong brand name can go a long way in Asia. From watches to cars, clothes to fine artwork, food to handbags -- even education.

The offspring of the booming region's wealthy elite are enrolling in some of the world's most famous schools and universities. But they don't have to get on a long-haul flight to do so.

Many of the world's most prestigious institutions have built, or are building, new campuses in some of Asia's thriving cities.

Harrow School is one of England's most famous fee-paying schools with a long and impressive list of "old boys".

British wartime leader Sir Winston Churchill, the poet Lord Byron, India's first prime minister Jawaharlal Nehru, King Hussein of Jordan and even the pop singer James Blunt once wore the school's famous straw boater hat.

Next year Harrow will open a new campus for 1,200 students in Hong Kong, which follows Harrow schools already opened in Bangkok and Beijing, to help satisfy a growing demand for ultra high-end schooling in Asia.

It won't be cheap.

Parents will have to pay a debenture -- basically a deposit -- of HK$600,000 ($77,000) to secure a place plus annual fees of up to HK$145,000.

Mark Hensman, the executive headmaster of Harrow International Schools, says the demand for expensive schooling is being driven by parents whose ambitions for their children have risen in line with their incomes.

"These aspirations result specifically in the need to learn English and gaining qualifications that will facilitate access to western universities," he told AFP.

"The trend in recent years has been for the growth of international schools to be sustained by a rapidly increasing demand from local parents rather than from expatriate parents.

"Governments in these countries are struggling to meet these expectations in their local education system and so international schools are increasingly filling the vacuum."
It was Harrow's links to the Thai royal family that originally brought the school to Asia -- 23 princes were educated at the original Harrow school over a 100 year period including the present king's father.

A visit to Thailand by the teachers of the crown prince's sons in the mid-1990s led to a proposal the school open a branch in Bangkok in 1998, as many Thai parents were already sending their children to the UK and the US.

"Significantly, more and more British public schools are opening schools abroad and some of the British public schools which have previously opened international schools are looking to open more," Harrow's Hensman said.

"We are looking to open up to another two schools in the region."

Quote from: TahoeBlue on Today at 10:51:46 AM
So the Milner-Rhodes-Rothschild  RAII / Chatham House Group owns the Hotel....

GRANDSON Rory Monck:
Rory Penryn Monck was educated at Harrow School
In this picture is the Grandson of Charles Sydney Goldman who put up the finance for the building of Suvretta House in the early 20th c, a letter was found recently in one of the towers during restorations requesting that the Hotel stays unchanged forever and I think that they have achieved that beautifully, it is a magical place
Harrow School, known simply as "Harrow", is an English independent school for boys situated in the town of Harrow, in north-west London.[1]
Harrow has many notable alumni, who are known as Old Harrovians, including seven former British Prime Ministers including Winston Churchill and Robert Peel (the creator of the modern Police Force and founder of the Conservative Party), and the first Prime Minister of India, Jawaharlal Nehru. In addition, nineteen Old Harrovians have been awarded the Victoria Cross.[8]

The school has educated three monarchs: Mukarram Jah the last Nizam of Hyderabad, King Hussein of Jordan and his cousin, Faisal II, the last King of Iraq, and had among its pupils a large number from the Thai, Indian, Malaysian and Middle Eastern royal families. A number of members of the British Royal Family have also attended the school.

Other notable alumni include writers (including Lord Byron, Sir Terence Rattigan and Richard Curtis), numerous aristocrats (including the current richest British subject, the Duke of Westminster and the prominent reformist Lord Shaftesbury) and business people (including DeBeers chairman Nicky Oppenheimer, ...

The actual name change: Goldman to Monck :
WE, Withers & Co. of 4 Arundel Street, Strand, London, W.C.2, Solicitors for VICTOR ROBERT PENRYN MONK MONCK of The Albany, Piccadilly, London, W.i, heretofore called Victor Robert Penryn Monk Goldman, hereby give notice that on the 22nd day of February 1939 the said Victor Robert Penryn Monk Monck renounced and abandoned the use of his said surname of Goldman and
in lieu thereof assumed and reverted to the surname of Monck which is the original surname of his family and further that such change of name is evidenced by a deed dated the 22nd day of February 1939 duly executed by the said Victor Robert Penryn Monk Monck and attested and enrolled in the Enrolment Department of the Central Office of the Royal Courts of Justice on the 23rd day of February 1939.—Dated the twenty-third day of February 1939.

WITHERS and CO., Solicitors for Victor Robert Penryn Monk Monck, formerly Victor (158) Robert Penryn Monk Goldman.

NOTICE is hereby given that PETER February 1939 duly executed by the said John Monk Monck and attested and enrolled in the
Enrolment Department of the Central Office of the Royal Courts of Justice on the 23rd day of February 1939.—Dated the twenty-third day of February 1939-  WITHERS and CO., Solicitors for John Monk Monck, formerly John Goldman Monk (159) Goldman.

Quote from: TahoeBlue on June 08, 2011, 01:31:07 PM

King Bhumibol Adulyadej (Rama IX) was born in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America, on 5 December 1927, younger son of Their Royal Highnesses Prince Mahidol of Songkla and the Princess Mother (formerly Miss Sangwal Talapat), and is the direct grandson of His Majesty King Chulalongkorn (Rama V) and Queen Savang. His Majesty the King has one older sister, Her Royal Highness Princess Galayani Vadhana of Naradhivas, and one older brother, His Majesty the late King Ananda Mahidol (Rama VIII).

His Majesty became King of the Kingdom on Thailand on 9 June 1946. The Coronation Ceremony came later in 1950, after His Majesty has finalized his education in Switzerland, where he met the aristocratic Mom Rajawongse Sirikit Kitiyakara, who has since become HM Queen Sirikit. During that time, Siam has become Thailand, and was still unstable since the change from Absolute Monarchy to Constitutional Monarchy in 1932. The King came to the Throne after his brother's death, and was careful not to offend the military government. Since the change to Constitutional Monarchy, the people of Thailand was still in need of a King who can guide the country into prosperity.

Thailand has a very much loved Monarch in King Bhumibol Adulyadej (affectionately call as "Nai Luang" or "Chao Yu Hua" by Thai folks or referred as RAMA IX by foreigners as the Ninth Reign successor of the Chakri dynasty which began ruling of Thailand back in 1782 during the Ratthanakosin era.

Born in 5th December, 1927 and at current age approx. 80 years old, His Majesty King of Thailand had his Coronation held back in 6th May, 1950 and is the current world's longest-serving monarch in the world. However, not many people would know the King was actually born in Massachusetts, US and educated primarily in Switzerland. The King has implemented many Royally-initiated projects to look after the poor and underdeveloped remote regions in Thailand over the last few decades. He even had gave up living in luxuriously decorated Royal Palace and converted converted royal garden in the premises as a agricultural research centre. One known favorite residence of His Majesty was a simple 2 storeyed beach front wooden pavilion, Maruekatayawan Palace which is located in a small seaside town of Hua Hin. During recent years, due to old age related issues, the King is spending most of this time there
Biography of His Royal Highness Prince Mahidol Adulyadej

The university’s namesake, His Royal Highness Somdej Chao Fa Mahidol Adulyadej Kromma Luang Songkla Nakarin, formerly Prince Mahidol Adulyadej, was the father of King Ananda Mahidol and King Bhumibol Adulyadej. HRH Prince Mahidol was born on 1st January 1892, the 69th child of His Majesty King Rama V and the 7th of Queen Savang Vadhana.

Prince Mahidol was brought up according to the Royal Thai tradition, started his education at the Royal School within the Grand Palace and ordained at the age of 13 as a Buddhist novice. Before his ordination, the title of Somdej Chao Fa Mahidol Adulyadej Kromma Khun Songkla Nakarin was bestowed upon him.

He was later sent to study at Harrow, a renowned public boarding school in England, for about one year and a half.
Harrow to export tradition by opening Beijing branch -  Aug 2004

Harrow School, the alma mater of old boys from Sir Winston Churchill to Sir Mark Thatcher, is to take advantage of China's communist reforms by opening a branch in Beijing.

The school, to be operated under franchise by a Hong Kong businessman, will teach A-levels and English language from next year.

It is not the first public school to have begun operating in China - Dulwich College opened a branch in Shanghai last year and has plans for others in Beijing and Suzhou. But Harrow is the first to target local Chinese, rather than the expatriate community.

Bo Guagua - Oxford
Bo Xilai (simplified Chinese: 薄熙来; traditional Chinese: 薄熙來; pinyin: Bó Xīlái; born July 1949) is the current CPC Chongqing Committee Secretary, first-in-charge of the Western interior municipality and a member of the Politburo of the Communist Party of China. Between 2004 and November 2007 he was Minister of Commerce of the People's Republic of China.
In 1966, shortly after the Cultural Revolution was called, Bo and his family were imprisoned for five years, after which they were placed in a labour camp for another five years. After the death of Mao Zedong, in 1976, the members of the Gang of Four were officially blamed for the chaos of the Cultural Revolution, and Bo's family was released. During the ten years of their detainment Bo's father was tortured and his mother was beaten to death. According to Hong Kong based media星岛环球网),
Bo was one of the Red Guards during the Cultural Revolution
They have one son, Bo Guagua. He was the first student from mainland China to attend Harrow School for boys in the UK
[citation needed]. . Guagua was later accepted to Balliol College, Oxford, where he started studying for a PPE degree in 2006.

Yale's special "relationship" with China is long term and well documented.  

I never state China was "funded" by the U.S. - However in 1972 Mao was visited by Rockefeller setting up a line of credit for China, this preceded Nixon's trip to China which finalized the relationship...
see: In 1969, Rockefeller Official Said US Would Be De-industrialized

Document 10: Kissinger and Chase Manhattan Bank chairman David Rockefeller, 13 March 1972, 11:12 a.m.

Source: Nixon Presidential Materials Project. National Security Council Files. HAK Office Files. Box 87. PRC Personal Requests 1971-73 Kissinger telephone recording transcript

Rockefeller traveled to China, in 1973 resulting in his bank becoming the National Bank of China's first correspondent bank in the United States.
Document 10: Kissinger and Chase Manhattan Bank chairman David Rockefeller, 13 March 1972, 11:12 a.m.
Source: Nixon Presidential Materials Project. National Security Council Files. HAK Office Files. Box 87. PRC Personal Requests 1971-73

After congratulating Kissinger on some undisclosed triumph and offering him a plane ride to the next Bilderberg meeting, Rockefeller asked how he could get a visa to visit China. Kissinger was not too surprised (the president of American Express was also trying to get one) and said he would try to find out through "various channels." He assured Rockefeller that the Chinese were "less hung up on the name Rockefeller than the Russians. They don't think they're running the country."

1949:  On October 1, Mao Tse Tsung declares the founding of the People's Republic Of China in Tiananmen Square, Beijing.  He is funded by Rothschild created Communism in Russia and also the following Rothschild agents:  Solomon Adler, a former United States Treasury official who was a Soviet Spy; Israel Epstein, the son of a Jewish Bolshevik imprisoned by the Tsar in Russia for trying to forment a revolution there; and Frank Coe, a leading official of the Rothschild owned IMF

Cloak & gown: scholars in the secret war, 1939-1961 By Robin W. Winks

Yuelu Academy was founded in 976 AD (Song Dynasty), destroyed by war in 1127, and rebuilt in 1165 (Southern Song Dynasty). The celebrated philosopher Zhu Xi taught in at the Academy in 1165. It was destroyed by the Mongols but was restored in the late-fifteenth century (Ming Dynasty).

In 1903, it became Hunan High School. The modern day Hunan University is a descendant of the academy. The architecture of some of the buildings was restored from 1981–1986, presumably according to the Song design.

The 1903 Treaty of Shanghai between China and Japan opened the city to foreign trade. Consequently, factories, churches, and schools were built. A college was started by Yale University bachelors and later became a medical center named Xiangya and a secondary school named the Yali School.

Mao Zedong, founder of the People's Republic of China began his political career in Changsha. He was a student at the Hunan Number One Teachers' Training School from 1913 to 1918. He later returned as a teacher and principal from 1920 to 1922.

The school was destroyed during the civil war but has since been restored. The Former Office of the Hunan Communist Party Central Committee where Mao Zedong once lived is now a museum that includes Mao's living quarters, photographs, and other historical items from the 1920s


More about the Peking China Medical College:
Frederick Taylor Gates (1853–1929) was an American Baptist clergyman, educator, and the principal business and philanthropic advisor to the major oil industrialist and philanthropist John D. Rockefeller (Senior), from 1891 to 1923

Gates designed the China Medical Board (CMB) in 1914. Rather than viewing China through the traditional missionary lens of millions of heathens to be converted, Gates placed his faith in science. He complained the missionaries in China were trapped in the "bondage of tradition and an ignorance and misguided sentiment in the supporting churches."[4] They had made few converts and fumbled the opportunity to spread Western science
Gates planned to take over the Peking Union Medical College and retrain missionaries there. Working at the intersection of philanthropy, imperialism, big business, religion, and science, the China Medical Board was his last major project.
In 1924 Gates overreached, asking the Rockefeller Foundation Board to invest $265 million in the China Medical Board. The fantastic sum would make Chinese medical care the finest in the world, and would eliminate denominationalism influence from the practice of medicine and charity work in China. The Board refused and Gates became a victim of his own progressive emphasis on the "rule of experts;" the experts on China and medicine disagreed with him, he was marginalized and resignation from the CMB

1921 - Trustees of Peking Union Medical College. John D. Rockefeller, Jr., PUMC’s largest donor, is center (holding hat). (Source: Paul Monroe Papers, Special Collections, Columbia University, Teachers College Library)

1921 - Peking Union Medical College dedication ceremony. (Source: Paul Monroe Papers, Special Collections, Columbia University,
Teachers College Library)

"PUMC" is the acronym for "Peking Union Medical College" – founded in 1906 by the nationalist Chinese government and American and British Christian organizations. PUMC was then reorganized in 1917 by the Rockefeller Foundation to be, according to Dr. Simon Flexner, “the Johns Hopkins of China.”  

Today, Peking Union Medical College is one of China’s most selective medical colleges and technically advanced hospital systems, providing medical services to prominent political and social leaders.

Partnership to Meet the Unmet Medical Needs of Patients in China
In 1995, PUMC Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. was established as a joint venture between our parent, NHC, and the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences (CAMS), under the auspices of the Chinese Ministry of Health. Our mandate was to pioneer the development and provision of new medicines to meet the unmet medical needs of patients in China. In early 2008, we consolidated our ownership of the company, but retain our long-standing ties with China's leading regulatory and medical authorities.

When the China Medical Board of the Rockefeller Foundation began recruiting faculty members to teach at the Peking Union Medical College – an almost quixotic initiative to bring Western medical science to the Orient – standard policy was to contact American universities which were beneficiaries of Rockefeller support. Among the personal contacts was Robert J. Terry, head of the anatomy department at Washington University, whose full-time teaching position had been endowed by the petroleum dynasty’s philanthropic arm. Terry recommended Stevenson. The younger man must have seemed an ideal choice, given a Rockefeller commitment “to maintain the religious tone and work in the [Chinese] college and hospitals” – part of an agreement with the London Missionary Society, which had sold its Union Medical College in Beijing [2] to the CMB. Not only was Stevenson a recent graduate of a newly reorganized and prestigious Washington University School of Medicine, he was also an ordained clergyman with the Disciples of Christ.

Paul and June Stevenson on the deck of the Siberia Maru, en route to China, 1917

There was one substantial obstacle to Stevenson’s recruitment by the China Medical Board, namely, PUMC was not ready for him in 1917. The anatomy building in Beijing was then only in the planning stage. This problem was overcome, thanks again to the Disciples of Christ. The denomination maintained medical missions in several Chinese cities, notably in the Yangtze River valley. Its foreign missions organization agreed to co-sponsor the Stevensons and to employ Paul in one of their hospitals until his PUMC position could function. Accordingly, in the summer of 1917, the Stevensons and their two infant children departed for Shanghai. Their first lengthy stay, lasting about a year’s time, was in Nanjing, at the oldest Disciples mission in China. Here the Stevensons began intensive study of the Chinese language.

Chinese political leader Sun Yat-sen and his wife Qingling Soong, 1925 [ research -> Soong = Sassoon = British Opium trade ]

After Britain’s First Opium War (1839-1842) against China, the real power behind the Chinese Emperor was the Soong family who were agents of the House of Sassoon, Jewish multi-national opium traders originally from Baghdad who were later forced to flee to Bombay, India. They obtained exclusive rights from Great Britain to market opium to Shanghai and Hong Kong from which the queen received a healthy share of the millions of dollars of profit.

By 1890, about 10 percent of China's total population were opium smokers.[10] In 1874, attention was drawn to China’s alleged pervasive decadence by members of the Yale School of Divinity – no doubt because of all that opium.[11]

So, in 1903, a year after the Japan/Great Britain alliance, Yale Divinity School established schools and hospitals throughout China – known as Yale in China.

Sir Ellice Victor Sassoon is rooted deep in the economic past. His ancestors grew to power in the opium trade in the nineteenth century, invading every nook and corner of the Far East and becoming much involved in the opium wars that Great Britain waged on China, and out of which grew those very treaties that have made Shanghai a  consecrated spot. In the nineteenth century Sir Victor's great-grandfather, David Sassoon, transferred his headquarters from Bagdad to Bombay, and his eldest son, Albert Abdallah, was honored by Queen Victoria with a baronetcy for his contributions to India's prosperity. David's descendants include Sir Victor, the hero of this piece; Sir Philip, England's Undersecretary of State for Air; Siegfried, the able poet; and the Marchioness of Cholmondeley, friend of the British royal family.


Early in 1925, Sun came to Beijing to confer with Duan and others about the future of the country. While he was in the capital he became seriously ill and was admitted as a patient to the most advanced treatment center in the city, PUMC Hospital. He was diagnosed as suffering from advanced abdominal carcinomatosis.

By March he was dead. The disposition of Sun’s body now posed a delicate political problem for the college. Nationalists of every faction revered the deceased as a hero and there were immediate plans by the party leadership for building a gigantic mausoleum in his honor, where the embalmed body could be seen by his people, more or less like the remains of Lenin, who had died the previous year in Moscow. The embalming was assigned to Stevenson. He was required to respect rigorously the traditional Chinese taboos against removing internal organs from the body. The work was performed in a temple located between Beijing and Zhoukoudian. Stevenson had custody of the body for two years – he kept it from visible decay by immersion in mineral oil, which he regularly changed (his own pun intended) – a period during which the political struggle determined where the final resting place would be. Ultimately, following a decree of the new supreme leader, Chiang Kai-shek, Sun’s tomb was constructed at Nanjing. All parties agreed Stevenson fulfilled his assignment flawlessly – although subsequent mishandling by others in Nanjing prevented placing the body on display – and he was later to be awarded the “Order of the Blue Jade” by the Nationalist government for his work.
William H. Welch  - Welch made two trips to Asia in 1915 and 1921 as a commissioner of the China Medical Board, a subsidiary group formed by the Rockefeller Foundation to promote modern Western medicine in China.

It was on his first trip to Asia that Welch began to keep diaries. Thereafter, when he was abroad, he always recorded his daily experiences in a journal. The entries became more lengthy as he grew older.

China Medical Commission of the Rockefeller Foundation. Visit to Tsing Hua College, Peking, China, Oct. 5, 1915
Note Welsh and Flexner are pals...

China used as a testing ground:

On July 1, 1915 the recently established China Medical Board assumed full support of the Union Medical College, having previously acquired the property. The Commission's members had included both William Welch, the first Dean of the Johns Hopkins Medical School and Simon Flexner and the China Medical Board modeled the school after Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine following the recommendations of the Flexner Report which set the foundation of modern Medical Education in the United States and Canada.

The PUMC was reorganized in 1917 and celebrated its 90th anniversary with a ceremony attended by the President of Johns Hopkins University, the Chair of the China Medical Board and representatives of the Rockefeller family and Rockefeller Brothers Fund. During the "Cultural Revolution" Peking Union Medical College was re-named "Capital University of Medical Sciences".
Simon Flexner was the first director of Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research,
serving from 1902 to 1934

In 1914 he was appointed a trustee of the newest philanthropy created by John D. Rockefeller, the China Medical Board, an institution created to support the development of Western medicine in China. As the leading medical research
figure on the board, Flexner was a crucial figure in the CMB's actions for the next two decades.

Flexner traveled to China in 1915 with other CMB officials to survey Chinese medical schools. They visited Mukden, Beijing, Tientsin, Tsinanfu, Hankow, Wuchang, Changsha, Nanking, Shanghai, and Hangchow. Flexner personally made friendships during this visit that he drew on for many years thereafter, receiving his friends in New
York, referring Americans visiting China to his acquaintances, and reconnecting with them on a return visit to China in 1921.

However, the 1915 visit was momentous primarily because the CMB decided to found a new, state-of-the-art Western-style medical school in China, the Peking Union Medical College. Fully in operation by 1921, when Flexner attended its dedication, the PUMC trained two generations of Chinese students in scientific research and medicine, many of
whom were leaders in those fields in China well into the second half of the 20th century.

The interchange of staff between The Rockefeller and PUMC was substantial.

Many Rockefeller staff went to the PUMC to instruct the staff and students in the advanced techniques of modern medicine and scientific research. Van Slyke in 1922 and 1940, Cohn in 1924-25, Ten Broeck in 1926, Pearce in 1932, and Kuttnor in 1936 are important examples. Other Americans, such as Bauer and Cowdry, had their first professional appointments at PUMC and later became important figures at The Rockefeller.

Many Chinese graduate students and young physicians came to The Rockefeller to study in its laboratories. As early as 1918, before PUMC was fully in operation, Dr. Edgar Chen was conducting research at The Rockefeller in preparation for being appointed an assistant in bacteriology at PUMC. Flexner stated at this time that he would "give careful
consideration" to any Chinese student who wished to study at the Rockefeller, and indeed the archives of the university for the 1920s, 1930s, and 1940s record a number of Chinese scholars arriving to work in the laboratories for six months to a year.

Those who moved between New York and Beijing campuses probably felt at home, because the architect for the buildings and landscaping of both institutions was Charles A. Coolidge of Boston, who designed many university and hospital complexes.

regarding Jay Hopper

Actor Director Dennis Hopper (Easy Rider, Apocalypse Now, Blue Velvet) died today at age 74. He was also, as some of you may know, an OSS lineal descendant.

His father Technical Sergeant Jay M. Hopper was an OSS medic who served in Kai Yuan, China with OSS Detachment 204.

OSS Schools and Training Branch set up a small training base there for newly arrived SO personnel in the Theater. Jay Hopper ran the camp dispensary with a contract physician named Viktor Gorchenko.

Armed with Cameras: The American Military Photographers of World War II By Peter Maslowski

Doctor Goo - Victor Goorchenko
OSS Detachments in the Far East: --
204    China, S&T Detachment base at Kai Yuan, near Kunming

It was important during World War II as a Chinese military center, American air base, and transport terminus for the Burma Road. ...
After 1949 Kunming developed rapidly into an industrial metropolis with the construction of large iron and steel and chemical complexes, along with Chongqing, Chengdu and Guiyang in the southwest...
Until Mao Zedong's death, Kunming was still generally thought in much of the rest of the country as a remote frontier settlement and so it acted as a place up to then for the government to exile people who had fallen politically out of favor, especially during the Cultural Revolution.

SACO (pronounced SOCKO), Sino-American Cooperative Organization, was a U.S. Naval Group which operated during World War II  behind Japanese lines in China.  

Some of the men who walked the seemingly endless berms around the flooded rice fields declared that they had joined a Rice Paddy Navy.  

SACO consisted of 2,964 American (Navy, Army, and Marine) servicemen, 97,000 organized Chinese guerrillas, and 20,000 “individualists” who included rival pirate groups as well as lone-wolf saboteurs.

Aided by the Chinese Government, SACO supplied the Fleet with regular weather reports from many occupied areas in the Far East by the end of 1942.  The group successfully rescued 76 downed aviators.  71,000 Japanese were killed as the result of actions by and information from SACO.

The American casualty rate was noteworthy, three were captured and only five were killed.  Unknown to most of the Americans was that each was “protected” by a Chinese, usually unseen, who considered the loss of his charge a great dishonor to his own family and ancestors.

The Rice Paddy NAVY

Half a century has passed and finally the U.S. Navy and the Chinese government feels safe in lifting the curtain from another on the “best kept” secrets of the war – a U.S. Navel Group with members serving in scores of Chinese units all over China – a united effort that produced smashing blows of the Pacific Fleet against Japanese held islands, the Japanese navy and finally, the whole of Japan.

Victor Goorchenko Russian Doctor 1990

The OSS in China

The OSS saw China both as a base of operations into Japan and as battlefield for guerilla warfare that could tie down Japanese troops from fighting elsewhere in the Pacific theater. Since the Japanese controlled Manchuria and Korea, the only regions close enough to reach Japan, the OSS concentrated on developing guerilla warfare units within the Chinese Nationalist Army of Chiang Kai-shek. This effort was hindered both by bureaucratic battles, corruption within the Nationalists, and their tendency to use their best units (and Allied supplies) to fight the Chinese Communists rather than against the Japanese.

The COI had sent representatives to China between January and May 1942, but the OSS was constantly rebuffed by the Nationalist government in Chungking. The head of the Bureau of Investigation and Statistics, the Nationalist Chinese intelligence service, was General Tai Li, who wished to maintain complete control over all clandestine activity in China. Tai Li was assisted in this endeavor by Captain M. E. Miles, the commander of US Naval Group China. In January 1943, Donovan sought to get around this by making Miles the Chief of OSS Activities in the Asiatic Theater, a nominal title that meant little to the OSS in Southeast Asia but gave Miles control of all OSS activity in China. With his new power, Miles and Tai Li created the Sino-American Cooperative Organization (SACO) in April 1943, which officially ran all clandestine and guerilla warfare projects in China.

SACO was utterly corrupt, and it existed mainly to hinder any American intelligence activity independent of Tai Li. Tai Li’s vast spy network was geared more against the Nationalists’ domestic enemies than the Japanese; so, it fell to the OSS to focus the Nationalists on waging guerilla warfare against the foreign enemy. However, Miles had little interest in such operations, concentrating on meteorological and coastal shipping information. Whatever intelligence Miles and his Navy Group did receive was promptly cabled to the Navy Department in Washington before it was handed over to the OSS.

The OSS in SACO was left mostly at handing out hoards of supplies to Tai Li, though three camps were established after September 1943 to train the Chinese in sabotage, photography and intelligence techniques.

Finally, in December 1943, Donovan renegotiated to create Detachment 202 at Chungking, whose commander became the Strategic Services Officer, OSS/China-Burma-India, thus relieving Miles of his command over the OSS in the Far East. While Detachment 202 could operate free of Navy interference, it was still under the authority of the obstructive Tai Li.

Nevertheless, an espionage school was established in Happy Valley near Chungking in January 1944, and by April 1944, Detachment 202 had their first Chinese agents working in the field. Detachment 202 gradually developed guerilla warfare operations in China, though the impediments posed by Tai Li and the poor quality of those Chinese they were allowed to recruit kept the OSS from any effective intelligence work.

Besides SACO, the OSS also operated through the Air and Ground Forces Resources and Technical Staff (AGFRTS, or “Agfighters”) within the Fourteenth Air Force, the only American combat command operating throughout China.

Besides gathering tactical intelligence on aerial targets and rescuing downed fliers, the OSS used AGFRTS to run every kind of clandestine program in China without the interference of SACO. Through negotiations between Donovan and the commander of the Fourteenth Air Force, General Claire Chennault, R&A officers were assigned to Chennault’s staff in February 1944. AGFRTS was then activated as a unit in April 1944, headquartered in Kweilin. It continued to serve the Fourteenth Air Force until early 1945, when it was designated as a completely OSS unit and allowed to pursue intelligence beyond the air war in China.

In January 1945, the OSS in China was recognized as an agency independent of SACO and freed from the interference of Tai Li. While the Chungking base remained the seat of OSS liaison with SACO,
Detachment 202 moved their headquarters to Kunming.

Other units were created, including Detachment 203 at Chungking, to carry out R&A, SI and MO duties;
Detachment 204 at Kaiyuan to running training schools;
Detachment 205 at Dinjan, India, being the main supply base for OSS/China; and
Detachment 206 at Chengtu, focusing on X-2 operations and liaison with the 20th Bomber Command.

Field Commands were also established to send small OSS teams behind enemy lines, based at Hsian (for operations north of Yangzte River), Chihkiang (for operations south of the Yangzte River), and Szemao (for operations in Indochina). “Mercy Teams” were also created, six-man OSS units that parachuted behind enemy lines to liberate Allied POWs.

With its guerilla warfare campaign in full swing, the OSS returned to the original idea of sending agents into Japan from China. The Nationalists were not active in the north, where the Communists fought the Japanese. It was not until July 1944 that the Nationalists allowed the US to send representatives to the Communist capital in Yenan.

The DIXIE misson consisted of personnel from G-2, the State Department, Twentieth Bomber Command, the Fourteenth Air Force, the Office of War Information, and the OSS. A trade in intelligence was established and the Communists were amenable to a complete OSS training and operations program, but the Nationalists would not authorize such a measure. The DIXIE Mission was gradually withdrawn in June and July of 1945. No OSS personnel were ever sent into Japan during the war, not simply for lack of nearby airbases but also because the OSS recruited so few Asian-Americans.

China was also used as a based from which to sending agents into Siam and French Indochina. A group of Siamese students were recruited in America and trained at a base at Szemao in the southern Yunnan province of China in early 1944, though little was achieved. In the spring of 1943, Frenchmen were recruited and trained in North Africa, then sent to Chungking for infiltration into Indochina, which also produced few results. An spy network in Indochina was formed in 1942 by a cabal of American oilmen called the Gordon-Bernard-Tan Group, coming under the aegis of the OSS through AGFRTS in April 1944. Headquartered across the border in Lungchou, the GBT Group sent spies into Hanoi, Haiphong and Saigon until it was virtually eliminated during the complete Japanese takeover of Indochina in March 1945.

Near the end of the war, OSS/China consolidated its headquarters to a new base in Shanghai in September 1945. A liaison staff remained at Chungking while the rest of OSS in China returned to the United States through Kunming. Following Japan’s surrender, SO in China was dissolved, while X-2 and SI personnel were transferred to the new Strategic Services Unit (SSU) of the War Department. R&A personnel were also transferred to the SSU, although once they returned to the United States, these officers were sent to the State Department.

It was not until July 1944 that the Nationalists allowed the US to send representatives to the Communist capital in Yenan.

Yenan, Mao's remote headquarters in the 1940's

China vs. the US: the Turning Point (Part 2)
By Seymour Topping

In Yenan, Mao reached out to the United States for cooperation. In January 1945 Mao sent a secret message to Washington through the Dixie Mission proposing that he and Zhou Enlai, his foreign policy deputy, visit Washington for talks with President Roosevelt.'an
Yan'an (Yen-an), is a prefecture-level city in the Shanbei region of Shaanxi province in China, administering several counties, including Zhidan County (formerly Bao'an), which served as the Chinese communist capital before the city of Yan'an proper took that role.

Yan'an was near the endpoint of the Long March, and became the center of the Chinese communist revolution from 1936 to 1948. Chinese communists celebrate Yan'an as the birthplace of the revolution.
In December 1936, at the start of the Second United Front, Yan'an was taken over by the Chinese Communists.[1] They had arrived in the area in October 1935 after making the famous Long March from Jiangxi. When Edgar Snow went there in 1936, it was under Kuomintang control and a Red army siege had recently been lifted.[2] Unknown to him at the time, there had also been contacts there between the Communists and the generals who later staged the Xi'an Incident. Snow actually met Mao at Bao'an (Pao An).

Having rebelled against Chiang, the local warlords decided to hand over Yan'an to the Communists, who were now allies. They pulled out and the Red Army walked in without a fight. This is described by Agnes Smedley in her book Battle Hymn of China. She was in Xi'an at the time and got to Yan'an shortly after the take-over.
During the Second World War almost all buildings, except a pagoda, were destroyed by Japanese bombing, and most inhabitants took to living in yaodongs, artificial caves or dugouts carved into hillsides which were traditional dwellings in Shaanxi. While Yan'an was the center of Chinese communist life many prominent Western journalists including Edgar Snow and Anna Louise Strong met with Mao Zedong and other important leaders for interviews. Politically, Yan'an symbolizes for many a utopian period in modern China's history where Chinese communists sought to realize their idealized vision of life, culture, and social justice, and thus stands for a former "golden age" when communist principles and ideals were actively pursued by many sincere, youthful supporters.

During the Second World War, Yan'an played host to the United States Army Observation Group, also known as the Dixie Mission. A joint military and civilian mission, it was sent to establish official ties with the Communists and explore possible plans of cooperation against the Japanese. The Americans had a presence in Yan'an from 1944 to 1947.

Yenan Literary Opposition

In 1942 at the Yenan Red Army camp Mao Tse Tung used a tactic to deal with criticism that he would repeat in later years; firstly encouraging a free airing of opinion and criticism of the "cadres" and the bureaucratic regime they administered, then denouncing as reactionary those who responded with criticism. In practice this was a flushing out of dissidents so as to neutralise them. Daring to criticise the leadership led to decades of persecution for those who spoke out - and, for Wang Shi-wei, to his murder.

In 1942 in Yenan, China, where the Red Army had settled in cave dwellings at the end of their Long March retreat.

MaoTsetung fleeing Yenan'an_Rectification_Movement
The Yan'an Rectification Movement

Zhengfeng or Cheng Feng was the first ideological mass movement initiated by the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), going from 1942 to 1944. The movement took place at the communist base at Yan'an, a remote and isolated mountainous area in northern Shaanxi, after the communists' Long March.
More than 10,000 were killed in the "rectification" process, as the Party made efforts to attack intellectuals and replace the culture of the May Fourth Movement with that of Communist culture

Shaul Eisenbberg - China - Israel 
Israel has been a major, albeit covert, player in Southeast Asia since Israeli multi-billionaire tycoon Shaul Eisenberg began supplying weapons to Cambodia's genocidal Khmer Rouge regime in the 1970s. Eisenberg, a close business partner of China's military, was also an early arms supplier to Khmer Rouge leader Pol Pot
The Tape Worm Economy

Shaul Eisenberg, Merchant of Death

AIG's Greenberg was deeply involved in Chinese trade in the 80s with Kissinger. Greenberg was also very close to Shaul Eisenberg, the Merchant of Death who headed the Asian section of Israel’s Mossad, selling sophisticated military equipment to the Chinese Communist military. Greenberg appointed Kissinger as chairman of AIG’s International Advisory Board
China was the only country which didn’t require a visa at that time. Among the Jews who arrived were Michael Blumenthal who went on to become the US Secretary of Treasury in the Jimmy Carter administration, and businessman Shaul Eisenberg.
Shaul Eisenberg, Weapons Smuggler

Israel has been a major, albeit covert, player in Southeast Asia since Israeli multi-billionaire tycoon Shaul Eisenberg began supplying weapons to Cambodia's genocidal Khmer Rouge regime in the 1970s. Eisenberg, a close business partner of China's military, was also an early arms supplier to Khmer Rouge leader Pol Pot.

Eisenberg was active with Asia's Jewish community during World War II, not as an compatriot of the Allies but as a close intelligence and business partner of Japan's Imperial government, which was allied with Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy in the Axis Alliance.

Escaping Nazi-controlled Europe, Eisenberg settled in the Far East, making his primary bases of operation Japanese-occupied Shanghai and Japan itself.

In Shanghai, Eisenberg, along with Imperial Japanese military intelligence units, formed units of future Jewish terrorist groups -- the Irgun and the Shanghai Betar (Betar was founded in the 1930s by the Polish Zionist Yakob Jabotinsky, a supporter of Italian Fascist leader Benito Mussolini, to battle the British for control of Palestine and the ideological godfather of later neoconservative oracle Leo Strauss).

The Japanese taught the Jewish paramilitary forces in Shanghai, including some who escaped from Joseph Stalin's Jewish Autonomous Region creation in the Soviet Far East on the Chinese border, how to disrupt colonial occupiers' logistics and command and control elements, strategies that had been successful against the British, Dutch, French, and American colonial authorities in Asia.

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Shanghai Ghetto

The Shanghai ghetto, formally known as the Restricted Sector for Stateless Refugees was an area of approximately one square mile in the Hongkou District of Japanese-occupied Shanghai, where about 20,000 Jewish refugees[1] were relocated to by the Japanese-issued Proclamation Concerning Restriction of Residence and Business of Stateless Refugees after having fled from Nazi Germany, Austria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, Poland, and Lithuania before and during World War II.
The International Settlement of Shanghai was established by the Treaty of Nanking. Police, jurisdiction and passport control were implemented by the foreign autonomous board. Under the Unequal Treaties between China and European countries, visas were only required to book tickets departing from Europe.

Following the Battle of Shanghai in 1937, the city was occupied by the army of Imperial Japan, and the port began to allow entry without visa or passport.

By the time when most German Jews arrived, two other Jewish communities had already settled in the city: the wealthy Baghdadi Jews, including the Kadoorie and Sassoon families, and the Russian Jews.

The last ones fled the Russian Empire because of anti-Semitic pogroms pushed by the tsarist regime and contre-revolutionary armies as well as the class struggle manifested by the Bolsheviks. They had formed the Russian community in Harbin, then the Russian community in Shanghai.
The Japanese occupiers of Shanghai regarded German Jews as "stateless persons". [13]

In 1943, the occupying Japanese army required these 18,000 Jews to relocate to a 3/4 square mile area of Shanghai's Hongkew district where many lived in group homes called "Heime" or "Little Vienna"

The ghetto was officially liberated on September 3, 1945, after some delay to allow Chiang Kai-shek's army to take political credit for the liberation of Shanghai. With the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948 and the fall of Chiang Kai-shek in 1949, almost all the Shanghai ghetto Jews left.

Partial list of notable refugees in the Restricted Sector for Stateless Refugees

Shaul Eisenberg, who founded and ran the Eisenberg Group of Companies in Israel
Calling Shaul Eisenberg
By: Christopher Bollyn (sent by Invictus) on: 26.10.2010
Shaul Nehemia Eisenberg, a highest-level Mossad chief and head of Israel Corp., Atasco, and Atwell Security, is suspected of being the chief mastermind of the false-flag terrorism of 9/11.

Eisenberg is also thought to be dead, since 27 March 1997.

Did Shaul Eisenberg, the founder of Israel Corporation, fake his death in 1997 to avoid scrutiny and prosecution for a long list of very serious crimes – including running Mossad's U.S. drug network and 9/11?

Shaul Nehemia Eisenberg worked closely with the Japanese military training Betar and Irgun terrorists during World War II.

While such a "Huck Finn" stunt may seem ludicrous, at least three other Israeli criminals who apparently faked their deaths (or coma) to avoid being arrested for serious crimes come to mind: Amiram Nir, Alexander Voronin, and Ariel Sharon. As I explain in Solving 9/11, Eisenberg owned the Mossad company called Atwell Security. Atwell tried to obtain the security contract for the World Trade Center (and Port Authority) in the late 1980s.

According to members of Eisenberg's family, now living in New York City, Shaul Eisenberg died in China on March 27, 1997. On April 1 of that year, April Fool's Day no less, the New York Times ran this paid death notice:

The Associated Press published a similar obituary for the 76-year-old "billionaire Shaul Eisenberg" who supposedly died on March 27, 1997:

JERUSALEM — Billionaire Shaul Eisenberg, a refugee from Nazi Germany who built up a global business empire, died of a heart attack yesterday during a trip to Beijing, his family said. He was 76.

Calling Shaul Eisenberg October 25, 2010

Claims by his family notwithstanding, the Israeli media, on the other hand, writes about Shaul Eisenberg as if he were still very much alive. Globes, an Israeli business news source, for example, published two articles in the spring of 2010 that indicated that Eisenberg was alive:

Ogen Yielding Real Estate Ltd. (TASE:OGEN) is expanding the BMC Software complex in Tel Aviv's Ramat Hahayal high-tech zone. Ogen will add ten floors to the seven-floor Building C at an investment of NIS 70 million. Construction has already begun and is scheduled to be completed by December 2011...Shaul Eisenberg controls Ogen through Isralom Ltd. subsidiary Ocif Investments and Development Ltd. (TASE: OCIF).
- Michal Margalit in Globes, June 6, 2010

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Eisenberg in TIME Magazine in 2008:,9171,1825136,00.html


At a formal dinner in a Beijing hotel last week, Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin toasted a rotund 72-year-old at the table and offered a tribute: ''Mr. Eisenberg opened the doors to China for Israel.'' It was a rare moment in the public spotlight for Israeli tycoon Shoul Eisenberg, but senior officials at the dinner knew exactly what Rabin meant.

Modern weaponry is at the heart of the Jerusalem-Beijing relationship, and Eisenberg has been selling Israeli defense technology to the Chinese for more than a decade. Eisenberg is the real-life version of the international power brokers who appear in the pages of popular thrillers, and he is usually described with some of the same adjectives: shadowy, reclusive, discreet. Worth an estimated $1.3 billion, he is a legendary figure in Asia, a modern taipan. His holdings include all or part of hundreds of companies in 30 countries
Calling Eisenberg an arms dealer does not do justice to the scale and astonishing variety of his operations. He may have handled Israel's military sales to China, but at the same time he was completing hundreds of other deals
By coincidence,CIA Director R. James Woolsey had just reported to a congressional committee in Washington that the value of Israel's military sales to China over the past 10 years ''may be several billion dollars.''
as early as December 1978, Eisenberg was in China sizing up business opportunities. According to a senior aide to Menachem Begin, Eisenberg paid a call on the then Prime Minister and said that he could use his influence to open China to Israeli goods -- mostly military -- if Begin would give him exclusive rights to all weapons deals. It was a time when China was looking for first-rate military technology that it could not obtain from the West.
Since 1979, Israeli security officials say, the country has sold China $3.5 billion worth of arms components and technology -- not finished weapons, but parts and processes to improve China's tank guns, armor and targeting systems, missiles, aircraft electronics and military computers, among other things
Eisenberg followed [to China] in 1940 but found no business opportunities in China that time around. So he sailed for Japan, thinking he might make it to the U.S. But in Japan he met a family active in the steel business and began selling iron ore principally to their company, Nippon Steel. A year later, he married Leah Freudlsberger, whose father was an art lecturer at a Tokyo university and whose mother was from a distinguished Japanese family. When the war ended, Eisenberg's fortunes took off.
Today the Eisenberg Group, with 40 offices around the world, is divided into two main holding companies -- the Israel Corp. and Panama-registered United Development Inc

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Shaul Eisenberg - Permindex - Red China Nuclear Program

Quote: Evidence suggests that "Red China's" first explosion of a nuclear device was in fact a joint venture between Israel and Red China.

Kissinger and Ford's long-time Michigan financial backer, industrialist Max Fisher were both financially and ideologically linked to Eisenberg

Max Fisher - Eisenberg and the JFK Assassination:
Final Judgment