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The Sequoia Seminars - A History

Kibitz: One of the original questions : What was Willis Harman so excited about at the Sequoia Seminars in 1954?
What was Stolaroff so excited about?  Well it turns out that they were excited about Gerald Heard.
1954 Gerald Heard gives a lecture to the Sequoia Seminar about mind expansion and describes the effects of certain mind-altering drugs - Myron Stolaroff and Willis Harman attending, Then in 1956 that Heard tells Stolaroff about LSD and directs him to Al Hubbard for a visit to Hollywood Hospital in Vancouver...

This thread is an investigation into the history of "The Sequoia Seminars" which began in the early 1950's around Stanford University  and later went on to investigate the concepts of "LSD Therapy".   This all started with a confusion over "The Secora Seminars" which turned out to be  "The Sequoia Seminars" and a Willis Harmon was also referenced as Willis Harman ...  

Also I had found that between 1953 and 1954 a discovery had been made for the large scale production of LSD and I was looking for government programs related to this discovery (Chatter - Artichoke):
"for eliciting true and accurate statements" D (CIA) "Potential New Agent for Unconventional Warfare, LSD," 5 August 1954.

"will most probably be found in the biochemistry departments" D (CIA) untitled cable, 26 May 1954. the purchase of ten kilos of LSD D (CIA) Memorandum to Chief of Security Research Staff, from Chief of Technical Branch, " ARTICHOKE Conference, 22 October 1953," 16 November 1953
"This is a closely guarded secret" D (CIA) Memorandum to Director of Central Intelligence via Deputy Director of Plans,
"Potential Large-Scale Availability of LSD through Newly-Discovered Synthesis by [deleted]," 26 October 1954.

Quiz question - Who produced LSD for the CIA and MK-ULTRA in 1954?

In fact CIA documents show that a U.S. source for LSD supply was desired. In 1953 the CIA provided Eli Lilly with funding to attempt synthesis of LSD for CIA use without the need for the expensive and scarce reagents required by Sandoz. A year later, Lilly chemists succeeded in their quest, and subsequent supplies were from Lilly[1,2]. Another more potent chemical used by MK-Ultra, BZ (3-quinuclidinyl benzilate), was produced by Hoffman-La Roche.
From 1947 to 1966, Sandoz produced and sold LSD tablets and the drug became popular, especially in the United States.
the SanDoz patent for LSD ran out in 1963.


Although the Eli Lilly process was published (somewhere) certain details were left out....
One objective was to keep any further LSD out of the hands of the West's enemies; another was to find out as much as possible about the drug; and the third was to experiment with LSD as a weapon in warfare and espionage.
Back home in the United States, the Eli Lilly company in Indianapolis established a new process for LSD which meant that the drug could now be mass-produced. The CIA agent who reported this development to his superiors noted that the military services had access to a home supply of LSD by the ton. Eli Lilly kept details of the full process confidential and made up a special batch of LSD for the CIA.
Point Richmond was the “prototypical underground laboratory.”
Owsley, Scully and Melissa Cargill moved there early in the summer of 1966.
Owsley was still working on the basis of a formula for LSD—the formula released by Eli Lilly in the 1950s which left out key details on purification and prevention of decay for commercial rather than security reasons. Point Richmond became a proving ground for filling in some of those blanks. Owsley had got as far as crystal LSD, which in itself required a reasonable level of purity; but he believed that if he could achieve absolute purity, then the LSD would be extra special with extra special results. Between them Owsley and Scully created 20 to 30 grams of what they thought was the purest LSD anyone had yet produced. The crystal lost its yellowish tinge and became almost blue-white under the fluorescent lamp. It was pure enough to be pizioluminescent—if the crystals were shaken or crushed, they gave off flashes of light. (LSD is one of a very small group of compounds with this property.)

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I need to start somewhere so here is goes (I'll re-edit this post till it looks clean)....

Secora Seminar - 1954 - Need help with more information

Anyone have any more info on the "Secora Seminar" or related history? Thanks in advance.

Tavistock - Systems Psychodynamics - mass brain-washing techniques

Global Mind Change

How did your own interest in the subject of consciousness start? Was it an early passion?

Willis Harman:

 No, I was trained as a scientist, thought I was going to be a chemist for a while, ended up as an electrical engineer and then systems engineer. And then in 1954 at age 36 I had an up-ending experience that I hadn't asked for and the net result was my path through life took a sudden swerve. It was a two-week seminar which, there was nothing like it at the time although later on there were things like Est and Silva Mind Control and all kinds of things, but at that time, it was a fairly intensive seminar and I only came into it because I didn't realise that. I was tricked into coming into it, thinking it was going to be a nice, safe intellectual discussion.

What was the seminar, specifically?
Willis Harman:
 It was called The Secora [Sequoia]  Seminar. The same group became Beyond War, they still exist, I think. It became apparent to me through that experience that I had feelings that I was not even aware of, you know my unconscious mind. Its rather hard to explain how an experience suddenly opens you up. It's not exactly a rational, linear process. At any rate I just started to search around for whoever knew something about any part of this.

I made one trip to Europe and got aquainted with The Society for Psychical Research, that was back in the days of Sir George Joy and Rosalyn Heywood. Celia Green was just a youngster coming in at that time. So in the next half dozen years or so I got somewhat involved in psychical research and somewhat involved in the psychedelic research. That sort of blew up in a way in the 1960's! So I shifted over to doing research on the future.

The "1954 Secora" seminars were "The Sequoia Seminars"

I have now determined that the "1954 Secora" seminars were "The Sequoia Seminars"

We have a nexus of SRI - RAND - Tavistock - Music via AMPEX - Myron Stolaroff - Merry Pranksters Kesey - and more ....

Also goes back to 1947 - mescaline experiments University Vancouver - Jolly West Project Chatter  
which is also project paperclip via Mescaline experiments that were performed at Dachua

Some preliminary links:

It still exists (no mention of the historical LSD "therapy" sessions in 1954):

The Sequoia Retreat Center of Northern California
Other special weekends have featured Dr. Willis Harman, co-founder of the World Business Academy and President of the Institute of Noetic Sciences, Dr. Elisabet Sahtouris, scientist and author, Helen Palmer, psychologist and author, and Brian Swimme, physicist, teacher and author.

Beyond War's successor organization, the Foundation for Global Community is active and can be found at  Sequoia Seminar was purchased by the Hendricks family in 2005.  After much renovation and capital improvements, they have passed stewardship to us.  

The Sequoia Retreat Center stands on the shoulders of peace makers, reconciliation makers, stewards of the land and Sequoias.  Our roots are in the people who have created extraordinary lives.  We honor and extend that work by holding this space open.

To give another illustration of how things were developing: in 1954 Gerald Heard gave a lecture in Palo Alto to an organization called the Sequoia Seminar. Sitting in the audience was an engineer named Myron Stolaroff. Stolaroff was in charge of long-range planning at
Ampex, which was one of the first of the high-technology companies to emerge in the valleys south of San Francisco. Stolaroff had heard Gerald speak several times before and considered him one of the world's outstanding mystics. So when Heard began rhapsodizing
about the effects of certain mind-altering drugs, Stolaroff was predictably upset. "I thought you went to all these places anyway," he asked. "Why do you take this?" And Heard had replied, "Oh, but it just opens the doors in so many ways to so many vast dimensions."19

Whether he admitted it to himself or not, Myron Stolaroff was hooked, and a few months later, in Los Angeles on business, he visited Heard and had another long discussion about these new mind drugs. At one point Hubbard's name had come up, and Heard had implied
that if Stolaroff wished to try any of these substances, Al was the man to guide him through the experience. So Stolaroff had written Hubbard and one day Al had turned up on the doorstep, bounding into Myron's office with a tank of carbogen, a "fun-loving guy" who "radiated an enormous energy field."20 After the formal introductions were over, Hubbard had suggested that Stolaroff take a few lungfuls of the carbogen, and twenty or thirty breaths later the director of long-range planning was abreacting all over his office.

Stolaroff, who had been skeptical of a lot of Gerald's claims, was convinced. He arranged to visit Vancouver at the earliest opportunity for one of Hubbard's patented LSD sessions—by 1959 Hubbard was claiming he had conducted seventeen hundred LSD sessions.

It was a terrible experience. During those hours in Hubbard's apartment, Stolaroff relived his birth, the actual physical birth, gasping and writhing for what felt like days, until he broke through to the world, which actually smelled of ether. Although it was a torturous few
hours, Myron emerged from the LSD womb convinced that many of his personal eccentricities and neuroses could be traced back to the trauma of his birth. This was not a radical possibility as far as psychoanalysis was concerned; Otto Rank, one of Freud's last
disciples, had explored the effects of birth on the emerging psyche in numerous articles. But it would have taken psychoanalysis years to attain the level that LSD had reached in one climactic rush. Stolaroff returned to Ampex convinced that LSD "was the greatest discovery
that man had ever made."21
Myron Stolaroff was a good example. Stolaroff had been in charge of long-range planning at Ampex, one of the first of the big electronics firms to settle south of the Bay Area, when he had been bitten by the psychedelic bug. Together with Hubbard he had tried to interest Ampex's management in a program that would use LSD to solve all kinds of corporate problems, interpersonal problems, design problems, long-range planning problems. But the plan had foundered on Al's penchant for Christian mysticism. Stolaroff didn't let go, though: he started holding weekly LSD sessions for some of Ampex's more adventurous engineers;

Hubbard came down from Canada one weekend and took them all to a remote cabin in the Sierras where he guided them through the kind of ontological earthquake only Al could manufacture. The senior management of Ampex had been horrified. Having gotten to know
Hubbard through rather extraordinary circumstances, it didn't seem at all irrational for them to be worrying, "What if this nutball drives our best men crazy?" So there had been sighs of relief when Stolaroff decided to leave Ampex and set up his own nonprofit psychedelic
research center in Menlo Park, California—the International Foundation for Advanced Study. The Foundation, which opened in March 1961
, wasn't the only organization working with LSD in the San Francisco area.

The Palo Alto Mental Research Institute had been studying the drug since 1958, and had been instrumental in introducing dozens of local psychiatrists and psychologists, as well as interested laymen like Allen Ginsberg, to the perplexities of the Other World. But the Institute's composure had been shaken by several terrifying incidents—colossal bad trips in which the subject returned from the Other World in questionable shape—and interest in LSD's therapeutic potential had diminished. LSD programs were also under way at the Palo Alto Veterans Hospital, the San Mateo County Hospital, and Napa State Hospital, but no one was offering psychedelic therapy, and what little research was being done was unexciting: Leo Hollister (who will soon reappear in association with a hopeful young writer named Ken Kesey), at the Veterans Hospital, was still doing model psychoses work.

The point was that most LSD researchers were fairly conservative. So when a couple of engineers set up shop (Stolaroff's vice president, Willis Harman, had been an engineering professor at Stanford) and began poaching bread and butter patients—unlike Osmond and Hotter, Stolaroff wasn't just concentrating on chronic alcoholics, he was soliciting the man off the street, who in this case was the neurotic professional in the high tech-high education hub that surrounded Stanford—there were more than raised eyebrows. Charging five hundred dollars for one session with a highly questionable drug? The whole thing smacked of chicanery, despite the fact that Stolaroff had a licensed psychiatrist running the actual therapy sessions. But what was worse, it was chicanery with good word of mouth. The San Mateo Call Bulletin, scenting a medical scandal, had interviewed a number of Stolaroff's patients and found them laudatory to the point of hyperbole. At the Foundation's first and last open house, Stolaroff had been cornered by a disgruntled therapist who growled, "One of my ex-patients thinks you're a saint” making it clear that he thought Stolaroff was a charlatan.14 What was one to make, after all, of the Call Bulletin's statement that the Foundation's aims were "partly medical, partly scientific, partly philosophical, partly mystical"?15 The first two, okay, but philosophy was for philosophers, and mysticism? mysticism was for cranks!,_John_-_What_the_Dormouse_Said._How_the_60s_Counterculture_Shaped_the_PC_Industry.pdf

For the unrepentant patriarch of LSD, long, strange trip winds back to Bay Area

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The people involved are connected to Tavistock - RAND - SRI - AMPEX  and the CIA.

Some of the Players:
Arthur Balfour [Rhodes Round Table], one of the Prime Ministers of England, was a member of the Society for Psychical Research

Welcome to the Website of the Society for Psychical Research
The SPR was the first organisation established to examine allegedly paranormal phenomena using scientific principles. Our aim is to learn more about events and abilities commonly described as "psychic" or "paranormal" by supporting research, sharing information and encouraging debate. Our members come from all over the world, and represent a variety of academic and professional interests. We welcome  active researchers as well as people who simply want to know more about the subject

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Raindance Retreat & Conference Center  (formerly Sequoia Seminar)

History of the Site

The origins of this place trace back more than eighty years to a search for unity of the disciplines of science and religion in the belief that each sought universal truths about reality.

The Jesus as Teacher studies were brought to the west in the 1930's by Dr. Harry Rathbun* of Stanford University and his wife Emilia.  Seminars were held at Asilomar and other locations.  By the 1940's it was clear that a permanent facility was needed.  Early meetings were held in a cottage and participants stayed in tents during the two and three week summer seminars.  *[Harry's Last Lecture: click here]

Sequoia Seminar was incorporated in 1949 and the building of the lodges and cabins you will find here today began.  The first lodge was built on land at the Quaker Center in Ben Lomond.  Here the tradition of working together was begun and the goal of blending buildings with the land was met in "Casa de Luz", House of Light.  This first lodge was given to the Quaker Center in 1973.
Other special weekends have featured Dr. Willis Harman, co-founder of the World Business Academy and President of the Institute of Noetic Sciences, Dr. Elisabet Sahtouris, scientist and author, Helen Palmer, psychologist and author, and Brian Swimme, physicist, teacher and author.

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Another Player: Sieigfried Linkwitz
Work / Fun Hewlett-Packard Co., Palo Alto and Santa Rosa, California, '61-'98
(R&D Design Engineer, Project Mgr., Section Mgr., Senior Engineer)
Siemens, Zentrallabor, Muenchen, Germany, '61
Telefunken, Hannover, Germany, '57  

Education Ongoing ...
Stanford University, EE, '62-'64
TH Darmstadt, Germany, Dipl. Ing. Elektrotechnik, '55-'61
Abitur, Kant Gymnasium, Bad Oeynhausen, '55
Radio Amateur License DJ1SX (diy 2-m rig), '51

Spiritual search  Jesus as Teacher discussion groups - Sequoia Seminar - LSD - Creative Initiative - Beyond War - Eckhart Tolle - Adyashanti - Tony Parsons

Siegfried Linkwitz (born 1935) is well known as the co-inventor of the Linkwitz-Riley filter[1] along with Russ Riley. He has submitted several important technical papers to the Journal of the Audio Engineering Society and other related publications, which have become foundational to modern loudspeaker theory[2]. Examples of his recent work include extensive development of dipolar loudspeaker theory[3]. Also a contributor to electronics and "DIY" loudspeaker enthusiast magazines such as Electronics (Wireless) World, and Speaker Builder magazines. [4] [5]


Mescaline experiments University of Vancouver/
WWII - Dachau - Mescaline - Plotner - Project Paperclip:

The Dachau mescaline experiments were written up by the US Naval Technical Mission.
US Navy interested in Interagation tools -  initiated Project Chatter in 1947 (same year the CIA was formed)
Dr. Strughold ... was in charge of the Dachua Experiments recruited for Project Paperclip...

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Original Captain trips - Captain Alfred M. Hubbard

You will not read about him in the history books. He left no diary, nor chatty relatives to memorialize him in print. And if a cadre of associates had not recently agreed to open its files, Captain Alfred M. Hubbard might exist in death as he did in life--a man of mirrors and shadows, revealing himself to even his closest friends only on a need-to-know basis.

They called him "the Johnny Appleseed of LSD." He was to the psychedelic movement nothing less than the membrane through which all passed to enter into the Mysteries. Beverly Hills psychiatrist Oscar Janiger once said of Hubbard, "We waited for him like a little old lady for the Sears-Roebuck catalog." Waited for him to unlock his ever-present leather satchel loaded with pharmaceutically-pure psilocybin, mescaline or his personal favorite, Sandoz LSD-25.

Those who will talk about Al Hubbard are few. Oscar Janiger told this writer that "nothing of substance has been written about Al Hubbard, and probably nothing ever should."

He is treated like a demigod by some, as a lunatic uncle by others. But nobody is ambivalent about the Captain: He was as brilliant as the noonday sun, mysterious as the rarest virus, and friendly like a golden retriever.

The first visage of Hubbard was beheld by Dr. Humphry Osmond, now senior psychiatrist at Alabama's Bryce Hospital. He and Dr. John Smythies were researching the correlation between schizophrenia and the hallucinogens mescaline and adrenochrome at Weyburn Hospital in Saskatchewan, Canada, when an A.M. Hubbard requested the pleasure of Osmond's company for lunch at the swank Vancouver Yacht Club. Dr. Osmond later recalled, "It was a very dignified place, and I was rather awed by it. [Hubbard] was a powerfully-built man . . . with a broad face and a firm hand-grip. He was also very genial, an excellent host."

Captain Hubbard was interested in obtaining some mescaline, and, as it was still legal, Dr. Osmond supplied him with some. "He was interested in all sorts of odd things," Osmond laughs. Among Hubbard's passions was motion. His identity as "captain" came from his master of sea vessels certification and a stint in the US Merchant Marine.

At the time of their meeting in 1953, Al Hubbard owned secluded Daymen Island off the coast of Vancouver--a former Indian colony surrounded by a huge wall of oyster shells. To access his 24-acre estate, Hubbard built a hangar for his aircraft and a slip for his yacht from a fallen redwood. But it was the inner voyage that drove the Captain until his death in 1982. Fueled by psychedelics, he set sail and rode the great wave as a neuronaut, with only the white noise in his ears and a fever in his brain.

His head shorn to a crew and wearing a paramilitary uniform with a holstered long-barrel Colt .45, Captain Al Hubbard showed up one day in '63 on the doorstep of a young Harvard psychologist named Timothy Leary.

"He blew in with that uniform . . . laying down the most incredible atmosphere of mystery and flamboyance, and really impressive bullshit!" Leary recalls. "He was pissed off. His Rolls Royce had broken down on the freeway, so he went to a pay phone and called the company in London. That's what kind of guy he was. He started name-dropping like you wouldn't believe . . . claimed he was friends with the Pope."

Those who knew Al Hubbard would describe him as just a "barefoot boy from Kentucky," who never got past third grade. But as a young man, the shoeless hillbilly was purportedly visited by a pair of angels, who told him to build something. He had absolutely no training, "but he had these visions, and he learned to trust them early on," says Willis Harman, director of the Institute of Noetic Sciences in Sausalito, CA.
His [Hubbard's] services were eventually recruited by Willis Harman, then-Director of the Educational Policy Research Center within the Stanford Research Institute (SRI) of Stanford University. Harman employed Hubbard as a security guard for SRI, "although," Harman admits, "Al never did anything resembling security work."

Hubbard was specifically assigned to the Alternative Futures Project, which performed future-oriented strategic planning for corporations and government agencies. Harman and Hubbard shared a goal "to provide the [LSD] experience to political and intellectual leaders around the world." Harman acknowledges that "Al's job was to run the special [LSD] sessions for us."

According to Dr. Abram Hoffer, "Al had a grandiose idea that if he could give the psychedelic experience to the major executives of the Fortune 500 companies, he would change the whole of society."

Hubbard's tenure at SRI was uneasy. The political bent of the Stanford think-tank was decidedly left-wing, clashing sharply with Hubbard's own world-perspective. "Al was really an arch-conservative," says the confidential source. "He really didn't like what the hippies were doing with LSD, and he held Timothy Leary in great contempt."

Humphry Osmond recalls a particular psilocybin session in which "Al got greatly preoccupied with the idea that he ought to shoot Timothy, and when I began to reason with him that this would be a very bad idea...I became much concerned that he might shoot me..."

"To Al," says Myron Stolaroff, "LSD enabled man to see his true self, his true nature and the true order of things." But, to Hubbard, the true order of things had little to do with the antics of the American Left.

Recognizing its potential psychic hazards, Hubbard believed that LSD should be administered and monitored by trained professionals. He claimed that he had stockpiled more LSD than anyone on the planet besides Sandoz--including the US government--and he clearly wanted a firm hand in influencing the way it was used.

However, Hubbard refused all opportunities to become the LSD Philosopher-King. Whereas Leary would naturally gravitate toward any microphone available, Hubbard preferred the role of the silent curandero, providing the means for the experience, and letting voyagers decipher its meaning for themselves. When cornered by a video camera shortly before this death, and asked to say something to the future, Hubbard replied simply, "You're the future."

In March of 1966, the cold winds of Congress blew out all hope for Al Hubbard's enlightened Mother Earth. Facing a storm of protest brought on by Leary's reckless antics and the "LSD-related suicide" of Diane Linkletter, President Lyndon Johnson signed into law the Drug Abuse Control Amendment, which declared lysergic acid diethylamide a Schedule I substance; simple possession was deemed a felony, punishable by 15 years in prison. According to Humphry Osmond, Hubbard lobbied Vice-President Hubert Humphrey, who reportedly took the cause of LSD into the Senate chambers, and emerged un-victorious.

"[The government] had a deep fear of having their picture of reality challenged," mourns Harman. "It had nothing to do with people harming their lives with chemicals--because if you took all the people who had ever had any harmful effects from psychedelics, it's minuscule compared to those associated with alcohol and tobacco."

FDA chief James L. Goddard ordered agents to seize all remaining psychedelics not accounted for by Sandoz. "It was scary," recalls Dr. Oscar Janiger, whose Beverly Hills office was raided and years' worth of clinical research confiscated.

Hubbard begged Abram Hoffer to let him hide his supply in Hoffer's Canadian Psychiatric Facility. But the doctor refused, and it is believed that Hubbard buried most of his LSD in a sacred parcel in Death Valley, California, claiming that it had been used, rather than risk prosecution. When the panic subsided, only five government-approved scientists were allowed to continue LSD research--none using humans, and none of them associated with Al Hubbard.

In 1968, his finances in ruins, Hubbard was forced to sell his private island sanctuary for what one close friend termed "a pittance." He filled a number of boats with the antiquated electronics used in his eccentric nuclear experiments, and left Daymen Island for California. Hubbard's efforts in his last decade were effectively wasted, according to most of his friends. Lack of both finances and government permit to resume research crippled all remaining projects he may have had in the hopper.
Erowid Character Vaults - Captain Al Hubbard 1901 - Aug 31, 1982
Alfred Matthew Hubbard was known as the Johnny Appleseed of LSD. Born in Kentucky, he had angelic visions as a young boy that reportedly guided him in building a radioactive battery, which he sold for $75,000 in 1919. During Prohibition, he used his skill with electronics to set up a ship-to-shore communications system in the back of the taxi he drove to help smuggle alcohol into the U.S. and Canada. He was caught and served an 18 month prison sentence. However, his skills had not gone unnoticed. A scout from the Office of Strategic Services (OSS) recruited Hubbard into the OSS.

Captain Hubbard was put to work of shipping heavy armaments from San Diego to Canada prior to the U.S. officially joining WW II...and eventually faced a congressional investigation. To avoid federal prosecution he moved to Vancouver and became a Canadian citizen. There he founded a charter boat company and became a millionaire in the 1940s. He later received a full presidential pardon (#2676) from President Harry Truman.

In 1950, Hubbard experienced another angellic visitation telling him that something important to the future of mankind would soon be coming. When he read about LSD the next year, he knew that was it and immediately sought and acquired LSD, which he tried for himself in 1951. Following his own experience, he started to turn others on. He became well known for his procedure of initially introducing people to carbogen, to see how they reacted to a short-term alteration in consciousness, before he scheduled their LSD sessions.

At various times over the next 20 years, Hubbard reportedly worked for the Canadian Special Services, the U.S. Justice Department, the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms, and according to rumors, may have been involved with the CIA's MK-ULTRA project.

He also worked at the Hollywood Hospital with Ross McLean, with psychiatrists Abram Hoffer and Dr. Humphry Osmond, with Myron Stolaroff at the International Federation for Advanced Study in Menlo Park, and with Willis Harman at Stanford Research Institute (SRI) running psychedelic sessions with LSD.

How his government positions interacted with his work with LSD is still not known. During those years he introduced more than 6,000 people to LSD--including scientists, politicians, intelligence officials, diplomats, and church figures--and became known as the first "Captain Trips", travelling about with a leather case containing pharmaceutically pure LSD, mescaline, and psilocybin.

"If you don't think it's amazing," said Hubbard, "just go ahead and try it."
Under the auspices of MK-ULTRA the CIA regularly dosed its agents and associates with powerful hallucinogens as a preemptive measure against the Soviets' own alleged chemical technology, often with disastrous results. The secret project would see at least two deaths: tennis pro Harold Blauer died after a massive injection of MDA; and the army's own Frank Olson, a biological-warfare specialist, crashed through a closed window in the 12th floor of New York's Statler Hotel, after drinking cognac laced with LSD during a CIA symposium. Dr. Osmond doubts that Hubbard would have been associated with such a project "not particularly on humanitarian grounds, but on the grounds that it was bad technique."

[Note: Recently, a researcher for <i>WorldNetDaily</i> and author of a forthcoming book based on the Frank Olson "murder," revealed to this writer that he has received, via a FOIA request of CIA declassified materials, documents which indicate that Al Hubbard was, indeed, in contact with Dr. Sidney Gottlieb and George Hunter White--an FBI narcotics official who managed Operation Midnight Climax, a joint CIA/FBI blackmail project in which unwitting "johns" were given drinks spiked with LSD by CIA-managed prostitutes, and whose exploits were videotaped from behind two-way mirrors at posh hotels in both New York and San Francisco. The researcher would reveal only that Al Hubbard's name "appeared in connection with Gottlieb and White, but the material is heavily redacted."]

Hubbard's secret connections allowed him to expose over 6,000 people to LSD before it was effectively banned in '66. He shared the sacrament with a prominent Monsignor of the Catholic Church in North America, explored the roots of alcoholism with AA founder Bill Wilson, and stormed the pearly gates with Aldus Huxley (in a session that resulted in the psychedelic tome <i>Heaven and Hell</i>), as well as supplying most of the Beverly Hills psychiatrists, who, in turn, turned on actors Cary Grant, James Coburn, Jack Nicholson, novelist Anais Nin, and filmmaker Stanley Kubrick.
Psychology in Sequoia Seminar

Psychology was the most poorly defined of all the elements that made up Sequoia Seminar's philosophy, yet it was one of the most important and, even more than the ideas of Buchman or Heard, it set Sequoia Seminar apart from the tradition of Henry B. Sharman. Since Harry always argued that psychology would eventually prove what religion already knew, why bother with psychology at all? Because, among the three appropriate objects of love—God, self, and other—love of self or integrity required that people come to understand their subconscious needs and fears so that they could be free to carry out the will of God. The movement believed psychology could help people toward religion, and religion could help them psychologically.

A physician participating in a 1953 seminar wrote that he had learned that psychiatry taught, "To be happy you must be properly oriented to your environment and totally integrated, so that every action is a productive one leading to full potentiality." The seminar taught him that Jesus had said the same thing two thousand years ago and, he concluded, "a well-adjusted person is, by definition, religious."[81]

Psychology was, nevertheless, also perceived as potentially dangerous; when wrongly used it could either undermine the religious message or become the primary purpose of the group, relegating the teachings of Jesus to a secondary role. Freudian psychology, which defined religious belief as neurotic, was an example of the first danger. Harry believed that "Freudian psychology leads to a mechanistic view of the universe and to a philosophy of meaninglessness."[82] There is some indication that the Rathbuns felt, not without reason, that Boyden and her followers fell into the second danger when they split off from the main Sharman group in 1941 and began their own work.[83] The Rathbuns referred to them as "the psychologizers."

The exact role that psychology played in Sequoia Seminar meetings prior to 1955 is not clear, although its flavor is suggested by a list of recommended readings from 1950 that included works by Rollo May and Erich Fromm in addition to books by Kunkel, Jung, and Heard.[84] Much of the psychological activity that did occur took place under the direction of Emilia [Rathbun] with the assistance of Betty Eisner. Eisner had been a student of Harry's in the business law course. She had attended a Records study group at the Rathbuns' home in 1936 and was at the first Sequoia Seminar in 1946. She had gone on to earn a Ph.D. in clinical psychology and came up from her home in southern California to help lead some special seminars in the mid-1950s.[85]

A set of very complete notes from a 1952 continuation seminar gives some insight into the kind of psychological activity that took place in the sessions. A parenthetical comment near the beginning of the notes indicate that there were "several sessions during which Seminar participants verbalized their 'seventh veil' matter, their inmost blocks to further growth and progress on the Way."[86] These group confessions may have owed something to Emilia's years of experience hearing confessions in her Oxford Group work. When she told the participants, "nothing that has been said is a surprise, at least to me," she was repeating language she had used to describe her Buchmanite experience. Emilia assured the group that they became more lovable when they opened up and admitted their "inmost natures and problems," and explained that it was all part of the process of discovering what they could be so that they could see where they were and how they could move toward what God intended them to be.[87]

As the decade progressed the role of psychology in the group's activities increased. In 1956 Emilia and Betty Eisner were coleaders of a group that wrote spontaneously on themes suggested by Emilia, "trying to express their own feelings rather than intellectual concepts."[88] In addition to spontaneous writing, they also did Jungian dream interpretation in groups and used art to express their feelings.[89] The 1958 annual report explained, "painting and other art work is becoming an increasingly important part of our program, particularly at the Continuation seminars. We are learning how such activities can contribute to the process of individual change with which we are concerned."[90]

So pervasive was the psychological approach by 1958 and 1959 that almost all of the continuation seminars given in those summers were psychologically focused and many included art. The most explicit was a seminar entitled "Group Therapy" led by Betty Eisner. It was described as "an intensive group therapy situation and will be conducted on a very personal level aimed at removing barriers within the individual which obstruct his growth in creative living. . . . The use of art materials will play an important role."[91]

Two comments made in 1959 indicate that the heavy emphasis on psychology may have gotten out of hand. The announcement letter for the 1959 seminar season cautioned potential participants that the leaders were "neither qualified nor intended to perform the function of psychotherapy," and they would not accept anybody who seemed more interested in that than in pursuing a religious life. About the same time, a handwritten memo from Emilia asked if people should not be "well grounded in the teachings of Jesus and have made the decision to follow the 'way' before they are enrolled in any group which has as its objective the process of introspection (therapy)." And, conversely, she asked if people who started work in psychotherapy should be "told that the process in the seminar structure leads to a choice of 'the way' of life commended by Jesus (commitment)?"[92]

Emilia's [Rathbun] fear that the psychotherapeutic aspects of the work might have begun to take precedence over the religious purpose seems particularly apt in retrospect. Although nobody knew it at the time, Sequoia Seminar was one of a stream of sources for what would become the "human potential" movement of the 1960s. Their stress of religious values kept them from total involvement, but for several years in the late 1950s they were the place where some of the California activists in the human potential movement got their start.

One was Del Carlson. Carlson was a Marine Corps veteran who had been attracted to a Records study group at San Jose State College in 1947 and who had participated actively in Students Concerned. He stayed with the movement after the demise of Students Concerned and was, for a dozen years, one of the mainstays of the group. A high school art teacher, he had his summers free and devoted them to Sequoia Seminar. He was the group's registrar, business manager, and leader of art therapy sessions until 1962.[93]
Carlson was also a friend of Michael Murphy, the man who founded Esalen. In fact, Carlson was a coleader of the first formal seminar ever held at Esalen in 1962, when it was still called Slate's Hot Springs.[94]
Even more important, both to Sequoia Seminar and the human potential movement, was Willis Harman.

An engineering professor at Stanford, Harman had attended a study group led by Harry [Rathbun] and then had gone to a Sequoia Seminar in 1954. He had not expected the heavy emphasis on meditation, introspection, and self-exposure, but he found that his engineer's rational world view was "permanently destroyed" as a result of his experience there. He embarked on an extended period of self-education in mysticism and psychic phenomena and moved into the inner circle of Sequoia Seminar.[95]

Harman had been very impressed by Gerald Heard's lectures on his experience with mescaline; he also made contact with Myron Stolaroff, one of the original American experimenters with LSD, who was also briefly involved with Sequoia Seminar.

On November 16, 1956, eight of the Sequoia Seminar leadership group accompanied Harman to the home of a physician member of the movement, where Harman took LSD for the first time [Interesting Harman in another interview says 1954] . In subsequent years almost every member of the Sequoia Seminar inner leadership group experimented with LSD on a number of occasions.

Many of the drug sessions were led by Betty Eisner who was very interested in the psychotherapeutic possibilities of low doses of the then legal hallucinogen. She and Harman disagreed strongly, however, on how the drug should be used since he [Harman] preferred larger doses that would provide the user with mystical experiences, rather than the milder effects that Eisner sought.[96]

Even though LSD was still a noncontrolled substance and, therefore, legal to use, Sequoia Seminar employed it very cautiously. It was never distributed to anyone other than group leaders, and their sessions were carefully planned and supervised, usually with the presence of one of the planning group members who was a medical doctor. There appear to have been few if any "bad trips," and the drug-induced mystical experiences and psychotherapeutic sessions are usually remembered positively by those who partook of them.

Experimentation with LSD stopped after 1959 because most of those involved felt there was nothing more to be gained from continued use and perhaps also because of a difficult confrontation between Emilia Rathbun and Betty Eisner that may have involved the use of the drug. Those, like Harman, who wished to pursue further interests in the drug left Sequoia Seminar and became active in other
groups such as Esalen and the International Foundation for Internal Freedom.[97]

Just how far the Rathbuns had moved from the tradition of Henry B. Sharman by the end of the decade is illustrated by the controversy that surrounded the last meeting of the trustees of the Sharman will in 1959. Harry was not only one of the trustees of the self-liquidating foundation set up by the will; he was also its executor.

In 1958 plans were made to dispose of the last twenty-five thousand dollars of the funds from Sharman's estate, and Harry apparently hoped that the bulk of the money could go to Sequoia Seminar. To convince the others that his group met the intention of the will, Harry invited them out to California for a seminar.[98] Opposition from the other trustees to the kind of program that the Rathbuns were running killed both the visit and any hope Harry had of getting Sharman funds, although Harry did lead a seminar for the trustees the next year at Springfield College in Massachusetts.

Word of the psychological emphasis had spread, and those who toed the orthodox Sharman line were not pleased with what they had heard. One trustee reported that a number of students of his had gone to Stanford and had reported back unfavorably on the Rathbuns' work. Another summed up his objections by telling Harry that he believed Sequoia Seminar was "quite different from those led by Dr. Sharman. Very little serious study of the Records themselves seems to be attempted and much time is devoted to the personal problems of the individual members. Training and skill in psychology and psychiatry seem to be very important."[99] And finally, a third pointed out that Sharman had wanted efforts directed at students and faculty, but Harry and Emilia were working mainly with nonacademic adults.[100]

The alienation of the trustees and the experimentation with LSD were both aspects of the way psychology had come to dominate the work of the group. This domination could have made the group an ongoing force within the new human potential movement in California. That course was not followed, however, because in the period between 1959 and 1962 Emilia underwent a number of severe personal strains that eventually climaxed in a religious revelation. This revelation was the basis for a reclarification of the whole meaning and purpose of the movement.

The psychologizing that Emilia had first questioned back in the early 1940s when it was led by Elizabeth Boyden had slowly worked its way into her own group, and by the end of the decade it threatened to eclipse the religious work completely. The philosophy that had evolved was based in part on the validity of psychology as a means for personal insight, but it also used the evolutionary and mystical theories of Gerald Heard, and always the objective study of the life of Jesus in the Sharman tradition. Emilia's personal crisis of the period after 1959 would have the effect of redressing the balance and putting psychology back into a secondary role. Psychology would be exchanged for a new interpretation of the religious message that would finally move Sequoia Seminar from proto-sect to a fully self-conscious religious movement.

The increasing stress on psychology toward the end of the 1950s, and the growing formalization of ideology, were both indications that the group was moving away from the churches (both literally and theoretically) and toward the sect end of the church-sect continuum. The codification of the movement's ideology decreased the likelihood that they would change to go along with trends in the larger society. The focus on psychology was perceived by members as a "service," exactly the kind of service predicted by the economic model as compensation for the increased cost of sect membership. The transition was not yet complete. The most obvious component of a sect is its divergence from standard church values. It is that divergence that makes membership so costly. At the end of the 1950s, Sequoia Seminar was still primarily a gospel study group that could operate from within the churches. There were signs of uniqueness beginning to appear, but they would not be fully embraced until after Emilia had her vision of a New Religion for the Third Age.

| ------------------

Sep 29, 1915 - Jul 1, 2004
Betty Grover Eisner, Ph.D. was a clinical psychologist who was part of the group of LSD researchers active in Los Angeles in the 1950s and 60s.
According to Oscar Janiger, she participated in discussions about potential socially acceptable uses of LSD with a group including Aldous Huxley, Gerald Heard, Alan Watts, Anais Nin, and Sidney Cohen.

Dr. Eisner worked with LSD, mescaline, amphetamine, ketamine, Ritalin, and carbogen with her patients, both in individual and group settings. Some of the sessions she facilitated in group settings included "encounter group"-style expression, experimental combinations of psychoactive drugs and body work. She conducted important early research into the the use of LSD to treat alcoholism, notably with colleague Sidney Cohen.

In 1959, Dr. Eisner participated in the 10th Josiah Macy Conference on LSD. She also served on the Board of Advisors for the Albert Hofmann Foundation before her death in 2004. Her publications and personal correspondence are archived at Stanford University.

Eisner was a therapist for Bill Wilson, co-founder of Alcoholics Anonymous, when he tried LSD. In addition to using hallucinogens like LSD and mescaline in psychedelic therapy, Eisner also gave stimulants such as methylphenidate and the inhaled gas mixture carbogen to her patients.

Treatment of Alcoholism with Psychedelic Therapy
    Abram Hoffer
        From: PSYCHEDELICS, The Uses and Implications of Psychedelic Drugs
        edited by Bernard Aaronson and Humphry Osmond Doubleday & Company, 1970.
        ©Aaronson & Osmond.


    Alcoholics Anonymous, the great self-help group-therapy movement, is the only established treatment for alcoholics. Until much more is known about the personal (biochemical and psychological), familial, and social factors that contribute to alcoholism, so it will remain. Most new therapies are merely adjunctive to AA and will continue to be so until it is shown that they have therapeutic value when used alone. In my view, psychedelic therapy is best used as a preparation for AA.

    When Bill W. and Dr. Bob founded AA, alcoholism had not been accepted as a disease, either by society at large or by the medical profession. Society considered it a moral problem, but found itself confronted with an interesting dilemma, for only a small proportion of the total drinking society drank excessively. No moral sanctions were required for the majority, who eventually made social drinking an integral part of the culture.

    The majority who remained moral drinkers could not understand why a minority became intemperate or alcoholic. Moral sanctions were applied on the premise that excessive drinking arose from defects of character, defects of will, and defects in society. These sanctions included education, persuasion, incarceration, and banishment. Unfortunately, the most stringent measures had little permanent effect, and the proportion of the drinking society (a concept developed by Dr. H. Osmond) remained the same or increased. Medicine also considered alcoholism a non-disease.

    The founders of AA introduced the medical model first to alcoholics, later to society, and finally to the medical profession. This concept was very appealing to alcoholics because it gave them a satisfactory explanation for their misfortunes. If they were sick and not evil, then they might expect the same sort of treatment they would receive if they developed pneumonia or diabetes. Bill W. and Dr. Bob also introduced the concept of allergy, which thirty-five years ago was incorporated into medicine as a new group of diseases. (1)

    But AA insisted that alcoholism was more than a physical illness. It also carried strong personal responsibility. An alcoholic could not be censured for being an alcoholic, but he could be for doing nothing about it.

    Society resisted the idea that alcoholics are sick, since it got no guidance from a reluctant medical profession. Doctors expect diseases to be more or less definable, to have treatment that may be ineffective but must be in common use, and to have a predictable prognosis. When they became convinced that AA did help large numbers of alcoholics remain sober, they gradually accepted alcoholics as patients. Even now, the majority of hospitals are extremely reluctant to admit alcoholics who are drunk, and many doctors dread seeing them in their offices. Eventually AA forced the profession to accept the fact that alcoholism, which has been estimated to afflict 5 per cent of the population, is a disease. This marked the beginning of the final solution to the problem. For, having accepted the disease concept, doctors were challenged by the enormous problems, and, in a matter of a few years, several major therapeutic discoveries were made.

    The newer adjunctive therapies developed for alcoholism may be divided into the psychological and the biochemical. Psychotherapy, deconditioning therapy, and psychedelic therapy are examples of purely psychological therapy, while sugar-free diets for relative hypoglycemia, mega vitamin B3, megascorbic acid, and adrenocortical extracts (or extracts of licorice) are examples of pure chemotherapies.

    Psychedelic therapy is the only therapy that has prepared alcoholics to become responsible members of AA, when previously they had been unable to do so.

Psychedelic Therapy

    We must distinguish sharply between psychedelic reactions and the means for inducing them. Failure to understand this distinction has led to several futile researches, best exemplified by the study of Smart and Storm (1964), which was widely circulated in an extreme form before publication of the watered-down version.
    Psychedelic therapy refers to a form of psychotherapy in which hallucinogenic drugs are used in a particular way to facilitate the final goal, which for alcoholics is sobriety. The drugs may be mescaline, LSD, psilocybin, and many others, as well as combinations. It is therefore trivial to test the effect of LSD or other hallucinogens on alcoholics in such a way that there is no psychedelic reaction. In fact, these trivial experiences have led to trivial data, as reported by Smart et al. (1966), who claimed that a group of ten alcoholics given LSD did not differ in outcome from a group of ten given another psychoactive drug. Close examination of their report shows that no therapy was given, nor was there any encouragement of discussion of problems. The experience was not psychedelic, but was more in the nature of an inquisition, with the subject strapped to the bed, pretreated with dilantin, and ill from 800 mcg of LSD.

Since no investigator has ever claimed that LSD used in this way does have any therapeutic effect, this experiment suggests that LSD used with no therapeutic intent or skill is not apt to help. One of the subjects given LSD by Smart et al. described his experience in comparison with a psychedelic reaction he received from smaller quantities of LSD in Saskatchewan. The experiences and the outcome were quite different.

    Psychedelic therapy aims to create a set and a setting that will allow proper psychotherapy. The psychedelic therapist works with material that the patient experiences and discusses, and helps him resynthesize a new model of life or a new personal philosophy. During the experience, the patient draws upon information flooding in from the altered environment and from his own past, and uses it to eliminate false ideas and false memories. With the aid of the therapist, he evaluates himself more objectively and becomes more acutely aware of his own responsibility for his situation and, even more important, for doing something about it. He also becomes aware of inner strengths or qualities that help him in his long and difficult struggle toward sobriety.

    The book The Use of LSD in Psychotherapy and Alcoholism, edited by H. A. Abramson (1967), contains the best collection of scientific papers on psychedelic therapy.
    Around 1952, Osmond and I had become familiar with psychotomimetic reactions induced by LSD. There was a marked similarity between these reactions and schizophrenia and the toxic psychoses. Delirium tremens is one of the common toxic states. It occurred to us that LSD might be used to produce models of dt's. Many alcoholics ascribed the beginning of their recovery to "hitting bottom," and often "hitting bottom" meant having had a particularly memorable attack of dt's. We thought that LSD could be used this way with no risk to the patient.

We treated our first two alcoholics at the Saskatchewan Hospital, Weyburn, Saskatchewan, and one recovered.

    Other early pilot studies were encouraging, and we increased the tempo of our research until at one time six of our major psychiatric centers in Saskatchewan were using it. As of now, we must have treated close to one thousand alcoholics.

    Within a few years after our first patients were treated, we became aware that a large proportion of our alcoholics did not have psychotomimetic reactions. Their experiences were exciting and pleasant, and yielded insight into their drinking problems. It became evident that a new phenomenon had been recognized in psychiatry. Osmond created the word psychedelic to define these experiences, and announced this at a meeting of the New York Academy of Sciences in 1957.

    Following this, our researches were aimed at improving the quality and quantity of psychedelic reactions. Within the past ten years, major studies, under the direction of Dr. Ross MacLean, Hollywood Hospital, New Westminster, British Columbia, and under the direction of Dr. S. Unger at Spring Grove State Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland, have added materially to our knowledge of the effect of psychedelic therapy on alcoholism.

    I will not review the results of psychedelic therapy in detail. This has been done in the books edited by H. A. Abramson and in The Hallucinogens by A. Hoffer and H. Osmond (1967). The one striking conclusion is that every scientist using psychedelic therapy with alcoholics found the same proportion of recoveries. Whether the experiments were considered controlled or not, about 50 per cent were able to remain sober or to drink much less. This seems to be a universal statistic for LSD therapy.

    (1). Dr. Walter Alvarez recently told me that when he wrote a paper on food allergies at the Mayo Clinic about fifty years ago, he was severely criticized by his colleagues. Only strong support from one of the Mayos, who discovered that he himself had a food allergy, protected Alvarez from even-more-powerful assault. Medicine seems very reluctant to take unto itself new diseases. (back)

LSD comes in several different forms. The most common is paper blotter. Other forms include gell caps, liquid, and gelatin. Each form will contain different quantities and purities of lysergic acid diethylamide. The chart below shows dosages for pure LSD measured in micrograms (ug). Micrograms are 1/1,000,000 of a gram.

Oral LSD Dosages
Threshold 20 ug
Light 25 - 75 ug
Common 50 - 150 ug  
Strong 150 - 400 ug
Heavy 400 + ug
LD50 (Lethal Dose*) 12,000 ug 

Excerpts from John Markoff - What the Dormouse Said,_John_-_What_the_Dormouse_Said._How_the_60s_Counterculture_Shaped_the_PC_Industry.pdf

Myron Stolaroff had grown up in a Jewish household in Roswell, New Mexico, in the 1920s and 1930s. His father was a local merchant, and the family was prominent locally. Myron graduated first in his class both from his high school and from the local military junior college. At Stanford University, he received a Phi Beta Kappa key and a Tau Beta Pi key in recognition of his scholarship. He was a student at Stanford when David Packard and Bill Hewlett came back to campus to show off their first commercial oscillator. Near the end of the Second World War, he received an engineering degree and took a job working as the first employee of Alexander M. Poni-atoff at a small electric-motor company in Belmont, California.

He began as a design engineer and later helped Poniatoff prototype the first magnetic reel-to-reel tape recorder, which launched the company that took its name from Poniatoff's initials plus "ex" for excellence. Ampex Electric and Manufacturing had been founded in San Carlos after Poniatoff had begun looking for new applications for his high-quality
motors. Ampex is no longer a factor in Silicon Valley and today is remembered largely because its corporate logo is still prominently visible on Highway 101, the freeway that slices through the heart of the Valley. However, Ampex was as significant as Hewlett-Packard in the Valley's lineage, and many pioneering engineers still remember the  company fondly.

Of course, none of that was apparent from what was nothing more than an invitation to attend a lecture being given by Harry Rathbun, a professor of business law at Stanford. Rathbun was a charismatic teacher who was tremendously popular on campus, where he lectured to overflow classes on subjects that included discussions of personal ethics and values.

Rathbun's presentation was given in a small library in South Palo Alto, and it struck Stolaroff "between the eyes."14 The themes the law professor addressed that evening included "Who are we?" and "Where are we going?" They were Big Questions About Life. Stolaroff was transported, realizing that his life had been hollow and that the questions Rathbun
was asking and answering mesmerized him.

As it turned out, Rathbun's own life had been transformed when he and his wife, Emilia, attended a 1935 wilderness retreat led by Henry B. Sharman, a wealthy retired Canadian. Sharman had written a book entitled Jesus as Teacher, which probed the historical records surrounding the New Testament.

After returning to Stanford, the Rathbuns began conducting study groups for Stanford students in their home on the teachings of Christ. The sessions were later expanded to include a two-week retreat at a center that was established in the mountains about forty miles southwest of campus near the sleepy beach town of Santa Cruz.

They became known as the Sequoia Seminars and ultimately, in the 1970s, spun off a series of cultlike groups (including the Creative Initiative Foundation, Beyond War, and Women to Women Building the Earth for the Children's Sake) that attracted a broad, largely upper-middle-class following.

In many cases, people who joined them sold their homes and personal belongings and dedicated their lives completely to these groups. However, long before the 1970s, the Sequoia Seminars had a less well known but more dramatic and far-reaching consequence, in their immediate impact on Myron Stolaroff. Although he had been angered by Harry Rathbun's sneaky trick of guiding him to the phi-losophy of Jesus, Stolaroff remained intrigued by Rathbun's ideas.

The following year, he decided to set aside his anti-Jesus bias and his concern about what was happening to Jews around the world in the name of Jesus and attend a longer set of discussion groups led by the Rathbuns. At the seminar, Stolaroff became a convert. By the time it was over, he felt that he had experienced true love for others for the first time in his life and become a believer in "the power of the message" of Jesus.15

He decided that the most important thing that he could do with his life was to commit himself to the will of God.
It was during one of his visits in 1956 that Heard spoke enthusiastically to Stolaroff about a new drug called LSD. The very idea shocked the young engineer, who couldn't figure out why a world-famous mystic would need to take a drug. Nevertheless, Heard was fervent and told Stolaroff about an unusual man who would occasionally come from Canada and administer the  substance to both him and Aldous Huxley.

With two passports and with a murky history of connections to both law enforcement and intelligence agencies, Al Hubbard was without question one of the most curious characters in America during the 1950s and 1960s. There are conflicting accounts of Hubbard's life, but the best summary of his early years appears in Jay Stevens's Storming Heaven: LSD and the American Dream.

Born in Kentucky, Hubbard surfaced publicly in Seattle in 1919 with the invention of a perpetual-motion machine.17 Later, there were tales of his running war materials by boat up the West Coast, where they were then shipped by land through Canada to Great Britain. And there was an intimation that he had had some loose affiliation with the Manhattan Project as a black-market supplier of uranium. Even after Stolaroff had come to know Hubbard well, he wasn't certain where the truth lay. But he soon fell under Hubbard's spell, viewing him as an especially powerful and articulate individual.

Hubbard is intriguing in part because while most popular accounts of the introduction of LSD in America focus on the roles played by author Ken Kesey and psychologist Timothy Leary, Hubbard was an earlier proponent, and an important influence in the use of psychedelics by a number of Silicon Valley's pioneering engineers.

Hubbard, while he was the  president of a Canadian uranium mine, had discovered psychedelics in the early 1950s when he participated in mescaline experiments at the  University of Vancouver.

He found LSD in 1955, and in addition to Huxley, Heard, and perhaps more than one thousand others during the 1950s, he introduced the drug to Stolaroff and indirectly to a small group of engineers who formed a splinter group from the Rathbuns' Sequoia Seminar.

Myron Stolaroff

He [Stolaroff] returned to California a zealot, a convert to the new LSD faith. He had decided that experiences like the one he had had in Canada were the answer to the world's problems.

LSD would give society a new set of powerful tools to advance human development. Like Engelbart, Stolaroff set off on his own grand quest to augment the human mind.

His first stop was his closest friends at the Sequoia Seminar, where he had become a member of the group's planning committee. He introduced them to LSD in turn and created an informal research group composed of five fellow engineers and their wives.

The group included a young Ampex engineer, Don Allen; Stanford electrical engineering professor Willis Harman; and several others from both Hewlett-Packard and SRI.

Stolaroff's study group set in motion an unheralded but significant train of events, plunging a small group of technologists into the world of psychedelics almost a decade before LSD became a standard recreational drug on American college campuses.


Fadiman had gone to Harvard and studied social relations. He soon came to consider the field as psychology without rats, and he had instead focused his energy on being an actor. After graduating in 1960, he spent a year in Paris, and while he was there Timothy Leary and Richard Alpert along with Aldous Huxley passed through on their way to deliver an academic paper on psychedelics in Copenhagen.

In Paris, Alpert, who had been Fadiman's professor at Harvard, told him, "The greatest thing in the world has happened to me, and I want to share it with you." He proceeded to pull a small bottle out of his pocket, introducing his former student to LSD.

Forced back to America by the threat of the draft, Fadiman moved to California a year later and arrived at Stanford as a distinctly unhappy graduate student in 1961. He was feeling that school was a waste of his life, which he would have rather spent in more cultured
Augmentation Europe.

Moreover, having recently been introduced to psychedelic drugs, the world suddenly seemed like a much different place. Full of self-pity, he began leafing through the Stanford class catalog looking for something that might be interesting to study. He found a small section of crossdisciplinary  classes, including one being taught by an electrical engineering professor, Willis Harman, called "The Human Potential." The class was to be a discussion of what was the highest and the best to which human beings could aspire.

In his new, more highly attuned state, Fadiman thought to himself, There's something here. That morning, he walked across campus to visit Harman. The man to whom he introduced himself looked like a totally straight and conservative engineering professor, and when Fadiman asked if he could take the interdisciplinary course, Harman replied that it was already full for the quarter, and perhaps he should think about it for the next quarter.

"I've taken psilocybin three times," Fadiman said quietly. The professor walked across the room, shut his office door, and said, "We'd better talk."

In the end, Fadiman became Harman's teaching assistant. He was able to talk to the students about things that Harman felt he couldn't. He also soon became the youngest researcher at the newly founded International Foundation for Advanced Study, Myron Sto-laroff's project for continuing his research on the uses of LSD.

When Stolaroff and Harman set up shop in Menlo Park in March 1961, they weren't the only ones on the Midpeninsula exploring the therapeutic uses of LSD. Experiments were already being conducted at the Veterans' Administration Hospital in Menlo Park, and the Palo Alto Mental Research Institute had also begun introducing local psychiatrists and psychologists, and even writers such as Allen Ginsberg, to psychedelic drugs.15

But the foundation was something new. Engineers rather than medical professionals led the project, and the clinic was intent on charging a five-hundred-dollar fee for each experience. An early local newspaper report described the foundation's goals as being "partly medical, partly scientific, partly philosophical, partly mystical."16

Stolaroff, with the help of Willis Harman, largely funded the foundation, the real purpose of which was to conduct the research needed to make LSD credible in the medical profession. They worked with several psychologists, including Fadiman, as well as the mysterious Al Hubbard, who was a mentor to both Harman and Stolaroff and who became a member of the board of directors.

Fadiman, who soon was teaching at San Francisco State, finished his Ph.D. in psychology at Stanford, and his research at the foundation focused on the changes in beliefs, attitude, and behavior that resulted from taking LSD.
The foundation was not far from Roy Kepler's bookstore and a short walk from the hole-in-the-wall store where the Midpeninsula Free University store and print shop were to locate in the mid-sixties. In another building a block away, Brand later established the Whole Earth Truck Store and the Whole Earth Catalog. About a mile away from the truck store, the original People's Computer Company settled and in turn was the catalyst for the Homebrew Computer Club in the mid-1970s. The club itself served to ignite the personal-computer industry.
Most of the Bay Area was comfortably oblivious. Beginning in 1961, for a period of more than four years, the International Foundation for Advanced Study led more than 350 people through LSD experiences.
...Among the participants were Dr. Charles Savage, a physician who had conducted medical experiments for the U.S. Navy in the early 1950s, exploring the use of psychedelics as a truth serum,
In his hunt for subjects for the foundation's creativity studies, Fadiman called George Leonard, a California-based editor for Look. The magazine was at work on a special issue entitled "California: A New Game with New Rules." Leonard and a colleague came to the foundation and took part in an LSD session in an attempt to help them think through the design of the issue.

In the end, Leonard, who wrote about his trip in his  autobiography, Walking on the Edge of the World, wasn't sure if the experience made a difference. However, the June 28,1966, edition of Look introduced the rest of the world to the social and cultural changes that were ripping through California. On the cover was a photo of Jim and Dorothy Fadiman, locked in a deep embrace amid a field of California poppies.

A backlash was inevitable. Fadiman continued to oversee the LSD creativity research with scientists and engineers, until one day, while
he was at the office with a group of four scientists lying on the floor listening to music in preparation for work on their technical problems
while under a low dose of LSD, he opened an official-looking letter from the Food and Drug Administration. He knew what was coming.

It was July 1966, and the government was looking for ways to show that it was acting to stop teenage drug use. The letter was an order to immediately stop the foundation's research. Fadiman turned to his colleagues and said, "I think we opened this letter tomorrow."

The formal experiments ended, but the secret was out. In 1966 and 1967, LSD was seeping out of an isolated bohemian niche and into the mainstream of America. It would even permeate SRI, the largely military funded research center that sat just blocks away from offices of the foundation and the Whole Earth Truck Store.

Stanford Alumni Obits:
Lucille Emma Orsolini Carley, ’34, of Palo Alto, April 9, at 93. A Nursing School alumna, she worked as a registered nurse until her marriage to Leon Carley, ’29, JD ’33, who predeceased her.

She co-founded the Sequoia Seminar, an organization promoting nonviolent conflict resolution. The organization was a forerunner of the Foundation for Global Community.

Survivors: her daughter, Sandra Varco; four grandchildren; and five great-grandchildren.

Sequoia Seminar's -> Stolaroff  -> Ampex -> Owsley -> The Grateful Dead
Aoxomoxoa is the third studio  by the Grateful Dead

It was originally titled Earthquake Country. Many Deadheads consider this era of the Dead to be the experimental apex of the band's history. It is also the first album with Tom Constanten  as an official member of the band. Rolling Stone, upon reviewing the album, mentioned that "no other music sustains a lifestyle so delicate and loving and lifelike." The album was certified gold by the  on May 13, 1997.

The title of the album is a palindrome  created by cover artist Rick Griffin  and lyricist Robert Hunter . According to the audio version of the Rock Scully memoir, Living with the Dead (read by the author and former Dead co-manager himself), the title is pronounced "OX-OH-MOX-OH-AH". The words "GRATEFUL DEAD" on the front of the album, written in large, flowing capital letters, can also be read "WE ATE THE ACID". The artwork around the bottom edge of the album cover depicts several phallic representations. In 1991 Rolling Stone selected Aoxomoxoa as having the eighth best album cover of all time. Tapes of outtakes from the recording sessions exist among fans.

The group had already initiated recording sessions for the album when Ampex manufactured and released the first Multitrack recording  machine offering 16 tracks of recording and playback (model number MM-1000). This doubled the number of tracks the band had available when they recorded Anthem of the Sun the previous year

Ampex is an American electronics company founded in 1944 by Alexander M. Poniatoff. The name AMPEX is an acronym, created by its founder, which stands for Alexander M. Poniatoff Excellence. At one time public, Ampex is currently a privately held company.- Origins :Alexander M...

As a direct consequence, the band spent eight months off-and-on in the studio not only recording the album but getting used to—and experimenting with—the new technology. Garcia commented that "it was our first adventure with sixteen-track and we tended to put too much on everything ... A lot of the music was just lost in the mix, a lot of what was really there." As a result, Garcia and Lesh went back in the studio in 1971 to remix the album, removing whole sections of songs for a re-release. The first release from 1969 has not been commercially available since the 1971 remix replaced it. Although somewhat rare, this original mix still circulates among tape traders and vinyl collectors to this day.

Musical personnel
Jerry Garcia
 - guitars, vocals  Bob Weir
 - guitars, vocals  Tom Constanten
 - keyboards  Ron "Pigpen" McKernan - organ
Phil Lesh
 - basses, vocals  Bill Kreutzmann
 - percussion  Mickey Hart

Production personnel
Grateful Dead  - producers and arrangers
Bob Matthews - executive engineer
Betty Cantor - engineer
Ron Wickersham - consulting engineer
Dan Healy - consulting engineer

Owsley Stanley
Owsley Stanley also known as The Bear, was an underground LSD cook, the first to produce large quantities of pure LSD....  - consulting engineer (credited as "Owsley")

Ram Rod, John P. Hagen & Jackson - equipment managers (listed as "Kwipment Krew")

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Owsley Stanley - - Where did Charles Manson get his LSD?

Questions I ask myself - Where did Charles Manson get his LSD? - In progress...
(Most likely from Tim Scully) 

Laurel Canyon - David McGowan - Birth of the Hippie Generation - Abstract  

For the unrepentant patriarch of LSD, long, strange trip

For the unrepentant patriarch of LSD, long, strange trip winds back to Bay Area
Joel Selvin, Chronicle Senior Pop Music Critic
Thursday, July 12, 2007

The small, barefoot man in black T-shirt and blue jeans barely rates a  second glance from the other Starbucks patrons in downtown San Rafael, although  he is one of the men who virtually made the '60s. Because Augustus Owsley  Stanley III has spent his life avoiding photographs, few people would know what  he looks like.

    The name Owsley became a noun that appears in the Oxford dictionary as  English street slang for good acid. It is the most famous brand name in LSD  history. Probably the first private individual to manufacture the psychedelic,  "Owsley" is a folk hero of the counterculture, celebrated in songs by the
Grateful Dead and Steely Dan.  

    For more than 20 years, Stanley  --  at 72, still known as the Bear  --   has been living with his wife, Sheila, off the grid, in the outback of  Queensland, Australia, where he makes small gold and enamel sculptures and  keeps in touch with the world through the Internet.

    As a planned two-week visit to the Bay Area stretched to three, four and  then five weeks, Bear agreed to give The Chronicle an interview because a  friend asked him. He has rarely consented to speak to the press about his life,  his work or his unconventional thinking on matters such as the coming ice age
or his all-meat diet.  

    Sporting a buccaneer's earring he got when he was in jail and a hearing  aid on the same ear, he keeps a salty goatee, and the sides of his face look  boiled clean from seven weeks of maximum radiation treatment for throat cancer.  Having lost one of his vocal cords, he speaks only in a whispered croak these  days. At one point, he was reduced to injecting his puree of steak and espresso  directly into his stomach.  

    "I never set out to change the world," he rasps in recalling his early  manufacture of LSD. "I only set out to make sure I was taking something (that)  I knew what it was. And it's hard to make a little. And my friends all wanted  to know what they were taking, too. Of course, my friends expanded very

   By conservative estimates, Bear Research Group made more than 1.25 million  doses of LSD between 1965 and 1967, essentially seeding the entire modern  psychedelic movement.

    Less well known are Bear's contributions to rock concert sound. As the  original sound mixer for the Grateful Dead, he was responsible for fundamental advances in audio technology [AMPEX] , things as basic now as monitor speakers that  allow vocalists to hear themselves onstage.

    Says the Dead's Bob Weir: "He's good for a different point of view at  about any given time. He's brilliant. He knows everything."

    Bear, whose grandfather was a Kentucky governor and U.S. senator, grew up  in Los Angeles and Arlington, Va. He was thrown out of military school in the  eighth grade for being drunk and dropped out of school altogether at 18. He  managed to get accepted to the University of Virginia, where he spent a year  studying engineering. By 1956, he was in the Air Force, specializing in  electronics and radar.  

    Later, Bear studied ballet, acting and Russian, worked in jet propulsion labs [JPL] as well as radio and television, and then entered UC Berkeley in 1963, but  lasted less than a year.  

    Then he discovered acid [1963-1964?]

    He found the recipe for making LSD in the Journal of Organic Chemistry at  the UC Berkeley library. Soon after, Bear began to cook acid.  [His girlfriend was a chemist at UCB]

    The Berkeley police raided his first lab in 1966 and confiscated a  substance that they claimed was methedrine. When it turned out to be something  else  --  probably a component of LSD  --  Bear not only walked free but  successfully sued the cops for the return of his lab equipment.

    By the time he made a special batch called Monterey Purple for the 1967  Monterey Pop Festival   --  Owsley Purple was the secret smile on Jimi Hendrix's face that night  --  "Owsley" was an underground legend.

    In December 1967, agents arrested him at his secret lab in Orinda. The  "LSD Millionaire" headline in The Chronicle prompted the Dead to write the song  "Alice D. Millionaire." In 1970, after a pot bust in Oakland, a judge revoked  Bear's bail, and he served two years at Terminal Island near the Los Angeles

    "If you make some, you've got to move some to get some money to make it,"  he says now. "But then you had to give a lot away to keep the street price  down. So anyway, I'm sort of embedded in this thing that I'm tangled up in. ...  Just as soon as it became illegal, I wanted out. Then, of course, I felt an

    Bear, chemist to Ken Kesey and the Merry Pranksters, was involved with the  Dead almost from the band's beginnings at Kesey's notorious Acid Tests. Bear  was the Dead's first patron and, briefly, their manager. He bought the band  sound equipment and began to use the Dead as a laboratory for audio research [with AMPEX equipment] .

    "We'd never thought about high-quality PAs," says the Dead's Weir. "There was no such thing until Bear started making one."

    Bear made the first public address system specifically dedicated to music  in 1966. If he was the first concert sound engineer in rock music to take his  job seriously, his habit of making tape recordings of the shows he mixed also  gave the Dead an unprecedented archive of live recordings dating back to the
band's first days. Many of Bear's tapes have been turned into albums.
    Bear has always lived in a quite particular world. "He can be very anal retentive, on a certain level, on a genius level," says Paul Kantner of   Jefferson Airplane. "I've seen him send his eggs back three times at Howard  Johnson's."  

    His all-meat diet is a well-known example. When he was younger, Bear read  about the Eskimos eating only fish and meat and became convinced that humans  are meant to be exclusively carnivorous. The members of the Grateful Dead  remember living with Bear for several months in 1966 in Los Angeles, where the  refrigerator contained only bottles of milk and a slab of steak, meat they  fried and ate straight out of the pan. His heart attack several years ago had  nothing to do with his strict regimen, according to Bear, but more likely the  result of some poisonous broccoli his mother made him eat as a youth.  

    As a sound mixer, Bear holds equally strict viewpoints, insisting that the  most effective rock concert systems should have only a single source of sound,  his argument quickly veering into the realm of psycho-acoustics.

    "The PA can only be in one spot," he says. "All the sounds have to come  from a single place because the human brain is carrying around the most  sophisticated sound processing of any computer or living creature. It equals  the bats that fly by echo. It equals the dolphins. It equals the owls that hunt
at night without any daylight at all. It is a superb system for locating and  separating one sound from everything else."  

    Bear left Northern California in the early '80s, convinced that a natural  disaster was imminent. He predicted at the time that global warming would lead  to a six-week-long ultra-cyclone that could cover the Northern Hemisphere with  a new ice age. Determining that the tropical northern side of Australia would  be the most likely region to survive, Bear made a beeline for Queensland and  says he felt at home the moment he set foot on the new continent.

    "I might be right about the ice age thing," he allows. "I might be wrong."

    Old friends express shock that Bear would ever even admit to that  possibility, but, if not exactly mellowed in his old age, he has found room to  accommodate other points of view.     "He's come a long way," says Wavy Gravy, who visited Bear in Australia  this year. "He used to be real snappy and grumpy. Now he can be actually  sweet."      His four children are grown. He has five grandchildren, and his oldest  son, Pete, in Florida, just became a grandfather, making Bear a  great-grandfather for the first time. His other son, Starfinder, a  veterinarian, hosted a party for him last month at his Oakland home attended by  the old Dead crowd [I've been there] , a tortoise and a caged iguana. He has two daughters, Nina  and Redbird, and maintains his own Web site ( where he sells his sculpture and posts various diatribes and essays.  

    He keeps up with the music scene  --  he singles out Wolfmother and the  Arctic Monkeys as new bands he likes. "Any time the music on the radio starts  to sound like rubbish, it's time to take some LSD," he says.   Owsley Stanley (he legally dropped the "Augustus" 40 years ago) has also not joined the ranks of the penitent psychedelicists who look on their  experiences as youthful indiscretions.  

    "I wound up doing time for something I should have been rewarded for," he  says. "What I did was a community service, the way I look at it. I was punished  for political reasons. Absolutely meaningless. Was I a criminal? No. I was a  good member of society. Only my society and the one making the laws are

    At the hilltop San Anselmo home where Bear had been house-sitting, pretty  much all available space was taken over with his belongings. He squatted over  the piles, trying to figure out what to ship and what to take with him. Two  days before his flight, it looks like he'll need every minute.

    This time, he was extending his stay to catch his old friends Jorma  Kaukonen and Jack Casady of Hot Tuna play at the Fillmore. But when he left for  the airport the next day, he got as far as Sausalito before he discovered that  he had left the briefcase with the tickets back in San Anselmo, and the trip
home was postponed for another week.

    "I even said, 'I wonder what I'm leaving behind this time?' before I  left," he says, somewhat sadly.

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Owsley Stanley appears at '67 drug arraignment. Chronicle photo, 1967
Credit: Chronicle Photo

Owsley Stanley (born Augustus Owsley Stanley III, January 19, 1935) also known as The Bear, was an underground LSD cook, the first to produce large quantities of pure LSD.

His total production is estimated at around half a kilogram of LSD, or roughly 5 million 100-microgram "hits" of normal potency, although accounts vary widely. The widespread and low-cost (often given away free) availability of Stanley's high-quality LSD in the San Francisco area in the mid-1960s may have been crucial for the emergence of the hippie movement during the Summer of Love in the Haight-Ashbury area, which one historian of that movement, Charles Perry, has described as "one big LSD party." Stanley was also an accomplished sound engineer, and the longtime soundman and financier for seminal psychedelic rock band the Grateful Dead.

Stanley designed some of the first high-fidelity sound systems for rock music, culminating in the massive "Wall of Sound" electrical amplification system used by the Grateful Dead in their live shows, at the time a highly innovative feat of engineering, and was involved with the founding of high-end musical instrument maker Alembic Inc and the pre-eminent concert sound equipment manufacturer Meyer Sound. The combination of his notoriety in the psychedelic scene and his reclusive tendencies—in part cultivated to confuse the authorities; he avoided being photographed and refused to be interviewed for many years—led to the perpetuation of many inaccurate tales about him.
Early life
When Stanley was twenty-one, he enlisted in the U.S. Air Force in 1956 and served for eighteen months before being discharged in 1958. Later, inspired by a 1958 performance of the Bolshoi Ballet, he began studying ballet in Los Angeles, supporting himself for a time as a professional dancer.[1] In 1963, he enrolled at the University of California, Berkeley where he became involved in the psychoactive drug scene. He dropped out after a semester, took a technical job at KGO-TV, and began producing LSD in a small lab located in the bathroom of a house near campus. His makeshift laboratory was raided by police on February 21, 1965. He beat the charges and successfully sued for the return of his equipment. The police were looking for methamphetamine, but found only LSD—which was not illegal at the time.

Stanley moved to Los Angeles to pursue the production of LSD. He used his Berkeley lab proceeds to buy 800 grams of lysergic acid monohydrate, the basis for LSD. His first shipment arrived on March 30, 1965. He produced 300,000 capsules (270 micrograms each) of LSD by May 1965 and then returned to the Bay Area.

In September 1965, Stanley became the primary LSD supplier to Ken Kesey and the Merry Pranksters; by this point Sandoz LSD was hard to come by and "Owsley Acid" had become the new standard. He was featured (most prominently his freak-out at the Muir Beach Acid Test in November 1965) in The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, a book detailing the history of Kesey and the Merry Pranksters by Tom Wolfe. Stanley attended the Watts Acid Test on February 12, 1966 with his new apprentice Tim Scully and provided the LSD.

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Storming Heaven - LSD & The American Dream
Author: Jay Stevens
Owsley's scientific aptitude gained him admittance to the University of Virginia's School of Engineering. He lasted a year. By 1956 he was in the Air Force. He spent eighteen months at Edwards Air Force Base, in the high desert plateau east of Los Angeles, specializing in
electronics and radar

After his discharge, he moved to Los Angeles, where the electronics boom was just beginning, and spent the next few years drifting from job to job, never making more than eight thousand dollars a year, and never really exercising the intellect he knew he possessed.

During these years Owsley married, divorced, and remarried in a Tijuana ceremony that was later invalidated. He fathered a child, moved back with his first wife and then out again—"just a little boy afraid to grow up, a Peter Pan," one of his wives later told a reporter.4
In 1963 he was arrested for writing $645 dollars worth of bad checks, for which he received a suspended sentence and three years' probation.

After his trial ended, Owsley decided to take another crack at college, this time at Berkeley. He rented a room in a cheap boarding-house that catered to students and ex-students and began "moving in boxes full of such stuff as ballet shoes, a complete beekeeper's outfit and a painting in progress that showed the arm of Christ on the cross, portrayed more or less from a Christ's-eye view."5 Whatever competition he had as "house eccentric" was soon routed.

Owsley wrote poetry, studied Russian, drew strange but technically acceptable pictures, was a ballet enthusiast and an electronics nut. He was a sharp but eccentric dresser, a bit of a dandy, and he preferred to be known by his nickname. Bear. He reminded housemate
Charles Perry of a character in William Burroughs's Naked Lunch, the one who "has a theory on everything, like what kind of underwear is healthy."6 Some of his theories were truly brilliant, others merely weird, but he defended them all with a tenacity that was wearing on
those who thought the whole thing was about becoming mellow, hanging out, absorbing and contemplating. But if Owsley was hyperopinionated, he wasn't a bully about it. "There was something disinterested and nobly intentioned in his relentless enthusiasms. And his ideas were never boring," remembered Perry.

Owsley never ate dinner with us because he was antivegetarian. He argued that since the human race is descended from carnivorous apes, our digestive system is designed for meat alone, and vegetables are slow poison. Once when we smoked some hashish and developed a case of the munchies, he accused me of trying to poison him with apple pie. "I haven't had any plant food in my system for years," he groused between mouthfuls. "My digestion will be f_cked up for a month."7

He lasted a semester at Berkeley before quitting to take a technical job at KGO-TV. On the surface it seemed he was settling back into his habitual rut, and indeed he might have but for two additional factors. The first was his discovery of LSD. What happened to Owsley in the Other World we can only surmise from the reports of others.

Tim Leary, in his incomparable style, wrote how Owsley had "taken the full LSD trip, hurled down through his cellular reincarnations, disintegrated beyond life into pulsing electronic grids, whirled down beyond atomic forms to that unitary center that is one, pure, radiant, humming vibration."8 And when he whirled back up he was no longer the dilettante artist, the brilliant f**k-up.

Owsley returned with a mission: he was going to save the world by making the purest and cheapest and most abundant LSD possible.

And this was where the second factor became important. By the purest chance, Owsley had just begun a romance with a chemistry graduate student at Berkeley named Melissa.

Owsley's first lab was in the bathroom of a house near the Berkeley campus. There is some evidence that in addition to LSD, he was also making Methedrine. At least this was what the police thought when they raided the house in February 1965, and confiscated a chemical that may or may not have been an intermediate step toward LSD. It wasn't Methedrine, in any case, although that is what the police decided to charge him with.

Owsley's reaction to the bust became the foundation of his legend. Instead of panicking, he hired Arthur Harris, the deputy mayor of Berkeley, as his lawyer, and Harris quickly got the case thrown out on the grounds that no Methedrine had been found. But Owsley wasn't
content with simple vindication. Once the charges were dropped, Owsley turned around and successfully sued the police for the return of all his confiscated laboratory equipment. Then he disappeared.

He surfaced briefly in Alexandria, Virginia, where he contacted his family. "He was only four miles away but we spoke on the phone," his father later told a reporter. "He got mad at me, tried to tell me booze is worse [than drugs]. I told him to wash his hands and come back
and talk to me about it … We haven't had a pleasant relationship. We're not in accord with what he's doing. His life is divorced from ours. He's had two wives and a child by each and lives with another woman. When he came here with that floozy I wouldn't let him in."9 As a
parting shot, AOS2 described his son as "emotionally unbalanced, but has a brilliant' mind."

Los Angeles became Owsley's new base of operations. He formed a company called Bear Research Group and began ordering the necessary chemicals for synthesizing LSD. Using the Bear Research cover, he purchased substantial quantities of lysergic monohydrate, the essential ingredient in the LSD synthesis. All told he accumulated 800 grams—500 from Cycio Chemical and 300 from International Chemical and Nuclear Corp—signing, in both instances, affidavits to the effect that the chemicals would be used for research purposes only. He paid cash—twenty thousand dollars in hundred-dollar bills to Cycio alone, which suggested that the Berkeley factory, despite its short lifespan, had been more lucrative than anyone supposed.

Owsley received his first shipment of lysergic monohydrate on March 30, 1965. By May he had turned it into LSD. His method of distribution was largely word of mouth, which may be why the police once again learned of his clandestine lab. Unbeknownst to Owsley, Captain Alfred Tremblay, commander of the Los Angeles narcotics division, was emptying his garbage cans at regular intervals. Among the items Tremblay retrieved were several order forms, one of which came from Portland, Oregon, with a request for forty capsules and a
postscript: "love to Melissa."10

A year later Owsley's garbage would be prominently displayed during Tremblay's Congressional testimony. But by then Owsley had vanished from Tremblay's turf. As soon as his first run was complete he returned to San Francisco, where he amazed his old
housemates with the fact that he had actually made his own LSD. According to Charles Perry, Owsley's first product was "devastatingly strong in an almost heavy-handed way that recalled Owsley's own insistent manner." Like the Pranksters, Owsley's psychedelic perspective contained a lot of machismo; he was always taunting his friends to "take two and really cut loose into the cosmos."11

Owsley learned of Kesey sometime in the summer of 1965, setting the stage for their fateful meeting in the early morning hours after the aborted Beatles party. Fateful because without Owsley the Acid Tests probably would never have taken place, for the simple reason that LSD was too difficult to obtain. The dream of handing out thousands of doses was just that, a fantasy, or had been until that cocky little boho materialized out of the crowd of teenyboppers and said, "I'm Owsley."

This was the second bar in the Owsley legend: he was the Pranksters' chemist.

Flush with money, Owsley became the counterculture's most benevolent patron, buying sound equipment for indigent bands like the Grateful Dead and bankrolling the Haight's first newspaper, the San Francisco Oracle. According to his old housemate, Charles Perry, Owsley's Berkeley hideout frequently resembled a medieval court, with "a regular retinue of petitioners … present[ing] themselves like serfs pleading for boons from the King. I can still see Owsley listening warily but regally to their requests, enthroned in the nude on a huge fur-covered chair, drying his hair with a hair dryer."12 Owsley's personal enthusiasms, always exotic, became even grander. He collected oriental rugs and state-of-the-art electronics. He kept an owl, which he fed live mice. He made personalized perfumes, mixing the essences to suit his interpretation of the recipient's personality.

 If Owsley didn't invent the hippie dealer look, he certainly perfected it, with his elaborate turquoise belts and handtooled
boots. Food was another of his passions, and he enjoyed entertaining his entourage at various fine restaurants. The price of the meal was usually an Owsley soliloquy, either on the subject of antivegetarianism or else his famous LSD rap, a marathon romp through
Einsteinian physics and Buddhist philosophy, which added up to one large apercu: the Divine Force had given mankind LSD to counteract the discovery of nuclear fission.

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Tim Scully
Aug 27, 1944 -
Tim Scully is best known in the psychedelic underground for his work in the production of LSD from 1966 to 1969, for which he was indicted in 1973 and convicted in 1974. His best known product, dubbed "Orange Sunshine", was considered the standard for quality LSD in 1969. Scully worked with Owsley Stanley and Nick Sand in the late 1960s.

During his LSD manufacturing career, Scully worked in four labs (documented in his 1973 trial):
With Bear (Owsley) in a Pt. Richmond, CA lab in 1966, as his apprentice
With Bear in a first Denver lab (set up by Scully) in 1967
On his own in a second Denver lab in 1968
In a Windsor, CA lab, which he set up in 1969 (where Orange Sunshine was made and where Nick Sand learned the process)

Scully had his work "busted" twice — once in 1969 for the 1968 Denver lab (the search was eventually ruled illegal in 1972) and once in 1973 for the 1969 Windsor lab conspiracy (which resulted in a 20 year sentence). Scully spent his time in prison helping with computers and improving communications for disabled prisoners.

His entire life, Tim Scully has been interested in cutting edge technology and computers. As a teen in 1958, he earned an honorable mention at a San Francisco Bay Area science fair for designing and building a small computer. He later received recognition for building a small linear accelerator pictured in a 1961 edition of the Oakland Tribune. He was trying to make gold atoms from mercury.

Scully has been a pilot much of his adult life and has worked in biofeedback and interface systems for people with disabilities. He has published eight articles on the topic of biofeedback and as many on technical computer topics. He retired from his years of work with Autodesk in 2005 and is currently researching a book on the underground history of LSD.

The Berkeley ButterCup  Bakery - Kary Mullis - LSD and Suze Orman

Suze's got a twinkle in her eye, doesn't she?

Myron J. Stolaroff, the former Ampex executive, noted in 1999 that LSD was the most important invention of the last 1,000 years. No intelligent well-informed person would disagree.

Berkeley was world headquarters for LSD, a substance which the government conservatively estimates more than 90 million people have taken. (In 1993 a ranking DEA official, Gene Haislip, stated that the entire global supply was controlled by a group of approximately 100 people in the bay area.)

I was present when much LSD was delivered to the very tiny Buttercup bakery in Berkeley.

The manager of the Buttercup was Kary Mullis, the inventor of the ultra-important polymerase chain reaction DNA test.

Mullis famously attributes his invention to the fact that he took LSD in Berkeley.

The waitress at the Buttercup was Suze Orman, who went on to become the bestselling financial author. She was frequently annoyed at the 2 customers, Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak, who were poor and tried to get free coffee.

When asked how Apple got the jump on IBM, Jobs famously said "Maybe they didn't take enough LSD." (Or check out the cover story in FORTUNE magazine, "The Edison of the Internet", about long-haired hippie Bill Joy and the U.C. Berkeley computer group.)

 A google search I just did shows 26,200 results for the quote "There are 2 major products that come out of Berkeley--LSD and UNIX."

There was a reason the President of the United States, Richard Nixon, labeled former Berkeley resident Timothy Leary "the most dangerous man in America". The reason, of course, was Leary's advocacy of LSD. In the words of a popular song from that time ("San Francisco [be sure to wear some flowers in your hair]" by Scott Mckenzie, 1967): "ALL ACROSS THE NATION, SUCH A STRANGE VIBRATION"...

("I never heard anyone really go into this, but the real power of LSD lay in the fact that, if you were a biochemist and your roommate had a trust fund, you could, in a long weekend, produce 5- to 10-million hits. To produce 5- to 10-million hit of any other psychedelic, you would have to have the resources of Upjohn Corporation. I mean it's an industrial scale undertaking. Because LSD is active in the microgram range, it is unique in that you're not simply able to get your neighborhood or your campus high, you are a political force at the national level.

If you're sitting on 10- to 15-million hits of LSD, you have a gun poised at the head of the establishment, and they react to it that way."

"Steve Jobs has never been shy about his use of psychedelics, famously calling his LSD experience 'one of the two or three most important things I have done in my life.'"

---Ryan Grim. Posted on on July 8, 2009.
(please click on the link below to read more:
Q&A with personal financial guru Suze Orman

October 25, 2008 |By Carolyn Said, Chronicle Staff Writer
Q: You have some strong ties to the Bay Area; tell us about them.

A: In 1973, I came to Berkeley from Illinois and slept in my van on Hearst Avenue for four months while I worked in the hills for a tree service helping cut down eucalyptus trees. I was a waitress at the Buttercup Bakery (in Berkeley) from 1973 to 1980, making $400 a month.

E-mail Carolyn Said at
(C) San Francisco Chronicle 2008

Kary Banks Mullis (born December 28, 1944) is an American biochemist and Nobel laureate. Mullis shared the 1993 Nobel Prize in Chemistry with Michael Smith. Mullis received the prize for his development of the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), a process first described by Kjell Kleppe and 1968 Nobel laureate H. Gobind Khorana that allows the amplification of specific DNA sequences.[1]

Mullis earned a Bachelor of Science degree in chemistry[2] from the Georgia Institute of Technology in Atlanta in 1966, during which time he got married and started a business.[3] He then received a Ph.D. in biochemistry from the University of California, Berkeley in 1972
After receiving his PhD, Mullis left science to write fiction, but quit and became a biochemist at a medical school in Kansas City.[3] He then managed a bakery for two years.[4] Mullis returned to science at the encouragement of friend Thomas White, who later got Mullis a job with the biotechnology company Cetus Corporation of Emeryville, California.[1][4]

[edit] Use of LSD
In a Q&A interview published in the September, 1994, issue of California Monthly, Mullis said, "Back in the 1960s and early '70s I took plenty of LSD. A lot of people were doing that in Berkeley back then. And I found it to be a mind-opening experience. It was certainly much more important than any courses I ever took."[17] During a symposium held for centenarian Albert Hofmann, "Hofmann revealed that he was told by Nobel-prize-winning chemist Kary Mullis that LSD had helped him develop the polymerase chain reaction that helps amplify specific DNA sequences."[18] Replying to his own postulate during an interview for BBC's Psychedelic Science documentary, "What if I had not taken LSD ever; would I have still invented PCR?" He replied, "I don't know. I doubt it. I seriously doubt it."[19]

17 ^ Schoch, Russell (September 1994). "Q&A - A Conversation with Kerry Mullis". California Monthly (Berkeley, CA: California Alumni Association) 105 (1): 20. Retrieved 2008-03-11.  

More on the Berkeley LSD scene  circa 1970's:
Bill and Hillary's Hippie Daze

YESTERDAY drugs were such an easy game to play. Yesterday a Hillary operative ate his words faster than a stoner gobbling a smoldering roach when the fuzz kicks in the door.

Yesterday morning, the Washington Post reported that New Hampshire Clintonite Billy Shaheen(**) said "Obama's candor on the subject [of drugs in his youth] would "open the door" to further questions. "It'll be, 'When was the last time? Did you ever give drugs to anyone? Did you sell them to anyone?'"

By nightfall, the same abashed operative was groveling before the press with: "I deeply regret the comments I made today and they were not authorized by the campaign in any way."

I think he received a rocket via telephone from Hillary herself. She wants no discussion of youthful drug experiments. And with reason. Reasons that go back to the Clintons' Berkeley Summer of Love in 1971 -- if not before.

Reasons that I know well because I was in Berkeley in that summer of 1971. I was living about four blocks away from where Bill and Hillary were, in the parlance of the time, "shacked up." These were my not-so-mean streets. I know what went down. And I am here to tell you that there was no such thing as an unstoned student activist/hippy living in that neighborhood at that time. It was non-stop sex, drugs, rock and roll, and activism. I know. I was there. And while I don't remember everything, I remember a lot. More than I should given the quantity, quality, and diversity of the drugs that were on the scene, on the street, and in the bodies of all of us at the time in that place.

The tantalizing details of the Clintons' Berkeley sojourn were spelled out in an article late last month in The New York Sun (The Clinton's Berkeley Summer of Love by Josh Gerstein.). Of course, Mr Gerstein makes no accusations of drug use by the young, hip and activist couple (Hillary was clerking for the radical Treuhaft law firm in nearby Oakland. Bill gave up a summer of working for George McGovern to be with her.) Instead, he's dug up some charming details of two young politico-hippies in love in the town that was the town to be in if you were young hippies in love in 1971:

The new couple quickly became quite domestic. Bowing to her future husband's Arkansas roots, Mrs. Clinton baked him a peach pie. The pair also "produced a palatable chicken curry for any and all occasions we hosted," Mrs. Clinton recalled.

While Mrs. Clinton clerked at the Treuhaft firm in nearby Oakland, Mr. Clinton plowed through books, explored Berkeley shops, and scouted out San Francisco restaurants. According to the future senator, the pair also kindled their romance on long walks where Mr. Clinton occasionally used his southern twang to regale her with Elvis Presley tunes.

One night in July, the couple drove down to Stanford to listen to an outdoor concert by Joan Baez. The Southern boy was treated to a rendition of "The Night They Drove Old Dixie Down," he recalled in his memoir.

He quotes Hillary's memoir , Living History, saying they "shared a small apartment near a big park not far from the University of California at Berkeley campus where the Free Speech Movement started in 1964." Then Gerstein goes on to posit that it was an apartment on Derby Street:

"The apartment was about six blocks from the main university campus and just three blocks from People's Park, the site of a violent 1969 confrontation between protesters and police that left one protester dead and more than 100 wounded."

Well, he's got that right. I know because I was part of the People's Park riots of 1969. Shotguns, death, helicopters spewing gas. The whole stupid shebang that left one man dead. Our own mini Kent State.

I was also around for the Free Speech Movement of 1964. By 1971 I'd been around Berkeley and the Bay Area for some time. And I was there, living in a house on corner of Fulton and Ward streets not more than four blocks from the Derby Street apartment. If the Clintons ventured outside onto Telegraph Avenue at all we would have passed each other on the street, skulked around Cody's books, and had cappuccino at the Med. On this you can bet your stash of primo Afghan hash.

The Green House, today. My apartment, below right. Acid factory, above right

The other thing you can bet the stash on about the Clintons in that summer of 1971 in Berkeley is that they were stoned, loaded, blasted, wasted, high as a kite, and just plain baked. At the very least. Assuming that pot and hashish was as far as it went. And it did not for many in that summer, I assure you, stop at that. Other drugs that were around for the asking and used frequently were LSD and cocaine. Heroin too, but I never saw it. It was on the down low, the QT, very hush-hush and you usually had to go to Oakland to score it.

In the house I lived in at the time, there were four apartments. Two in front and two in the rear. I lived in the downstairs front. Above me lived a couple, Ben and Carol. Carol was great at sewing and macrame. Ben was great at making tablets of Lysergic Acid.

Indeed, at the time Ben was one of the main suppliers for the bay area. Every so often Ben would go off somewhere and come back with a trunk which he and a partner would haul up the stairs and into the apartment above us. (Yes, like the Clintons I too was shacking up with what we referred to at the time as "my old lady." )

After a time, we'd here the thumping start... thump..... thump..... thump..... About one every three seconds or so. Ben had mixed up his LSD and was running the preparation through the pill press. "Making a run," he'd call it. After a long night of this, Ben and Carol and his partner would emerge from the apart, stoned as poleaxed penguins from the high you got by working around LSD in a less than controlled environment. Bags of small pills in blue or red or whatever color he'd decided on would remain behind to be shuffled out to the Hells Angels or whomever Ben had doing his distribution. You didn't ask about that. It was his business and Ben was the first person I ever knew to keep a number of guns lying around.

And that was the LSD scene in Berkeley at the time. The pot scene was even looser and more available. It wasn't a question of who on the streets of Berkley was baked. It was a question of who wasn't.

If you read the Sun article it is clear that there's more investigative reporting to be done on the question of the Clintons' summer of love. But there are a few hints.

Mrs. Clinton baked him a peach pie. The pair also "produced a palatable chicken curry for any and all occasions we hosted."

Peach pie alone could be innocent enough I suppose. But put that together with a chicken curry and you've got hard core stoner food, dude. And you know I'm right.

So unless the Clintons were very, very unhip at the time.... and we have it on his own good authority that our sax playing, jive talking, hypercool ex-president is the hippest statesman in the world... unless they were very odd, then they were -- off and on -- very stoned.

It was, after all, 1971. It was, after all, Berkeley California. If the Clintons, during their first prolonged cohabitation, were at all "normal" for the time their evenings at home would have consisted of
1) rolling a fat doobie, probably three or four;
2) whipping up some chicken curry
3) smoking a fat doobie;
4) getting some dim candles going along with a stick of incense
5) putting on a tried and true series of records; and
6) hopping into bed and, as we said then, "balling" until they passed out.

That was pretty much the standard evening's entertainment in the summer of 1971 in Berkeley. I know. I was there. And one thing I can tell you is that the non-conformist hippies of that time and that place ran to type. Glancing at a list of the singles that were hot in 1971, I can probably even guess the songs the Clintons played while they frolicked.

They would have started with 3 Dog Night's Joy to the World, then gone from there to either American Pie or Mr. Big Stuff for the dinner moment. After the second doobie and the peach pie and ice cream, it would have been time to mellow down with Rod Stewart's Maggie May / Reason to Believe and Carole King's It's Too Late. Then when you really started to get into it, a stoned and hip Lothario such as the young and even-more-randy-than-when-President Bill Clinton would not have left Led Zepplin's Stairway to Heaven off the turntable when he was going to make his move. Indeed, if he planned it right he'd stacked the albums carefully and at just the right moment, the killer platter would fall and it would be The Doors.....

You know that it would be untrue You know that I would be a liar
If I was to say to you  Girl, we couldn't get much higher
Come on baby, light my fire
Come on baby, light my fire
Try to set the night on fire

In the late night, stoned streets of Berkeley in 1971 whenever you heard that Light My Fire you knew somebody was getting laid.... maybe even three or four somebodies. Ensemble. I don't know about Bill, but by 1971 I was on my second copy of The Doors album.

Now, I am sure that you will never, ever have the ghost of a chance of getting either Hillary or Bill to, as we used to say, cop to any of this. But it happened that way, a long, long time ago, in a stoner's universe far, far away.

Believe me, the last thing Hillary Clinton wants is for anyone on her campaign or any other campaign to start looking into drug use. Especially for Candidates shacking up in Berkeley, just down from Telegraph Avenue, in the lovin' summer of 1971.

I know what happened. I was there. Not in their bedroom. At least, I don't think I was. But in mine, in the same town in the same summer. And that's what was, as we said then, "Happening, man." And I'm not running for anything. And I'm not stoned anymore either. At least, I don't think I am.

Then again, if Hillary was to have an epiphany on the question of dumping the insane laws again marijuana and promise not just a chicken curry in every pot, but a kilo of Acapulco gold in every pothead, she just might get people to vote for her that are usually too stoned to make it off the couch, much less to the polls. It might be the one promise that gets all America to vote.

Notice Emilia is miss-spelled "EmElia" : Helps to confuse no?
Publication Date: Wednesday, October 13, 2004
Emelia Rathbun, founder of Global Community, dies

Emelia Lindeman Rathbun, a driving force behind the Palo Alto-based Creative Initiative and Global Community organization, died at her home Oct. 6 following a stroke three weeks earlier. She was 98.

"I've had a wonderful life," she told friends and family members shortly before her death, according to longtime friends and associates Virginia Fitton and Wileta Burch. Rathbun died peacefully at her Waverley Street home in the early morning hours, surrounded by family members.

She had suffered a minor stroke about two weeks before her death and told friends and family it was "time for me to die."

"I've lived almost a century and what a marvelous, fulfilling, fast life it has been," Rathbun reflected in a recent interview. "I lived on a hacienda, had tutors, rode horseback and in carriages, and sailed on ships whenever we came to America."

She was born on New Year's Day, 1906, in Colima, Mexico. Rathbun was the eldest of five children -- she had a brother and three sisters.

The family moved to San Jose in 1922, and she received a teaching credential from San Jose Normal School (predecessor to San Jose State University) in 1928 -- the same year she was chosen Rose Queen in San Jose's Fiesta de las Rosas. She taught first grade for a time at the former Mayfield School in Palo Alto.

She married Stanford law professor Harry J. Rathbun in 1931, creating a partnership that changed the lives of thousands of people in the Palo Alto/Stanford area and around the world -- using the group-dynamic approach to building a social-change organization.

Emelia initially was the driving force behind creation in 1962-63 of a woman's organization called Newsphere, based on the literary work of French priest/paleontologist/philosopher Teilhard de Chardin.

"We felt it was time for women to expand beyond the motherhood role," Burch recalled of the early launch of an arm of the women's movement -- separate and distinct from the more hard-edged feminism of the time.

"It was about the idea of being equal partners with men," Fitton added.

The group at first had no name, but was referred to only as "The Work," drawn from the "women's work and men's work" concept. It was dubbed Newsphere at a public launch in early 1963 at Foothill College. An early name for the effort was "Woman to Woman Build the Earth for the Children's Sake," a mouthful that became shortened to "Build the Earth."

In the early 1950s, the Rathbuns founded Sequoia Seminar, a retreat center in the Santa Cruz Mountains, where for more than 40 years they led seminars based on the teachings of Jesus Christ.

The movement became Creative Initiative in the 1960s, and at one time grew to involve several thousand members across the United States.

In the 1980s, the group spun off the Beyond War movement, a worldwide effort to convey the message that nuclear weapons had made all war obsolete. A "Beyond War Award" was presented to several world leaders for their arms control efforts.

Harry Rathbun died in 1987.

In 1992, the organization became the present Foundation for Global Community, with offices on High Street north of Lytton Avenue in downtown Palo Alto.

Rathbun is survived by a son, Richard of Palo Alto; a daughter, Juana Mueller of Huntington Beach; and four grandchildren.

A memorial service is scheduled for 7 p.m. Friday, Oct. 15 at the First Congregational Church, Louis and Embarcadero roads, Palo Alto. The family requests that memorials be contributions to the Foundation for Global Community. -- Jay Thorwaldson

(1894 – 1987)
Harry John Rathbun, Professor Emeritus of Law, died on September 28, 1987, at his home in Palo Alto after several months of declining health. He was born on June 14, 1894, in Mitchell, South Dakota, where he attended the Mitchell public schools and graduated as valedictorian of his high school class.
The courses he offered were particularly well received, and in 1950 he was named "Great Teacher" as a part of a survey of outstanding teachers conducted by Life Magazine. [Luce/bilderberg Mockingbird]
Harry's interests at Stanford were not confined to formal teaching. He and his wife Emilia became the first faculty residents in Fraternity Cluster I located near the Knoll and they held many meetings with students both in their home and in the fraternities.
Dating as far back as his high school graduation, and possibly before, Harry had an interest in world peace, justice, and the need for people to become worthy citizens not only of their own country but of the world. He had a deep interest in religion, although at a fairly early age he decided to pursue that interest outside the mainstream of traditional religious observance.

His quest for spiritual truth was heightened in 1935 when he and his wife Emilia attended a summer seminar taught by Henry Burton Sharman that examined the historical records of the New Testament.

Inspired by the intellectual foundation provided by Sharman, the Rathbuns on their return to Stanford gave study groups for students in their home.

As interest increased the sessions became known as the Sequoia Seminars and were held in the Santa Cruz Mountains.

In 1968 Harry and Emilia founded Creative Initiative, a nonprofit educational foundation that had as a goal the exploration of the meaning of life and man's role on earth. They gave seminars and lectures throughout the United States on the theme "One Earth, one humanity, one spirit."

Creative Initiative volunteers worked on a number of projects such as energy conservation, toxic waste disposal, and teen-age alcohol and drug abuse. This group ultimately evolved into Beyond War, an organization that promoted methods of conflict resolution other than nuclear or conventional war. By 1987 its membership had grown to 15,000 nationwide.

During the late 1960's and early 1970's, when there was a great deal of unrest and chaos on campus, Harry and Emilia founded the Community for Relevant Education (CRE) with a roster of over 200  students at one point in time, along with a number of faculty and staff, as well as citizens of nearby communities. CRE had the goal of finding creative solutions to some issues being raised at the time.

Meetings often occurred late at night after the students had finished studying. As an outgrowth of this movement, and also in response to the needs of the late 1960's, Harry was responsible for the initiation of the Involvement Corps, essentially a privately financed Vista. A number of Stanford students became Involvement Corps participants.
Stanford Report, January 23, 2007
Gift to Religious Life endows new fund

A $4.5 million gift to the Office for Religious Life will endow a new fund, the Harry and Emilia Rathbun Fund for Exploring What Leads to a Meaningful Life, named in honor of the late law professor and his late wife. The endowment is a gift of the Palo Alto Foundation for Global Community, which is headed by the Rathbuns' son, Richard Rathbun.

The fund will support activities that encourage self-reflection and moral inquiry, including a new visiting fellows program, which will include a series, "Harry's Last Lecture on a Meaningful Life." The program will invite major figures to come to campus near Commencement to talk to students about personal values, beliefs and motivations.

Harry Rathbun, who taught in the Law School for more than three decades beginning in 1929, was known widely for annually devoting his final business law lecture to a discussion of the meaning of life. The tradition was prompted by a letter in the Stanford Daily from a graduating student who wrote that he feared going out in a world he didn't understand, Rathbun later recalled. "I had to tell those kids that the meaning of life was up to them, that no teacher and no school and nobody else could hand it to them like a diploma." "Harry's Last Lecture" became so popular with students that it eventually was held in Memorial Auditorium.

The Rathbuns also hosted Sunday night gatherings at their Palo Alto home where students came to discuss ethics, psychology and religion. Among the students who participated was former Supreme Court Justice Sandra Day O'Connor, who credited Rathbun with influencing her decision to go to law school and helping to shape the course of her life.

Rathbun, who was born in 1894, first earned mechanical and electrical engineering degrees from Stanford before returning for a law degree. After he retired in 1959, Rathbun continued to teach in the Law School as well as in the Business School's executive development and Sloan programs, where he lectured in business law and business ethics. He and his wife, Emilia, co-founded the Sequoia Seminar, which in the 1960s became the Creative Initiative and is now the Foundation for Global Community. Harry Rathbun died in 1987; Emilia Rathbun died in 2004.

The endowment will establish the Rathbun Visiting Fellow Program for five or more years. In addition to funding other new programming, the Harry and Emilia Rathbun Fund for Exploring What Leads to a Meaningful Life will support activities sponsored by the Office for Religious Life, including the "What Matters to Me and Why" series, the Heyns Lecture series and the Baccalaureate celebration.

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Emilia Lindeman Rathbun

Mrs. Rathbun was born on New Year's Day, 1906, in Colima, Mexico. Her father, an American citizen, was a civil engineer who built railroads and harbors in Mexico and married the daughter of a wealthy Mexican family. Emilia was the eldest in a family that included a brother and three sisters. I led a privileged life, she said, adding, "I was taught that privilege is a responsibility and your purpose is to help and serve—a wonderful heritage."

The family moved to San Jose, California, in 1922. She received her teaching credential from San Jose State University and for a number of years taught first grade in Palo Alto. In 1928, Emilia was chosen Rose Queen of San Jose's "Fiesta de las Rosas."

In 1931, Emilia married Harry J. Rathbun, a professor of law at Stanford University, and together they embarked on a life-long journey of helping others.

In the early 1950s, they founded Sequoia Seminar, an educational retreat center in the Santa Cruz Mountains and for more than 40 years led seminars based on the teachings of Jesus of Nazareth.
The Rathbuns are perhaps best known as the leaders of Creative Initiative, a nonprofit educational foundation which was based in Palo Alto and, at one time, involved several thousand members throughout the United States.

In the 1980s, Creative Initiative became the Beyond War movement, a worldwide effort to communicate that nuclear weapons had made all war obsolete and it was time to build a world beyond war. The Beyond War Award was presented in a global televised "spacebridge" ceremony each year to world leaders such as Vaclav Havel of Czechoslovakia, Mikhail Gorbachev of the Soviet Union, Rajiv Gandhi of India, and Olaf Palme of Sweden.

Mrs. Rathbun is survived by her son, Richard, who continues to play a leading role in the Foundation; her daughter, Juana Mueller, of Huntington Beach; and four grandchildren.

H. B. Sharman (Henry Burton, 1865-1953) devoted his life to educating others[1] about the life and teaching of Jesus.

Henry Burton Sharman was born 12 August 1865, in Stratford, Ontario, the eldest of eleven children. After attending school in Stratford, Sharman entered the Ontario Agricultural College (OAC) at Guelph in 1882 where he received a Diploma in Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Science in 1884. He traveled to England while at Guelph to import Hereford cattle.[2]
In 1926 Henry Sharman returned to China where he remained for three years as an exchange professor in the History Department at Yenching University in Peking. This was followed by a move to Wallingford, Pennsylvania, to accept an invitation to teach at Pendle Hill, a graduate school conducted by the Society of Friends. In 1933 he retired to California, continuing to conduct classes in the study of Jesus at YMCA conferences at Asilomar, California, and other locations.

Many of his students went on to lead groups in universities and retreat centers. Groups that carried on his seminar method included Pendle Hill, Sequoia Seminars, and the Guild for Psychological Studies [1].

Among his Canadian students who were influential were the controversial missionaries to China, the Endicotts, James Gareth Endicott[8] and his wife Shirley[9], and Murial Duckworth, the tireless peace activist.[10]. He was also influential in the life and teaching of his famous Unitarian sister-in-law, Sophia Lyon Fahs.[11]. One sociological study of Sharman's influence made much of a split in his students that occurred in the late 1940s and continued after his death, some focusing on transformation of the individual, and others the transformation of society.[12].

In addition to Records of the Life of Jesus, Sharman published Studies in the Life of Christ (1896); The Teachings of Jesus about the Future, according to the Synoptic Gospels (1909); Jesus in the Records (1918); Jesus as Teacher (1935); Studies in the Records of the Life of Jesus (1938); Son of Man and Kingdom of God: A Critical Study (1943) and Paul as Experient (1945), he also supervised the translation of some of his works into Chinese and Japanese.

All are currently out of print, except for Records of the Life of Jesus, which has been reprinted by the Guild for Psychological Studies. Sharman's original version used the English Revised Version of the gospel text, published in 1881. In 1991, the Guild for Psychological Studies published a new edition, based on the Revised Standard Version.

In 1933 he retired to California, continuing to conduct classes in the study of Jesus at YMCA conferences at Asilomar, California, and other locations.

Asilomar State Beach is located on the Monterey Peninsula in the city of Pacific Grove, California, USA. Nestled along the shoreline of California's famed Monterey Peninsula, Asilomar is a tranquil ocean front retreat cradled by forests and white sand beaches.  Asilomar (meaning "refuge by the sea" and pronounced a-SIL-o-mar) State Beach and Conference Grounds sits on 107 acres and offers overnight lodging and views of the forest, surf and sand.

The Asilomar Conference Center is a National Historic Landmark and on the Register of National Historic Places. The historic conference grounds are a relaxing retreat. A perfect destination for your special event or seminar.

what happen to it, the mid 70's it fell off the edge of the world and why?

Has it really? I haven't gotten to some of the underlying "theology".
Mission completed?

Stolaroff 's question: Man or machine? Could "LSD Therapy" create the "enhanced human" ? Will Computer/robotic's rule the future of the world?

If you will notice many "engineers" are involved with the early story.  Also notice the early "Global Community" push.

One world Government? (Beyond Jesus)

Willis Harman / Willis Harmon has two faces :

The psychedelic subculture and its relationship to the New Left and the political upheavals of the 1960's was the subject of an investigation by Willis Harmon, who currently heads the Futures Department at the Stanford Research Institute (SRI).

Located in Palo Alto, California, this prestigious think tank received a number of grants from the US Army to conduct classified research into chemical incapacitants.

Harmon made no bones about where he stood with respect to political radicals and the New Left. When Michael Rossman, a veteran of the Berkeley Free Speech Movement, visited SRI headquarters in the early 1970S, Harmon told him, "There's a war going on between your side and mine. And my side is not going to lose."

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And another question is "What" is/was on the street? DMT? STP? or ALD? Also, with the many Isomers and production differences it maybe that the LSD of the 1950's was different from the later incarnations. Also dosage created wide differences in "mind altering" effects, which I'd like to expand on in another post.

The Grateful Dead "heads" were a nationwide distribution network. Jerry's gone but I doubt the GD distribution is.

What was ALD-52 :
Scully had one more ace up his sleeve. Windsor was not producing LSD but ALD-52, similar but not illegal, or so Scully believed. Scully found the ALD formula among scientific papers and books in the specialist library at Berkeley. It was a compound Hofmann had tested years before.

At the University of California Medical Center, Scully uncovered the scientific paper Hofmann and a colleague had published on the drug. From the US Patent Office he drew patent number 2,810,723, lodged by Sandoz with production details. In The Hallucinogens, co-authored by Osmond and Hofmann, Scully discovered a table comparing the effects of ALD and other drugs in the same family.

The table suggested that ALD might actually have advantages over LSD, reducing any side effects but achieving a stronger trip. Measurements of brain waves while people were taking the two drugs showed that while LSD produced brain waves associated with intense concentration and anxiety, ALD produced brain waves showing a more relaxed mental state.

There was one snag. Hofmann's formula meant making LSD first, then converting it into ALD. Although the finished product might be legal, at a crucial stage in its production it was illegal. The solution was a simple reversal in the order of production so that at no time was drug illegal. Neither Hitchcock nor the Brothers were told of ALD. Hitchcock had been badly burned financially when STP had picked up a bad name on the street. It was thought he would oppose ALD as yet another innovation that would prove difficult to sell. The drug was simply labelled “acid,” and he and the Brotherhood were none the wiser.
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Willis Harmon/Harman and Al Hubbard :
Willis Harmon was turned on to LSD in the late 1950's by Captain Al Hubbard, the legendary superspy, who took a special interest in his new convert. Shortly thereafter Harmon became vice-president of the International Federation for Advanced Studies (IFAS), an organization devoted to exploring the therapeutic and problem solving potential of LSD.

IFAS was the brainchild of Hubbard, who undoubtedly leaned on his political connections in Washington to insure that Harmon and his colleagues would be allowed to continue their drug investigations even after the first big purge of above-ground LSD research by the FDA in the early 1960s. During this period IFAS charged $500 for a single session of high-dose psychedelic therapy—an arrangement that led some critics to accuse IFAS of bilking the public.

Adverse publicity forced IFAS to disband in 1965, whereupon Harmon, who considered himself a disciple of the Captain, became director of the Educational Policy Research Center at SRI.

In October 1968 he invited Hubbard, then living in semiretirement in British Columbia, to join SRI as a part-time "special investigative agent." As Harmon stated in a letter to his acid mentor, "Our investigations of some of the current social movements affecting education indicate that the drug usage prevalent among student members of the New Left is not entirely undesigned. Some of it appears to be present as a deliberate weapon aimed at political change. We are concerned with assessing the significance of this as it impacts on matters of longrange educational policy. In this connection it would be advantageous to have you considered in the capacity of a special investigative agent who might have access to relevant data which is not ordinarily available."

Hubbard accepted the offer of a $100 per day consultant's fee, and from then on he was officially employed as a security officer for SRI.

"His services to us," explained Harmon, "consisted in gathering various sorts of data regarding student unrest, drug abuse, drug use at schools and universities, causes and nature of radical activities, and similar matters, some of a classified nature."

Hubbard was the ideal person for such a task. He boasted a great deal of experience both in the law enforcement field and in the use of psychedelic drugs. As a special agent for the FDA in the early 1960s, he led the first raids on underground acid labs, and a number of rebel chemists were arrested because of his detective work. The Captain was particularly irked when he learned that LSD in adulterated form was circulating on the black market.

To Hubbard this represented degradation of the lowest order. The most precious spiritual substance on earth was being contaminated by a bunch of lousy bathtub chemists out to make a quick buck. The Captain was dead set against illicit drug use. "Impure drugs are very dangerous," he explained, "and the Law takes a dim view of it." He kept a sample of street acid for "comparative purposes" each time he busted an underground LSD factory during the 1960s; most of these outfits, Hubbard maintained, were run by the Mafia.

Even though Hubbard took a lot of acid and was a maverick among his peers, he remained a staunch law-and-order man throughout his life. The crew-cut Captain was the quintessential turned-on patriot, a seasoned spy veteran who admired the likes of J. Edgar Hoover; Above all Hubbard didn't like weirdos—especially longhaired radical weirdos who abused his beloved LSD. Thus he was eager to apply his espionage talents to a secret study of the student movement and the acid subculture. After conferring with Harmon, the Captain donned a khaki uniform, a gold-plated badge, a belt strung with bullets, and a pistol in a shoulder holster. That was the uniform he wore throughout his tenure as an SRI consultant, which lasted until the late 1970S.

Ironically, while Harmon and Hubbard were probing the relationship between drugs and radical politics, a number of New Left activists grappled with a similar question. Political and cultural radicals from both sides of the Atlantic discussed the drug issue at a conference on "the dialectics of liberation," which took place in London during the summer of 1967.

 One was Del Carlson. Carlson was a Marine Corps veteran who had been attracted to a Records study group at San Jose State College in 1947 and who had participated actively in Students Concerned. He stayed with the movement after the demise of Students Concerned and was, for a dozen years, one of the mainstays of the group. A high school art teacher, he [Carlson] had his summers free and devoted them to Sequoia Seminar. He was the group's registrar, business manager, and leader of art therapy sessions until 1962.[93]
Carlson was also a friend of Michael Murphy, the man who founded Esalen. In fact, Carlson was a coleader of the first formal seminar ever held at Esalen in 1962, when it was still called Slate's Hot Springs.[94]

[Sequoia Seminar] Experimentation with LSD stopped after 1959 because most of those involved felt there was nothing more to be gained from continued use and perhaps also because of a difficult confrontation between Emilia Rathbun and Betty Eisner that may have involved the use of the drug. Those, like Harman, who wished to pursue further interests in the drug left Sequoia Seminar and became active in other groups such as Esalen and the International Foundation for Internal Freedom.[97]
Esalen Institute

Esalen Institute is a retreat center in Big Sur, California, United States, for humanistic alternative education and a nonprofit organization devoted to multidisciplinary studies ordinarily neglected or unfavored by traditional academia "in subjects ranging from meditation to massage, Gestalt, yoga, psychology, ecology, spirituality, art, music, and much more."[1]

Murphy and Price were classmates at Stanford University in the late 1940s and early 1950s, although they did not meet until later at the suggestion of Frederic Spiegelberg, a Stanford professor of comparative religion and Indic studies, with whom they had both studied. In the time since leaving Stanford, Price had attended Harvard University to continue studying psychology, lived in San Francisco with Alan Watts and experienced a transformative psychotic break and institutionalization before returning to San Francisco. Murphy, meanwhile, had gone to Sri Aurobindo's ashram in India and was also back in San Francisco.

After meeting, Murphy and Price found much in common and, in 1961, went to the Big Sur property. The two began drawing up plans for a forum that would be open to ways of thinking beyond the constraints of mainstream academia, while avoiding the dogmatism so often seen in groups organized around a single idea promoted by a charismatic leader.

They envisioned a laboratory for experimentation with a wide range of philosophies, religious disciplines and psychological techniques. Dr. Murphy’s widow, and Michael’s grandmother, Vinnie, had refused to lease the property previously, including an earlier request from Michael, although she agreed to do so this time and granted free use of the property. This, combined with capital that Price had (his father being an executive vice-president at Sears, Roebuck) and the networking support and aid of Spiegelberg, Watts, Huxley and his wife Laura, Gerald Heard and Gregory Bateson, the experiment soon got off the ground. Esalen was somewhat patterned after a monastery founded by Heard in Trabuco Canyon in Southern California called The College of All Religions, which was later donated to the Vedanta Society of Southern California.

Watts led the first seminar in 1962. In the summer of that same year Abraham Maslow happened to drive onto the grounds and was soon an important figure there. In 1964 Fritz Perls started a long-term residency at Esalen and became a major and lasting influence. Perls led numerous Gestalt Therapy seminars at Esalen, and he and Jim Simkin led Gestalt Therapy training courses there. Price became one of Perls's closest students during Perls's time at Esalen. Price continued practicing and teaching Gestalt at Esalen until his own death in a hiking accident in 1985. The method of Gestalt Practice that Dick Price developed[3] remains one of the most important products of the Esalen experiment.

Esalen gained popularity quickly and was soon publishing a catalog of programs. The facility was large enough to run multiple programs simultaneously and Esalen started creating numerous resident teacher positions. All of this combined to make Esalen a nexus for the counterculture of the 1960s.

Rather than lecturing and listening to lectures, a number of leaders and participants began experimenting with what Huxley called the non-verbal humanities: the education of the body, the senses, the emotions. The intention of much of the new work was to suggest a new ethic: to develop awareness to one’s present flow of experience, to express this fully and accurately, and to listen to the feedback. The "experiential" workshops that grew out of these experiments were particularly well attended and did much to shape Esalen’s future course
Early leaders included:

Richard Alpert  Ansel Adams  Buckminster Fuller  Michael Harner   Timothy Leary  Robert Nadeau
Linus Pauling  J.B. Rhine   Carl Rogers  Virginia Satir  B.F Skinner  Paul Tillich   Arnold Toynbee

Gia-Fu Feng provided a strong Asian perspective (along with Watts's influence).

Esalen was incorporated as a non-profit institution in 1967. Increased attention came to the institute when The New York Times Magazine published an article "Joy is the Prize: A Trip to Esalen Institute" by Leo E. Litwak on December 31, 1967.[4][5] The article was reprinted numerous times over the years in anthologies of outstanding magazine articles. More immediately, the article brought Esalen to the attention of scores of other media, not just in the U.S. but also overseas. Esalen responded by holding large-scale conferences in Midwest, East Coast cities and Europe and opening a satellite center in San Francisco. This offered extensive programs but was closed in the mid-1970s.

Many of the offerings seemed meant to challenge the status quo such as "The Value of Psychotic Experience" and even the movement of which Esalen was a part such as "Spiritual and Therapeutic Tyranny: The Willingness To Submit" and "Theological Reflection on The Human Potential". There was also a series of racial encounter groups.

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Esalen - Sex, Drugs and Hot Tubs
By DIANE JOHNSON  Published: May 6, 2007
The book is most startling when describing Esalen’s connection to world events. According to Kripal’s sometimes rather infatuated account, it was Esalen that “enlisted the support of” Susan Sontag and Norman Mailer in helping to bring the Soviet Writers’ Union into International PEN. It was also of use to the C.I.A. ,which spent a lot of money looking into ESP, with experiments involving “the laser physicist turned C.I.A. psychic spy turned American mystic” Russell Targ, who gave parapsychology lectures at Esalen. (He would later give a demonstration to the Soviet Academy of Sciences as well.) Murphy’s wife, Dulce, Kripal claims, “was with” Jimmy Carter  when he announced the boycott of the 1980 Moscow Olympics; and through their extensive involvement with American-Soviet citizen exchanges (an outgrowth of their interest in Russian mysticism), the Murphys became friends of Arthur Hartman, Reagan’s ambassador to Russia, whom they persuaded to try to “melt” cold war relations through some “hot-tub diplomacy.”

Though the first experiments with LSD were conducted at respectable universities like the University of California , Los Angeles, Esalen was famously a laboratory for the psychopharmacological inquiries of the period. It also trafficked in Rolfing, the orgone theories of Wilhelm Reich, you name it, some of it now mainstream, some discredited. Where did it all go wrong, or did it? Were the seekers at Esalen on to something, or should they have forborne to shock native American puritanism with too much free love and LSD, which began to seem like hypocritical self-indulgence and just more of what Kripal calls “a stunning array of misogynistic metaphysical systems” that indulge male sexuality and control women?

Kripal poses another challenging question: With the world gripped anew by terror, “if not ... the apocalyptic variety expressed so dramatically by a Soviet-American Armageddon,” where are all the “countercultural actors, erotic mystics, psychedelic visionaries, ecstatic educators, esoteric athletes, psychic spies, gnostic diplomats and cultural visionaries” who emerged the last time around?



The following is a brief summary report on the results of a questionnaire sent out to the first 113 clients of the International Foundation for Advanced Study after the offices were opened in March, 1961, and also to 40 non-paying, experimental subjects who had LSD sessions prior to this date. Of these, 93 patients (82%) and 26 non-patients (65%) returned completed questionnaires.

The treatment of the patients was as described in Sherwood, Stolaroff, and Harman (1962). Preparation lasting approximately a month preceded the LSD session. Dosages were moderately high (200-400 micrograms of LSD with an additional 200-400 mg. of mescaline). The group of volunteer subjects is not strictly comparable since in addition to the selective factors operating for the two groups, the non-patient group in general received less preparation and lower dosage.

The questionnaire was patterned after one used by Ditman et al., (1962) in a similar study. It consisted of 75 statements which the subject was asked to rate as regards his agreement with it, from 0 (not at all), 1 (a little), 2 (quite a bit), to S (very much). Additional questions requested subjective reports on particular aspects of the experience (such as impression of preparation and atmosphere, most meaningful insight, etc.).

In section III, responses obtained in the Ditman study are compared to the responses to the same items in the present study. In interpreting this comparison one should note that the volunteer subjects queried by Ditman were not led to expect benefits, the announced purpose of the experimentation being "to compare the LSD experience with that of delirium tremens". The patient group, in contrast, not only anticipated benefits but were willing to pay the medical costs of treatment.

Summary of results

In overall summary the most significant single figure is perhaps the percentage who claimed "quite a bit" or "very much" of lasting benefits, 83%. (Even allowing for the unlikely possibility that all non-respondents were negative, the percentage would still be over 70%.) The claimed improvement rate rises from 76% after 1 to 3 months to 85% after 12 months or more have elapsed since the LSD session.

Most commonly reported benefits include: increase in ability to love, 78%; to handle hostility, 69%; to.communicate, 69%; and to understand self and others, 88%; improved interpersonal relations, 72%; decreased anxiety, 66%; increased self esteem, 71%; a new way of looking at the world, 83%. Of particular interest is a correlation (tetrachoric r) of 0.9l between "greater awareness of a higher power, or ultimate reality" and claimed permanent benefit.

As regards negative responses, none of the experimental volunteers and only one patient felt he had been. harmed mentally. (By the time a year had elapsed since his session he had revised that opinion.) Immediately after LSD 24% find that daydreaming and introspection "interfere with getting things done"; this has fallen to 11% after one year. Problems within the marital relationship not previously present were reported by 27% for non-patients and 16% for patients.

Page 1

I   Sex Differences

One of the points of interest was whether there were significant differences in response to the LSD according to sex. The figures given below are percentages of the total group of clients whose first LSD session had been at least 3 months prior to the filling out of the questionnaire who marked these statements either "I agree with the statement very much" or "I agree quite a bit" (3 or 2 according to the questionnaire instructions). Three percentages are given, in columns marked M (male, N=38), F (female, N=34), and T (total, N=72).

II Effect of Time

Another point we were interested in was whether the effects of the LSD session tended to"wear off" - whether the answers would differ depending on the length of time since the session. Some sample percentages follow for four groups: A (less than three months since the LSD session, N=21), B (3-6 months, N=26), C (6-12 months, N=19), and D (over 12 months, N=27).

III Patients vs Non-patients

A comparison of patient- {after 3 months) with non-patients (all over 6 months since their first sessions) is of interest. Included also are figures from the Ditman study on the same items.

IV Outstanding Event or Insight

The answers to the remainder of the questions were helpful in evaluating present procedures and in suggestlng modifications. In particular, a desire for more follow-up was expressed repeatedly.

Sherwood, J.N., Stolaroff, M.J., and Harman, W.W.,"The Psychedelic Experience--
A New Concept In Psychotherapy, " J. Neuropsychiatry, 4:69-80; 1962

Ditman, K.S., Hayman, M.C., and Whittlesey, J.R.B., "Nature and Frequency Of Claims
Following LSD", J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 134: 346-352; 1962

The Hofmann Report Autumn 1998

To our Friends and Supporters:

In the last report, I mentioned the satisfaction resulting from books I have written which stir up dormant personal connections of the past. Those who are familiar with the many benefits derived from the responsible use of psychedelics are hard pressed to understand the ardent negative evaluation by many government officials, mainstream scientists, and the public at large. Consequently it is gratifying to hear from those who are willing to speak up and share their personal experiences. Here is a recent letter forwarded to me by MAPS:

Dear MAPS and Mr. Stolaroff,
Enclosed is $35.00 for a subscription to your quarterly Bulletin. My interest is very personal. I am one of the lucky people who took LSD at the International Foundation for Advanced Study in Menlo Park, California, in the 1960s. The two session I had there were some of the most valuable experiences of my life. Though I worked with some wonderful therapists after that, nothing approached the kind of straightening out I got with LSD. Many times in the intervening years I have wished for a place like the IFAS where I could take LSD in a safe setting.

Reading The Secret Chief has given me some hope that someday qualified therapists will be able to use these drugs in their practices. It also made me mourn that I did not know about Jacob and did not try to seek out a place where I could have done it anyway. My life would have been much different. Thank you for all your work in trying to get these substances legitimized for therapeutic use. I'm 68 now, but I yearn for the opportunity to untangle more of my knots. Is it possible to participate in research studies? I also would be glad to write letters to Senators, Congressmen, the FDA, or anyone to help this process along. It's absurd to have these powerful tools unavailable to doctors, while the illicit drug trade sells everyone else whatever they want.

P. B.

Quote: he is now 80, how interesting

The Foundation for Global Community (FGC) is the current manifestation of a series of prior organizations, all of which have made their contribution, both financially and in terms of a legacy of experience and collected wisdom, to FGC. All these organizations, Sequoia Seminar, Women to Women, Building the Earth, Creative Initiative, Beyond War, and the Foundation for Global Community, have been iterations of a fundamental philosophy.

[It is interesting how they took Jesus (and LSD) completely out of the History:]

Early History
The Foundation for Global Community traces its origin back more than eighty years. Working in Canada at the turn of the 20th century, Dr. Henry Burton Sharman, theologian and scientist from the University of Chicago, sought to unify the disciplines of science and religion in the belief that each searched for the same universal truths about reality. To explore these issues, he invited groups of interested college students and professors to participate in six-week seminars in the Canadian wilderness each summer.

Dr. Harry Rathbun, a Stanford law and business professor, and his wife Emilia, participants in Sharman's seminars, brought the studies to the western United States in the late 1930's. By the late 1940's it was apparent that a permanent facility would aid the studies. Property was purchased and a lodge built in the Santa Cruz mountains of California. Here people of all philosophical and religious beliefs could come to study and discuss critical issues in an atmosphere of beauty and quiet. In 1949, Sequoia Seminar Foundation was incorporated.

In 1962, women affiliated with Sequoia Seminar decided to take an initiative in the world to seek a higher purpose for life. They were motivated by the uncertainty of the future for the children and the precariousness of all life. This was the time of the Berlin Wall, the Cuban Missile crisis, and talk of building backyard bomb shelters. By 1964, men and women were writing curricula, leading discussion groups and seminars, and planning and giving presentations for the public. Some of these programs were called "The Quest for Meaning," "Challenge to Change," and "The Challenge of Time."

In 1971, these activities were incorporated as Creative Initiative Foundation. During the 1970's, in addition to its regular courses and seminars, Creative Initiative addressed the issues of drug abuse, environmental concerns, the effects of violence on television, the need for energy conservation, the depletion of natural resources, and the dangers of pollution from toxic chemicals and long-term radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants. The focus of all these activities was always understanding and communicating the process by which people become mature, responsible human beings. All the educational endeavors challenged people to become informed, to educate others, and to take action in their own lives.

In 1981, the Cold War was at its height and there was talk about America's ability to fight and win a nuclear war and adding Pershing and cruise missiles to Europe. The growing alarm about the consequences of nuclear devastation was starkly depicted in the film "The Last Epidemic." A series of dialogues in 1982 convinced the people of Creative Initiative that survival in the nuclear age was the greatest problem facing humanity and that the immensity of the the US and Soviet nuclear arsenals was not comprehended by the public. Consequently, all courses, seminars, and projects were terminated so that the Creative Initiative community, numbering approximately 1,000, could focus full attention on this most pressing problem. Out of this commitment, the Beyond War movement developed. Beyond War eventually involved more than 20,000 people around the world, sponsored an annual Beyond War Award, and reached untold millions with its message.

With the end of the Cold War, the tearing down of the Berlin Wall, and other hopeful signs of change, Beyond War enlarged its focus and, in 1991, became Foundation for Global Community.

Beyond War (1982-1991)
Beyond War began in 1982 as a grassroots response to the threat of nuclear war. Early efforts focused on educating about the crisis. During 1982, workers showed "The Last Epidemic," (a film about the effect of a one megaton hydrogen bomb dropped on San Francisco) to hundreds of people in homes, churches, synagogues and clubs. People began to understand the consequences of nuclear war, but the need to communicate hope became apparent.

There was a growing realization that nuclear weapons are only a symptom of the real problem, which is our willingness to use war to resolve inevitable conflicts. The movement embarked on a three-month project to produce a concise statement about a new way of thinking which would address the root of the problem. Thus the Beyond War Statement evolved and became the cornerstone of the movement.

With the basic philosophy of the movement defined, the Beyond War Orientation (a three-part course) was developed as a way to communicate the nature of both the crisis and the solution.

The movement grew significantly when 2700 women from 34 states and eight foreign countries came together for a women's convocation in November 1983 to call for the end of war. The success of this first convocation inspired others, so that in the fall of 1984, 6000 women came together at eleven symposia throughout the western United States. These women launched the first Beyond War Ad Campaign, which published educational advertisements in six major newspapers and the California edition of TIME magazine.

On November 11, 1984, 2000 men gathered in San Francisco for an Armistice Day convocation entitled "Who Speaks for Earth?: The New Warrior." Acknowledging that men's strength, valor and courage have always insured individual and group survival, the men challenged themselves to unite and work cooperatively to insure the survival of the whole planet.

Later in November, eleven Silicon Valley executives traveled to the Soviet Union and Hungary to meet with their counterparts as part of the Beyond War International Task Force. The goal of this effort was to discover how Americans could work together with Soviets, given the two very different systems they lived in.

The Beyond War Award was created in 1983 to honor the great efforts of humankind as it moves to build a world beyond war. The award attracted national and international attention through the nominating and selection process. Many distinguished persons served on the selection committee (Jonas Salk, Betty Bumpers, Carl Sagan, Andrew Young, Rosalyn Carter, etc.)

In December 1983, the first award was presented to the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops for their pastoral letter on peace. In 1984, the International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War received the second award. It was presented to the co-founders, Dr. Lown of the US and Dr. Chazov of the USSR, simultaneously through the use of a live satellite teleconference link or "spacebridge" between Moscow and San Francisco. This historic event was viewed live by over 75,000 people. Over 100 million Soviets subsequently saw the televised videotape.

On January 29, 1985, over 80 ambassadors to the United Nations attended a presentation on Nuclear Winter. American astronomer Carl Sagan and Soviet physicist Sergei Kapitsa each communicated that even a limited nuclear exchange would threaten life on the entire planet, with no country exempt from the effect. The event was sponsored by Beyond War and twelve ambassadors who had previously heard Dr. Sagan speak on this crucial subject.

By this time, over 15,000 people were actively communicating the Beyond War idea in twelve targeted states (Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, North Carolina, Georgia, Wisconsin, Iowa, Colorado, Oregon, Washington, and California). There was start-up activity in ten other states. As of March, 1985, there were 400 dedicated volunteers working full-time on Beyond War.

Well you got anything else?

Having discovered  as much as I can , I was hoping to build the connection to the Huxley/Heard/Leary/Harvard operation.
This unfortunately is very loose. Once that connection was established I would continue documenting Leary's operation....

This gets interesting with the Leary Mary Pinchot / LSD / Cord Myer / S&B / CIA / Kennedy unknown scandal....

The Pinchot were a S&B family with connections to the beginning of the American Psychical Research Society / Eugenics / conservation movement the Gifford and Amos Pinchot Brothers  related to the wealthy New York Enos family, pals with Teddy Roosevelt ...

Mary's Pinchot's dad:

Amos Pinchot was born in 1863. The son of a wealthy businessman, Pinchot studied law in New York City. In 1900 he married Gertrude Minturn. The couple had two children, Rosamund and Gifford. Pinchot held left-wing views and in 1911 helped establish the radical journal The Masses.

In 1912 Pinchot helped formed the Progressive Party. Later that year Theodore Roosevelt and Hiram Johnson became the party's candidates for the presidential election. The proposed program included women's suffrage, direct election of senators, anti-trust legislation and the prohibition of child labour. In winning 4,126,020 votes Roosevelt defeated William H. Taft, the official candidate of the Republican Party. However, he received less votes than the Democratic Party candidate, Woodrow Wilson.

Pinchot believed that the First World War had been caused by the imperialist competitive system. This was the point of view expressed by The Masses. In July, 1917, it was claimed by the authorities that articles by Floyd Dell and Max Eastman and cartoons by Art Young, Boardman Robinson and H. J. Glintenkamp had violated the Espionage Act. Under this act it was an offence to publish material that undermined the war effort. The legal action that followed forced the journal to cease publication. In April, 1918, after three days of deliberation, the jury failed to agree on the guilt of the men.

The second trial was held in September, 1918. John Reed, who had recently returned from Russia, was also arrested and charged with the original defendants. This time eight of the twelve jurors voted for acquittal and the defendants walked free on October 5, 1918.

[ reference See Movie "Reds" ]

Pinchot divorced his first wife and married Ruth Pickering in 1919. The couple had two children, Mary Pinchot and Antoinette Pinchot. Regular visitors to the home included Mabel Dodge, Crystal Eastman, Max Eastman, Louis Brandeis and Harold Ickes.

In 1920 two Italian immigrants, Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti, were accused of murdering a shoe factory payroll clerk in Braintree, Massachusetts. Pinchot and his wife were convinced that the two men were innocent and spent a great deal of time and effort trying to get them released.

Pinchot supported his friend, Robert La Follette, the the candidate of the Progressive Party in the 1924 presidential election. Although La Follette and his running partner, Burton K. Wheeler, gained support from trade unions, the Socialist Party and the Scripps-Howard newspaper chain, La Follette only won one-sixth of the votes.

Pinchot worked for several years on two books, Big Business in America and The History of the Progressive Party. However, the books were not published in his lifetime.

Initially he supported Franklin D. Roosevelt and the New Deal. However, he was opposed his attempt to control the Supreme Court. In April, 1937, Pinchot had a letter published in the New York Times where he criticised Roosevelt's style of government "which places the fate of labor, industry and agriculture in a bureaucracy controlled by one man... I am forced to conclude that... you desire the power of a dictator without the liability of the name."

Pinchot's daughter from his first marriage, Rosamund Pinchot, became an actress. Although she only appeared in one Hollywood movie, she did get parts in several French films. However, she suffered from depression and in 1938 she committed suicide. Pinchot was devastated and never fully recovered from this tragedy.

Pinchot retained his pacifist views and in September, 1940, helped to establish the America First Committee (AFC). The America First National Committee included Robert E. Wood, John T. Flynn and Charles A. Lindbergh. Supporters of the organization included Burton K. Wheeler, Hugh Johnson, Robert LaFollette Jr., Hamilton Fish and Gerald Nye.

The AFC soon became the most powerful isolationist group in the United States. The AFC had four main principles: (1) The United States must build an impregnable defense for America; (2) No foreign power, nor group of powers, can successfully attack a prepared America; (3) American democracy can be preserved only by keeping out of the European War; (4) "Aid short of war" weakens national defense at home and threatens to involve America in war abroad.

The AFC influenced public opinion through publications and speeches and within a year the organization had 450 local chapters and over 800,000 members. The AFC was dissolved four days after the Japanese Air Force attacked Pearl Harbor on 7th December, 1941.

Pinchot grew increasing depressed by the progress of the Second World War and in the summer of 1942 he slit his wrists. He survived this suicide attempt but his health never recovered and spent the rest of his life in hospital.

Amos Pinchot died of pneumonia in February, 1944.

Mary's Uncle Gifford:

If Gifford Pinchot had not become governor of Pennsylvania, he would be still famous for his legacy reagarding America's forests. In fact, Pinchot was quoted as saying, "I have been governor every now and then, but I am a forester all the time." Pinchot was born August 11, 1865, to Episcopalian parents in Simsbury, Connecticut, the son of James W. Pinchot, a successful New York City wallpaper merchant and Mary Eno, daughter of one of New York City's wealthiest real estate developers, Amos Eno.

The first member of Pinchot's family in Pennsylvania, Francis Joseph Smith, came from Belgium with a letter from Benjamin Franklin to Robert Morris, and after serving as major in the Revolutionary War, settled in the Delaware Valley at Shawnee, now in Monroe County. Pinchot's great grandfather, Constantine Pinchot, and his grandfather, C.C.D. Pinchot, settled in Milford, Pike County, in 1816. James Pinchot was born in Milford and built the present Pinchot mansion there in 1886. The former governor's home, known as Grey Towers, is now owned by the USDA Forest Service (founded by Pinchot) and is a national historic landmark.

Governor Pinchot received his preparatory education at Philips Exeter Academy, Exeter, New Hampshire, and was graduated from Yale University in 1889. Pinchot was determined to establish forestry as a legitimate occupation, despite the fact that forestry was not a recognized profession at that time in the United States.

Amos Eno offered his grandson a business position that most likely would have made Pinchot independently wealthy, but Pinchot considered forest conservation a more important calling. With his father's encouragement, he studied forestry in Germany, France, Switzerland, and Austria. In January 1892, Pinchot, at the invitation of George Vanderbilt, created the first example in the United States of practical forest management on a large scale at Vanderbilt's Biltmore Estate, near Ashville, North Carolina. Proving that conservation practices could be both beneficial for forests and still profitable, the Biltmore arboretum became a model for forest management around the world.

From 1898 to 1910, Pinchot consolidated the fragmented government forest work under the U. S. Division of Forestry, later the Bureau of Forestry, and then the United States Forest Service. In 1903, Pinchot also became professor of Forestry at Yale University and, in 1904, his friend President Theodore Roosevelt appointed him chief of Forestry. Under Pinchot's guidance, the number of national forests increased from 32 in 1898 to 149 in 1910. Pinchot and Roosevelt agreed on many points of conservation and worked tirelessly to end the destruction of U.S. forests.

Pinchot also visited the Philippine Islands in 1902 and recommended a forest policy for the islands. He was appointed by President Roosevelt to the Committee on Organization of Government Scientific Work in 1903; to the Commission on Department Methods in 1905; to the Inland Waterways Commission in 1907; and, in 1908, to the Commission on Country Life, Chairman of the National Conservation Commission, and Chairman of the National Conservation Commission. He was also appointed chairman of the Joint Committee on Conservation, by the first conference of Governors at Washington, December 1908. In 1917, he was a member of the U.S. Food Administration.

On August 15, 1914, Pinchot married Cornelia Elizabeth Bryce (1881–1960), a native of Rhode Island and daughter of a wealthy journalist and politician, Lloyd Bryce. Cornelia and Gifford both were longtime friends with Theodore Roosevelt, who attended their wedding. As one of the most politically active first ladies in the history of Pennsylvania, she was a very strong advocate for women's rights, full educational opportunities for women, seeking wage and union protections for women and children, and encouraging women to participate in the political process.

Her family's wealth, influence from socially and politically prominent relatives, and Progressive Era politics proved to be a great influence on her husband's political agenda. Her influence among female voters is credited as a key factor in the election of her husband. Cornelia Bryce Pinchot ran for the U.S. House of Representatives three times and attempted to succeed her husband as governor in the primary of 1934, but lost all four elections. ...
Cornelia Pinchot ran unsuccessfully against incumbent Louis T. McFadden,9171,743671,00.html
Shortly after Congressman Louis T. McFadden of the 13th Pennsylvania District had accused President Hoover of treason on the War Debts last winter, Mrs. Cornelia Bryce Pinchot, the Governor's wife and no political friend of the President, announced her Republican candidacy for the House from Mr. McFadden's district. Last week 15th District voters renominated Mr. McFadden who returned to the House to receive an ovation from his colleagues.

Mrs. Pinchot had campaigned in a bright blue Studebaker. Often she stepped out wearing mannish knickerbockers. Big posters bearing her sharp profile had blared: "Ye cannot serve God and mammon." Defeated, she observed: "People did not seem as anxious to send me to Congress as I was to go." Then she, too, journeyed to Washington, dined with many another Governor's wife at the White House.
McFadden's later career was marked by violent criticism of his party's financial policies.  Opposition to the Hoover moratorium on war debts led him to propose to the House on 12-13-1932 that the President be impeached.  He bitterly attacked the governors of the Federal Reserve Board for "having caused the greatest depression we have ever known".  Both the President and the Board, he was convinced, were conspiring with the "international" bankers to ruin the country.  He lost his seat to a Democrat in 1934, although two years previously he had had the support of the Republican, Democratic and Prohibition parties.  He died in 1936 while on a visit in new York City.

Congressman Louis T. McFadden's Federal Reserve Speeches in Congress

Congressman McFadden's Remarks in Congress on the Federal Reserve Corporation -- 1934
"Mr. Chairman, we have in this Country one of the most corrupt institutions the world has ever known. I refer to the Federal Reserve Board and the Federal Reserve Banks, hereinafter called the Fed. The Fed has cheated the Government of these United States and the people of the United States out of enough money to pay the Nation's debt. The depredations and iniquities of the Fed has cost enough money to pay the National debt several times over.   ...
In the 1920s, Grant served as the head of the Immigration Restriction League and the Eugenics Research Association. He was a key player in the Second Eugenics Congress in 1921, which built on the original 1912 Eugenics Congress in Britain led by such notables as Winston Churchill and Arthur Balfour. Among the attendees of the Second Eugenics Congress were Alexander Graham Bell, leading conservationist Gifford Pinchot and future U.S. President Herbert Hoover. Sadly, Theodore Roosevelt died in 1919 or no doubt he would have attended as well. Grant went on to publish a sequel to Passing of the Great Race in 1933. Entitled The Conquest of a Continent, Grant wished for the creation of a separation nation for blacks in order to protect white blood from their taint, though he knew that the realities of the American South made this impossible. At the very least, he wanted stricter anti-miscegenation laws, the promotion of contraception among blacks so they stop breeding, and extremely strict legal segregation.

*Pinchot, Amos
*Pinchot, Gifford (S&B 1889) - Invented the aristocrats' "conservation" movement. He was President Theodore Roosevelt's chief forester, substituting federal land-control in place of Abraham Lincoln's free-land-to-families farm creation program. Pinchot's British Empire activism included the Psychical Research Society and his vice presidency of the first International Eugenics Congress in 1912.

Gifford Pinchot (S&B 1889) invented the aristocrats' ``conservation'' movement. He was President Theodore Roosevelt's chief forester, substituting federal land-control in place of Abraham Lincoln's free-land-to-families farm creation program. Pinchot's British Empire activitism included the Psychical Research Society and his vice-presidency of the first International Eugenics Congress in 1912.

Helping Pinchot initiate this century's racialist environmentalism were his cohorts George W. Woodruff (S&B 1889), Teddy Roosevelt's Assistant Attorney General and Acting Interior Secretary; and Henry Solon Graves (S&B 1892), chief U.S. forester 1910-20. Frederick E. Weyerhauser (S&B 1896), owner of vast tracts of American forest, was a follower of Pinchot's movement, while the Weyerhauser family were active collaborators of British-South African super-racist Cecil Rhodes. This family's friendship with President George Bush is a vital factor in the present environmentalist movement.

Mary Pinchot in 1942

Mary and Cord Meyer on their wedding day (1945)

JFK with Mary Meyer (far right). Antoinette Bradlee is second on the left.

Mary Pinchot was born on 14th October, 1920. Her father Amos Pinchot, was a wealthy lawyer who helped fund the radical journal, The Masses. He was also a key figure in the Progressive Party. Her mother, Ruth Pinchot, was a journalist who worked for worked for magazines such as The Nation and The New Republic.

As a child Mary was brought into contact with left-wing intellectuals. People like Mabel Dodge, Crystal Eastman, Max Eastman, Louis Brandeis, Robert La Follette and Harold Ickes were regular visitors at their Grey Towers home in Milford, Pennsylvania.

Mary attended Brearley School and Vassar College. In 1938 she began going out with William Attwood. It was while with Attwood at a dance held at Choate that she met John F. Kennedy for the first time.

While at Vassar Mary became interested in left-wing politics. This did not seem to upset her father, Amos Pinchot, who wrote to his brother Gifford: "Vassar seems to be very interested in communism. And a great deal of warm debating is going on among the students of Mary's class, which I think is an excellent thing. People of that age ought to be radical anyhow."

After leaving Vassar she obtained work as a journalist at United Press. This included writing for magazines such as Mademoiselle. Mary also became a member of the American Labor Party. This insured that the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) started a file on Meyer's political activities. Mary, like her parents, was also a committed pacifist.

In 1944 Mary met Cord Meyer, a lieutenant in the US Marines who was recovering from serious shrapnel injuries that had resulted in him losing an eye. The couple married on 19th April, 1945. Soon afterwards the couple went to San Francisco to attend the conference that established the United Nations. Cord went as an aide to Harold Stassen, whereas Mary, who was working for the North American Newspaper Alliance at the time, was one of the reporters sent to cover this important event.

Cord Meyer had been shocked by the dropping of the atom bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. After the war Meyer commissioned a film by Pare Lorentz called The Beginning or the End. Meyer wanted this film to be the definitive statement about the dangers of the atomic age. Cord wrote at the time: "Talked with Mary of how steadily depressing is our full realization of how little hope there is of avoiding the approaching catastrophe of atomic warfare."

The following year Meyer published a book about his war experiences, Waves of Darkness. Meyer expressed pacifist views in the book: "The only certain fruit of this insanity will be the rotting bodies upon which the sun will impartially shine tomorrow. Let us throw down these guns that we hate."

For a while Mary worked as an editor for the Atlantic Monthly. Her first child Quentin was born in 1945. After the birth of Michael in 1947 she became a housewife but still managed to attend classes at the Art Students League in New York City.

Like her husband, Mary became an advocate of world government. In May, 1947, Cord Meyer was elected president of the United World Federalists. Under his leadership, membership of the organization doubled in size. Albert Einstein was one of his most important supporters and personally solicited funds for the organization. Mary wrote for its journal, The United World Federalists.

Mary's third child, Mark, was born in 1950. The family now moved back to Cambridge. Cord was showing signs of becoming disillusioned with the idea of world government. He had experienced problems with members of the American Communist Party who had infiltrated the organizations he had established. It was about this time that he began working secretly for the Central Intelligence Agency.

In 1950 Meyer formed the Committee to Frame a World Constitution with Robert Maynard Hutchins and Elizabeth Mann Borgese. As a result of this work Meyer made contact with the International Cooperative Alliance, the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions, the Indian Socialist Party and the Congress of Peoples Against Imperialism. It is almost certain that this had been done on behalf of the CIA.

Allen W. Dulles made contact with Cord Meyer in 1951. He accepted the invitation to join the CIA. Dulles told Meyer he wanted him to work on a project that was so secret that he could not be told about it until he officially joined the organization. Meyer was to work under Frank Wisner, director of the Office of Policy Coordination (OPC). This became the espionage and counter-intelligence branch of the CIA. Wisner was told to create an organization that concentrated on "propaganda, economic warfare; preventive direct action, including sabotage, anti-sabotage, demolition and evacuation measures; subversion against hostile states, including assistance to underground resistance groups, and support of indigenous anti-Communist elements in threatened countries of the free world."

Meyer became part of what became known as Operation Mockingbird, a CIA program to influence the mass media. According to Deborah Davis (Katharine the Great: Katharine Graham and the Washington Post): Meyer was Mockingbird's "principal operative".

Mary and the family now moved to Washington where they became members of the Georgetown Crowd . This group included Frank Wisner, Richard Bissell, Desmond FitzGerald, Joseph Alsop, Tracy Barnes, Philip Graham, Katharine Graham, David Bruce, Clark Clifford, Walt Rostow, Eugene Rostow, Chip Bohlen and Paul Nitze. The Meyers also socialized with other CIA officers or CIA assets James Angleton (Cicely Angleton), Wistar Janney (Mary Wisnar), Ben Bradlee (Antoinette Bradlee) and James Truitt (Anne Truitt).

In August, 1953, Joseph McCarthy accused Cord Meyer of being a communist. The Federal Bureau of Investigation added to the smear by announcing it was unwilling to give Meyer "security clearance". Suspicion also fell on Mary at this time and it was revealed that the FBI had been investigating her activities. However, the FBI refused to explain what evidence they had against the Meyers. Allen W. Dulles and Frank Wisner both came to Meyer's defence and refused to allow him to be interrogated by the FBI.

The FBI eventually revealed the charges against Meyer. Apparently he was a member of several liberal groups considered to be subversive by the Justice Department. This included being a member of the National Council on the Arts, where he associated with Norman Thomas, the leader of the Socialist Party and its presidential candidate in 1948. Meyer was eventually cleared of these charges and was allowed to keep his job.

Cord Meyer became disillusioned with life in the CIA and in January, 1954, he went to New York City and attempted to get a job in publishing. Although he saw contacts he had made during his covert work with the media (Operation Mockingbird) he was unable to obtain a job with any of the established book publishing firms. In the summer of 1954 the Meyer family's golden retriever was hit by a car on the curve of highway near their house and killed. The dog's death worried Cord. He told colleagues at the CIA he was afraid the same thing might happen to one of his children.

In the summer of 1954 the Meyers got new neighbours. John F. Kennedy and his wife Jackie Kennedy purchased Hickory Hill, a house several hundred yards from where the Meyers lived. Mary became good friends with Jackie and they went on walks together.

In November, 1954, Meyer replaced Thomas Braden as head of International Organizations Division. Meyer began spending a lot of time in Europe. One of Meyer's tasks was to supervise Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty, the United States government broadcasts to Eastern Europe. According to Nina Burleigh (A Very Private Woman) Meyer was "overseeing a vast 'black' budget of millions of dollars channeled through phony foundation of a global network of associations and labor groups that on their surface appeared to be progressive".

On 18th December, 1956, Mary's nine-year-old son, Michael, was hit by a car on the curve of highway near their house and killed. It was the same spot where the family's golden retriever had been killed two years earlier. The tragedy briefly brought the couple together. However, in 1958, Mary filed for divorce. In her divorce petition she alleged "extreme cruelty, mental in nature, which seriously injured her health, destroyed her happiness, rendered further cohabitation unendurable and compelled the parties to separate."

Mary continued to live with her two sons in the family home of Langley Commons. She took up art and her sister, Antoinette Pinchot and her husband Ben Bradlee, allowed her to set up a studio in their converted garage. Mary also began a relationship with the abstract artist, Kenneth Noland. Mary also got to know Robert Kennedy, who had moved in to his brother's house, Hickory Hill, after John F. Kennedy and Jackie Kennedy moved out in 1960.

According to Nina Burleigh (A Very Private Woman) James Angleton began bugging Mary's telephone and bedroom after she left Cord Meyer. This information came from an interview with Joan Bross, the wife of John Bross, a high-ranking CIA official. Angleton became a regular visitor to the family home and took Mary's sons fishing.

In October 1961, Mary began visiting John F. Kennedy in the White House. It was about this time she began an affair with the president. Mary told her friends, Ann and James Truitt, that she was keeping a diary about the relationship.

In 1962 Mary made contact with Timothy Leary, the director of research projects at Harvard University. Leary supplied LSD to Mary who used it with Kennedy. Leary also claimed that Mary helped influence Kennedy's views on nuclear disarmament and rapprochement with Cuba. It was later discovered that the FBI was keeping a file on Mary. Later, James Angleton, head of counterintelligence at the CIA admitted that the agency was bugging Mary's telephone and bedroom during this period.

Kennedy aide, Meyer Feldman, claimed in an interview with Nina Burleigh that the president might have discussed substantial issues with her: "I think he might have thought more of her than some of the other women and discussed things that were on his mind, not just social gossip."

In January, 1963, Philip Graham, the publisher of the Washington Post, attended a convention of American newspaper editors in Phoenix. Graham, who was suffering from alcoholism, disclosed at the meeting that John F. Kennedy was having an affair with Mary Meyer. No newspaper reported this incident but Kennedy decided to bring an end to the affair. However, they continued to see each other at social functions.

According to his biography, Flashbacks (1983) Timothy Leary claims that Mary phoned him the day after Kennedy was assassinated: "They couldn't control him any more. He was changing too fast. He was learning too much... They'll cover everything up. I gotta come see you. I'm scared. I'm afraid."

In the summer of 1964 Meyer told friends that she believed someone had been inside her house while she was away. On another occasion she told Elizabeth Eisenstein that "she thought she had seen somebody leaving as she walked in". Mary reported these incidents to the police. Eisenstein said Mary was clearly frightened by these incidents.

On 12th October, 1964, Mary Pinchot Meyer was shot dead as she walked along the Chesapeake and Ohio towpath in Georgetown. Henry Wiggins, a car mechanic, was working on a vehicle on Canal Road, when he heard a woman shout out: "Someone help me, someone help me". He then heard two gunshots. Wiggins ran to the edge of the wall overlooking the tow path. He later told police he saw "a black man in a light jacket, dark slacks, and a dark cap standing over the body of a white woman."

Mary appeared to be killed by a professional hitman. The first bullet was fired at the back of the head. She did not die straight away. A second shot was fired into the heart. The evidence suggests that in both cases, the gun was virtually touching Mary’s body when it was fired. As the FBI expert testified, the “dark haloes on the skin around both entry wounds suggested they had been fired at close-range, possibly point-blank”.

Soon afterwards Raymond Crump, a black man, was found not far from the murder scene. He was arrested and charged with Mary's murder. Police tests were unable to show that Crump had fired the .38 caliber Smith and Wesson gun. There were no trace of nitrates on his hands or clothes. Despite an extensive search of the area no gun could be found. This included a two day search of the tow path by 40 police officers. The police also drained the canal near to the murder scene. Police scuba divers searched the waters away from where Mary was killed. However, no gun could be found. Nor could the prosecution find any link between Crump and any Smith and Wesson gun.

Crump’s lawyer, Dovey Roundtree, was convinced of his innocence. A civil rights lawyer who defended him for free, she argued that Crump was so timid and feeble-minded that if he had been guilty he would have confessed everything while being interrogated by the police.

No newspaper reports identified the true work of her former husband, Cord Meyer. He was described as a government official or an author. A large number of journalists knew that Meyer had been married to a senior CIA officer. They also knew that she had been having an affair with John F. Kennedy. None of this was reported. In fact, the judge, ruled that the private life of Mary Meyer could not be mentioned in court.

The trial judge was Howard Corcoran. He was the brother of Tommy Corcoran, a close friend of Lyndon B. Johnson. Corcoran had been appointed by Johnson soon after he became president. It is generally acknowledged that Corcoran was under Johnson’s control. His decision to insist that Mary’s private life should not be mentioned in court was very important in disguising the possible motive for the murder. This information was also kept from Crump’s lawyer, Dovey Roundtree. Although she attempted to investigate Mary's background she found little information about her: "It was as if she existed only on the towpath on the day she was murdered."

During the trial Wiggins was unable to positively identify Raymond Crump as the man standing over Meyer's body. The prosecution was also handicapped by the fact that the police had been unable to find the murder weapon at the scene of the crime or to provide a credible motive for the crime. On 29th July, 1965, Crump was acquitted of murdering Mary Meyer. The case remains unsolved.

In March, 1976, James Truitt, a former senior member of staff at the Washington Post, gave an interview to the National Enquirer. Truitt told the newspaper that Meyer was having an affair with John F. Kennedy when he was assassinated. He also claimed that Meyer had told his wife, Ann Truitt, that she was keeping an account of this relationship in her diary. Meyer asked Truitt to take possession of a private diary "if anything ever happened to me".

Ann Truitt was living in Tokyo at the time that Meyer was murdered on 12th October, 1964. She phoned Bradlee at his home and asked him if he had found the diary. Bradlee, who claimed he was unaware of his sister-in-law's affair with Kennedy, knew nothing about the diary. He later recalled what he did after Truitt's phone-call: "We didn't start looking until the next morning, when Tony and I walked around the corner a few blocks to Mary's house. It was locked, as we had expected, but when we got inside, we found Jim Angleton, and to our complete surprise he told us he, too, was looking for Mary's diary."

James Angleton, CIA counterintelligence chief, admitted that he knew of Mary's relationship with John F. Kennedy and was searching her home looking for her diary and any letters that would reveal details of the affair. According to Ben Bradlee, it was Mary's sister, Antoinette Bradlee, who found the diary and letters a few days later. It was claimed that the diary was in a metal box in Mary's studio. The contents of the box were given to Angleton who claimed he burnt the diary. Angleton later admitted that Mary recorded in her diary that she had taken LSD with Kennedy before "they made love".

Leo Damore claimed in an article that appeared in the New York Post that the reason Angleton and Bradlee were looking for the diary was that: "She (Meyer) had access to the highest levels. She was involved in illegal drug activity. What do you think it would do to the beatification of Kennedy if this woman said, 'It wasn't Camelot, it was Caligula's court'?" Damore also said that a figure close to the CIA had told him that Mary's death had been a professional "hit".

There is another possible reason why both Angleton and Bradlee were searching for documents in Meyer's house. Meyer had been married to Cord Meyer, a leading CIA operative involved in a variety of covert operations in the early 1950s. Were they worried that Meyer had kept a record of these activities? Was this why Mary Pinochet Meyer had been murdered?

After leaving the CIA in 1977 Cord Meyer wrote several books including an autobiography, Facing Reality: From World Federalism to the CIA. In the book Meyer commented on the murder of his wife: "I was satisfied by the conclusions of the police investigation that Mary had been the victim of a sexually motivated assault by a single individual and that she had been killed in her struggle to escape." Carol Delaney, the longtime personal assistant to Meyer, later admitted: "Mr. Meyer didn't for a minute think that Ray Crump had murdered his wife or that it had been an attempted rape. But, being an Agency man, he couldn't very well accuse the CIA of the crime, although the murder had all the markings of an in-house rubout."

In February, 2001, the writer, C. David Heymann, asked Cord Meyer about the death of Mary Pinchot Meyer: "My father died of a heart attack the same year Mary was killed, " he whispered. "It was a bad time." And what could he say about Mary Meyer? Who had committed such a heinous crime? "The same sons of bitches," he hissed, "that killed John F. Kennedy."

It was founded in 1882 by a group of eminent thinkers including Edmund Gurney, Frederic William Henry Myers, William Fletcher Barrett, Henry Sidgwick, and Edmund Dawson Rogers. The Society's headquarters are in Marloes Road, London. It publishes the quarterly Journal of the Society for Psychical Research (JSPR), the irregular Proceedings and the magazine Paranormal Review. It holds an annual conference, regular lectures and two study days per year.
Its purpose was to encourage scientific research into psychic or paranormal phenomena in order to establish their truth. Research was initially aimed at six areas: telepathy, mesmerism and similar phenomena, mediums, apparitions, physical phenomena associated with séances and, finally, the history of all these phenomena. The Society is run by a President and a Council of twenty people. The organization is divided between London and Cambridge (where the archives are located), the London headquarters were initially at 14 Dean's Yard.
Later, an American branch of the Society was formed as the American Society for Psychical Research (ASPR) in 1885, becoming an affiliate of the original SPR in 1890. American writers sometimes incorrectly call the SPR the British Society for Psychical Research (BSPR), to distinguish it from the American SPR, but the modifer should not be added.

Founded in 1885 in Boston, Massachusetts, on the initiative of Prof. W. F. Barrett. Its initial officers included president Prof. Simon Newcomb; secretary N. D. C. Hodges; and, four vice-presidents, Profs. Stanley Hall, George S. Fullerton, Edward C. Pickering, and Dr. Charles S. Minot. Those involved in the controversial field found it difficult to maintain support, even with renowned advocates such as Harvard Psychologist and Professor of Philosophy, William James, a member of the illustrious Boston family that included his brother, novelist Henry James. In 1889, for financial considerations, then-president S. P. Langley affiliated the ASPR to the English Society for Psychical Research. The research work of the American Society for Psychical Research was conducted by Dr. Richard Hodgson from 1887 until his death in 1905. The society, never strong, was dissolved the following year.
Mr. Gifford Pinchot, 1615 Rhode Island Ave., Washington, D. C.

Amos Pinchot was born in 1863. The son of a wealthy businessman, Pinchot studied law in New York City. In 1900 he married Gertrude Minturn.

The Minturn's were an interesting family with connections to the Opium trade....,_Jr.

Robert B. Minturn, Jr. (born New York, 21 February 1836, died 15 December 1889), was an American shipping magnate of the mid- to late 19th century.

Robert was the son of Robert Bowne Minturn (Sr.) and Anna Mary Wendell, in New York City. He graduated from Columbia University in 1856, and joined his father’s shipping firm, Grinnell, Minturn & Co., which is best known as being the owners of the clipper ship Flying Cloud. He is the author of New York to Delhi: by way of Rio de Janeiro, Australia and China (New York, 1858), an account of his voyage in connection with his work.

He married Sarah Susannah Shaw (born Massachusetts, 1839, died 1926), the sister of Robert Gould Shaw. They had a number of children:
The Minturn sisters.
 Edith Minturn Phelps Stokes - Mr. and Mrs. Isaac Newton Phelps Stokes - John Singer Sargent  - 1897

( Isaac Newton Phelps Stokes. His personal wealth was estimated at USD$250,000,000 at the time of his death, or about USD$5.515E+9 in today's dollars.[6] )

Robert Shaw Minturn (born New York, August 1863)
Sarah May Minturn (born Staten Island, N.Y., 3 September 1865); she married Henry Dwight Sedgwick III
Edith Minturn (born New York, ca. 1868)
Gertrude Minturn (born New York, June 1872)
Mildred Minturn (born New York, November 1875)
Hugh Minturn (born New York, September 1882)
As Vice President of the railroad that founded the town of Minturn, Colorado, he gave his name to that town.

THE WEDDINGS OF A DAY; Marriage of Miss Gertrude Minturn to Mr. Pinchot.
The Ceremony at St. George's Church -- Many Guests Invited -- The Bride's Costume
November 15, 1900, Wednesday
Page 7, 2225 words

The wedding of Amos R. Eno Pinchot and Miss Gertrude Minturn was celebrated at noon yesterday in St. George's Church, Stuyvesant Square, by the Rev. Dr. Rainsford, rector of the church. The bride, who entered the church on the arm of her brother, Robert Shaw Minturn, who afterward gave her away, wore a gown of cream-white satin, severely plain in style and trimmed only with drapery of point lace on the bodice.... Mr Pinchot's best man was his brother Gifford Pinchot...

Another Minturn comes back into the story "As Sixties  "IT" Girl Edith Minturn Sedgwick Who met Leary at Hitchcocks LSD place via Andy Warhol's crew, Leary's wife and Warhol girl 'Nena' von Schlebrügge:
Andy Warhol was often blamed for Edie Sedgwick's descent into drug addiction and mental illness. However, before meeting Warhol, Edie had been in mental hospitals twice and came from a family with a history of mental illness. She was only close to Warhol for about a year, from approximately March 1965 to February 1966.
Edie Sedgwick was born in Santa Barbara, California, to Alice Delano de Forest (1908–1988) and Francis Minturn Sedgwick, (1904–1967), a philanthropist, rancher, and sculptor.[4] She was named after her father's aunt, Edith Minturn, famously painted, with her husband,
In March 1965, Sedgwick met artist and avant-garde filmmaker Andy Warhol at Lester Persky's apartment. She began going to The Factory artist studio regularly in March 1965 with her friend, Chuck Wein.
'Nena' von Schlebrügge - She married LSD guru Timothy Leary in 1964. They were married in Millbrook, New York, at the Hitchcock house where Leary had been carrying on his hallucinogenic experiments.

More about the ENO family:
... the Simsbury Cemetery on Hopmeadow Street in the center of town, you can look up toward one of the mausoleums on the crest of the hill and thank the man who made your drive a safe one.
William P. Eno, dubbed the “Father of Traffic Safety,” proposed rules of the road for the newfangled automobile more than 100 years ago.

Eno, who died in 1945 at age 86, lies in the grandest of five mausoleums built for the family of Amos R. Eno, a Simsbury native who once was the largest landowner in Manhattan. In 1900, William Eno stated in The Rider and Driver magazine that “the first important principle of the rules of the road is that vehicles shall keep to the right.” A graduate of Yale (and member of Skull & Bones), Eno is also credited with helping to invent the stop sign, one-way streets and the ubiquitous traffic cop. Oddly enough, Eno, though he established the Eno Transportation Foundation in Washington, D.C., never learned to drive — a chauffeur took him everywhere.

Also see:
Noah Phelps was a graduate of Yale University....
Daughter Lucy Phelps married Amos R. Eno of Simsbury. They moved to New York City where he and a cousin opened a profitable dry goods business. Amos parlayed his profits into real estate investment in Manhattan, New York. In the 1860s he built the famous Fifth Avenue Hotel at the corner of Fifth Avenue and 23rd Street in Manhattan. It was here that he and relatives established the Second National Bank of New York...In 1884 scandal hit the family when one of Amos' sons, John Chester, embezzled millions of dollars from his father's bank and then fled to Canada to avoid prosecution...


More about the Cord's

Cord Myer had a Twin brother  Quentin who died in combat in WWII:
Name: Quentin Meyer Service: U.S. Marine Corps Rank: First Lieutenant
ID: 0032025
Died: May 11, 1945
Buried: Honolulu Memorial in Honolulu, HI
Plot D Grave 279

Cord Meyer's Dad Cord Meyer (Sr.) and his father name was Cord Meyer:
CORD MEYER 1895-1964

     Cord Meyer, 69 years of age, president of the Cord Meyer Company, 68 William Street, New York, was one of the major real estate developers of the Borough of Queens in the City of New York.

     Cord Meyer died unexpectedly at his summer home in North Hampton, N. H., on June 19th, 1964. He lived at 116 East 66th Street, New York City. At the time of his death he was planning the 1964 Early Birds Reunion and Convention at the Wings Club in the Biltmore Hotel, New York.

     Cord Meyer learned to fly on a Wright model B plane at George Beatty's (EB) Aviation School in Mineola, Long Island, making his first solo flight on October 2, 1912. F.A.I. Airplane Pilot's Certificate #176 was issued to him. He was born in New York City, the son of Cord and Cornelia Covert Meyer.

The family had been established in New York by another Cord Meyer, Cord's father, who fled Germany after the revolution of 1838, opened a grocery store in Brooklyn and eventually became a wealthy wholesale grocer and sugar refiner.

     Cord Meyer attended the New York City schools, St. Paul's School in New Hampshire and Yale University, where he was captain of the crew.

     Before entering college in the class of '17 though, he had become interested in flying and had soloed from an airfield near Mineola Fair Grounds. At Yale, Mr. Meyer joined a flying club that became the Army's first reserve flying squadron then the United States entered the First World War.

Commissioned a Lieutenant in the Aviation Section of the U. S. Army Signal Corps in 1917, Cord Meyer was sent to Issudun, France for pursuit training. He was a member of William Thaw's (EB) 103rd Squadron, formerly the Lafayette Escadrille, at the front until he was disabled in a DeHaviland crackup. He was decorated by both the French and American armies.

      After the war he was Commander of American Legion "Air Service Post 501" in New York City and was Director of New York CAP unit during World War II. He also headed a Draft Board in New York.

     Cord Meyer was the father of two sets of twins, all boys. All four of his sons became Marine officers.

     One of Cord Meyer's sons was named Quentin, after his father's companion in World War I, Quentin Roosevelt. Like his namesake, Quentin Meyer was killed in combat.    


Quentin Roosevelt (November 19, 1897 – July 14, 1918) was the youngest and favorite son of President Theodore Roosevelt. Family and friends agreed that Quentin had many of his father's positive qualities and few of the negative ones. Encouraged by his father, he joined the United States Army Air Service where he became a fighter pilot during World War I. Extremely popular with his fellow pilots and known for being daring, he was killed in aerial combat over France.

In 1918, Cord Meyer was in his only crash, when a plane in which he was a passenger, hit a telegraph wire. Mr. Meyer was severely injured and the Pilot, Blair Thaw, was killed.

Surviving Cord Meyer are his wife and three sons, Cord Meyer, Jr., Thomas Drake Meyer and William Blair Meyer, and nine grandchildren.
from The Early Birds of Aviation CHIRP, December, 1964, Number 71 Awarded: Silver Star, Purple Heart

Quote: Got anything on the Institute for psychical research? 

Yes the SPR - American-SPR - British-SPR is very interesting in that the early members are a who's who of Pilgrims-S&B-Milner/Rhodes round table (Royals). This should be split into a separate thread.

They're interests in Eugenics and "Human Improvement" fold into this field since they believed that Psychic abilities might be improved via various means

They divide up into "spirituals" and "scientific" directions. So LSD would be the scientific direction. 

With the Sequoia Seminars there was a synthesis of spiritualism and scientific.

The Society for Psychical Research (SPR) was founded in 1882 by three dons of Trinity College, Cambridge. Sir William F. Barrett, a professor of physics at the Royal College of Science in Dublin, had been conducting experiments in the 1880s testing the notion of thought-transference. Barrett conceived of the idea of forming an organization of spiritualists, scientists, and scholars who would join forces in a dispassionate investigation of psychical phenomena.

F.W.H. Myers, Edmund Gurney and Henry Sidgewick attended a conference in London that Barrett convened, and the Society for Psychical Research (SPR) was created with Sidgewick, who had a reputation as an impartial scholar, accepting the first presidency. (including Frederic William Henry Myers) because of their interest in spiritualism.

The great American psychologist, William James, met Gurney in England in 1882 and immediately they struck up a close friendship. Later James also became a close friend of Myers. In 1884, Barrett toured the United States and succeeded in arousing the interest of American scholars in forming a similar society, which was established in 1885, and in which William James took an active role. The American Society for Psychical Research constituted the first organized efford for experimental psychological research in the United States. For a period of many years, before the ascendency of the German experimental approach of Wilhelm Wundt, psychology in the United States was equated with the efforts of psychical research.

The Society set up six working committees, each with a specific domain for exploration:

1. An examination of the nature and extent of any influence which may be exerted by one mind upon another, apart from any generally recognized mode of perception.
2. The study of hypnotism, and the forms of so-called mesmeric trance, with its alleged insensibility to pain; clairvoyance and other allied phenomena.
3. A critical revision of Reichenbach's researches with certain organizations called "sensitive," and an inquiry whether such organizations possess any power of perception beyond a highly exalted sensibility of the recognized sensory organs.
4. A careful investigation of any reports, resting on strong testimony, regarding apparitions at the moment of death, or otherwise, or regarding disturbances in houses reputed to be haunted.
5. An inquiry into the various physical phenomena commonly called spiritualistic; with an attempt to discover their causes and general laws.
6. The collection and collation of existing materials bearing on the history of these subjects.

The Society is run by a President and a Council of twenty people. The organisation is divided between London and Cambridge, the London headquarters were initially at 14 Deans Yard.

Famous supporters of the society have included Alfred Lord Tennyson, Mark Twain, Lewis Carroll, Carl Jung, J.B. Rhine and Arthur Conan Doyle (who was shamefully duped on at least one occasion by tricksters).

The Society was especially active in the thirty years after it was founded, gaining fame for its debunking of Madame Blavatsky and the Theosophical Society in 1884. Most initial members were spiritualists but there was a core of 'professional' investigators - the Sidgwick Group, headed by Henry Sidgwick, a formation pre-dating the SPR by eight years. The Society was wracked by internal strife, a large part of the membership (the Spiritists) leaving as early as 1887 in opposition to the approach taken by the so-called intellectuals.

The Society still exists and states its principal areas of study as "exchanges between minds, or between minds and the environment, which are not dealt with by current orthodox science." Of its initial aims, the most successful has been the gathering of data relating to the history of the paranormal - the SPR has built up an extensive library and archive.

Some links:

The Legacy
The work of the early researchers established the main methodological principles and the main areas of research. The study of mediumship continued, providing much information on aspects of human personality and altered states of consciousness, as well as perfecting investigative techniques.

Field investigations were carried out, and further collections, analyses and surveys of spontaneous phenomena were published. Following the general trend discerned also in psychology, towards an experimental, more biological, approach, experimental methods kept undergoing refinements and improvements. Much important pioneering work on free-response and quantitative experiments was done in the 1920s and 1930s, by researchers such as George Tyrrell. Mathematician and physicist by education, he explored a variety of methods for inducing altered states of consciousness, techniques to differentiate between telepathy and clairvoyance, and made attempts to automate the randomisation of targets.

The establishment of J.B. Rhine’s Parapsychology Laboratory in the USA in the 1930s was a spur to collaborative work and studies designed to replicate Rhine's results using his methods (see Overview). Both J.B. Rhine and his wife Louisa served as Presidents of the SPR in 1980. In fact, the work of the SPR has, over the years, attracted a remarkable roll-call of great names of learning, both as members and Presidents.

As the knowledge about aspects of psychical research and related areas expanded, so did the function of the SPR, from a mainly investigative to an educational body. Even in its earliest days the Society began creating a psychical research library and an archive of original documents, now housed both at its offices in London and at Cambridge University Library, which are continuously maintained and updated. The Society’s own publications, its Journal and occasional Proceedings, have been appearing since the 1880s. In them one can find a wealth of wide-ranging material relating to investigations and experiments past and present, as well as theoretical studies and papers discussing the relationship between psychical research and fields such as psychology, philosophy, physics, medicine, evolutionary biology, social sciences. One of the Society’s major recent projects was to have all its publications and the classics of psychical research made available online, together with an Abstracts Catalogue, in which related abstracts are arranged in themed collections.

Today, apart from its educational activities, the SPR continues to promote and support the main areas of psychical research: spontaneous phenomena, mediumship, and experimental work. Now that parapsychology has become an academic subject, with postgraduate courses offered at a number of universities, many of these projects are carried out as part of university research. However, the function of the Society is still very much to bring together independent individuals with many different approaches and views but sharing a passion for the subject, so that findings and ideas can be shared, evaluated and disseminated (see Research).

The American Society for Psychical Research is the oldest psychical research organization in the United States. For more than a century, it's mission has been to explore extraordinary or as yet unexplained phenomena that have been called psychic or paranormal, and their implications for our understanding of consciousness, the universe and the nature of existence. How is mind related to matter, energy, space and time?

In what unexplained ways do we interconnect with the universe and each other? The ASPR addresses these profoundly important and far-reaching questions with scientific research and related educational activities including lectures, conferences and other information services. ...

Fadiman had gone to Harvard and studied social relations. He soon came to consider the field as psychology without rats, and he had instead focused his energy on being an actor. After graduating in 1960, he spent a year in Paris, and while he was there Timothy Leary and Richard Alpert along with Aldous Huxley passed through on their way to deliver an academic paper on psychedelics in Copenhagen.

In Paris, Alpert, who had been Fadiman's professor at Harvard, told him, "The greatest thing in the world has happened to me, and I want to share it with you." He proceeded to pull a small bottle out of his pocket, introducing his former student to LSD.

Now Richard Alpert does seems to have a connection to the Sequoia Seminars that I cannot confirm.

Stolaroff Collection © 2009

Richard Alpert earned Ph.D. in Human Development from Stanford University in 1957. He was an instructor at Stanford from 1957-58.

So Alpert was at Stanford from 1956 to 1958, The same time as the Sequoia Seminars were experimenting with LSD. I find it hard to believe that Alpert who gets his PHD in "Human Development" and then spends two years as a prof at Stanford did not at least hear of the experiments going on all around him . Now it is said that Alpert was a "closeted" gay man and that he was having an affair with a man in Berkeley/Oakland? so maybe all this was just ignored by him. I find it interesting that I can find NOTHING about him regarding his time at Stanford. Again has his bio been massaged? The Stanford University website has nothing on this prominant alumni...

And then, he makes a beeline for Harvard and starts up a program with Leary (where he could be top bananna? Just a co-incidence? REALLY? Or was he given instructions to startup another "program" ). It maybe that Leary and Alpert were used as a way to coverup the origins of the earlier programs at Stanford SRI and to discredit LSD as a "therapy".

Also for background Alpert's father George was extremely well connected as president of the New Haven Railroad .

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Also George Alpert was one of the founders of Brandeis University named after Louis Brandeis:
Louis Brandeis
United States Supreme Court Justice from 1916 to 1939.
Brandeis became active in the Federation of American Zionists in 1912, as a result of a conversation with Jacob de Haas,  During Wilson's first year as president, Brandeis "played a key role in shaping the Federal Reserve Act," according to banking historian Albert Link ...
Brandeis also brought his philosophy and influence into the Woodrow Wilson administration to bear in the negotiations leading up to the Balfour Declaration

Brandeis and Jekell Island 1910:
"Mr. Schiff is head of the great private banking house of Kuhn, Loeb & Co. which represents the Rothschild interest on this side of the Atlantic. He has been described as a financial strategist and has been for years the financial minister to the great impersonal power known as Standard Oil. He was hand-in-glove with the Harrimans, the Goulds and the Rockefellers, in all their railroad enterprises and has become the dominant power in the railroad and financial world in America.

Louis Brandeis, because of his great ability as a lawyer and for other reasons which will appear later, was selected by Schiff as the instrument through which Schiff hoped to achieve his ambition in New England. His job was to carry on an agitation which would undermine public confidence in the New Haven system and cause a decrease in the price of its securities, thus forcing them on the market for the wreckers to buy."74

We mention Schiff’s lawyer, Brandeis, here because the first available appointment on the Supreme Court of the United States which Woodrow Wilson was allowed to fill was given to the Kuhn, Loeb lawyer, Brandeis.

 "In Paris in June of 1919, Brandeis met with such friends as Paul Warburg, Col. House, Lord Balfour, Louis Marshall, and Baron Edmond de Rothschild."

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Richard Alpert AKA Ram Dass born original last name Alperovitz
Richard Alpert (born April 6, 1931), also known as Baba Ram Dass, is a contemporary spiritual teacher who wrote the 1971 bestseller Remember Be Here Now. He is well known for his personal and professional association with Timothy Leary at Harvard University in the early 1960s. He is also known for his travels to India and his relationship with the Hindu guru Neem Karoli Baba.

Youth and college
Alpert was born to a prominent Jewish family in Newton, Massachusetts. His father, George Alpert, was one of the most influential lawyers in the Boston area and president of the New York, New Haven and Hartford Railroad, as well as one of the leading founders of Brandeis University and the Albert Einstein College of Medicine. The youngest of three boys, Richard as a child was described as being engaging and loved by all—the family mascot. He went on to receive a Bachelor of Arts degree from Tufts University, master's degree from Wesleyan University and doctorate (in psychology) from Stanford University.

Harvard professorship and the Timothy Leary/Richard Alpert research
After returning from a visiting professorship at the University of California, Berkeley [Stanford?], Alpert accepted a permanent position at Harvard, where he worked with the Social Relations Department, the Psychology Department, the Graduate School of Education, and the Health Service, where he was a therapist.

He was also awarded research contracts with Yale and Stanford [SRI???]. However, perhaps most notable was the work he was doing with his close friend and associate, Dr. Timothy Leary.

Having only recently obtained his pilot's license, Alpert flew his private plane to Cuernavaca, Mexico, where Leary first introduced him to teonanácatl, the Magic Mushrooms of Mexico. By the time Alpert made it back to America, Leary had already consulted with Aldous Huxley, who was visiting at M.I.T., and through Huxley and a number of graduate students they were able to get in touch with Sandoz, which had produced a synthetic component of ergot wheat fungus called LSD.

Alpert and Leary brought a test batch of both substances back to Harvard ["Test batch"? This is a BS story IMHO], where they conducted the Harvard Psilocybin Project and experimented with LSD relatively privately.

Leary and Alpert were formally dismissed from the university in 1963.
Alperovitz Family Part 1

[Ram Dass is Related to Herb Alpert (brass)]

#al53:.Herb Alpert was born in Los Angeles on March 31,1935.
The son of a Russian immigrant and a Hungarian mother, began playing the trumpet when he was eight.He studied classical music and his first trumpet teacher was Harold Mitchell.

George Alpert 1898-1988
GEORGE ALPERT born; 24 Mar 1898 died; 11 Sep 1988 Last Residence;
Cohasset, Norfolk, MA
A lawyer, financier and philanthropist, was president of the New Haven Railroad and helped found Brandeis University.

Ram Dass was born, Richard Alpert, on April 6, 1931 in Boston, Mass., the son of a wealthy lawyer George Alpert who was the president of the New York, New Haven, and Hartford Railroad and founder of Brandeis University.

As Richard Alpert he received a B.A. from Tufts College in 1952, an M.A. in motivation psychology from Wesleyan University in 1953, and a Ph.D. in human development from Stanford University in 1957. He was an instructor at Stanford from 1957-58. He taught and conducted research at the Department of Social Relations and the Graduate School of Education at Harvard University from 1958 to 1963.

While at Harvard, his explorations of human consciousness led him to conduct intensive research with LSD and other psychedelic elements, in collaboration with Timothy Leary, Aldous Huxley, Allen Ginsberg, and others. Because of the controversial nature of this research, Ram Dass and Leary were dismissed from Harvard in 1963.

In 1967, he traveled to India where he met his spiritual teacher, Neem Karoli Baba (there is a beautiful picture of Maharaj-ji here. Here he was given the name Ram Dass (Servant of God). While in India and after his return to North America he has studied yoga and meditation and a variety of spiritual practices, including Hinduism, karma, yoga and Sufism.

In 1974, Ram Dass created the Hanuman Foundation, which has developed many projects, including the Prison-Ashram Project, designed to help inmates grow spiritually during incarceration. He also helped develop the "Living/Dying Project", with Stephen Levine which provides support for the conscious dying.

In 1978 Ram Dass co-founded and became a board member of the Seva Foundation, an international organization dedicated to relieving suffering in the world. Seva supports programs designed to help wipe out curable blindness in India and Nepal, restore the agricultural life of impoverished villagers in Guatemala, assist in primary health care for American Indians, and to bring attention to the issues of homelessness and environmental degradation in the United States, among others. There is a Canadian Seva Service Society which is active in the same areas of service.

On 19 February 1997, Ram Dass suffered a stroke which left him paralyzed on the right side of his body and limited his ability to speak. For more information, go to the Ram Dass Tapes web site and click on "News" under the "Ram Dass" heading. A Community Satsang page can also be found by going to the Ram Dass Tapes web site and clicking on the "Message Board" heading.

To read one of the first media reports of his stroke check out this article at the San Fransisco Examiner on February 26, 1997.
On Monday, May 26, 1997 Ram Dass gave his first interview to Don Lattin, Chronicle Religion Writer, (San Fransisco Chronicle) since his stroke. In this interview titled "Stroke Teaches Ram Dass Anew to `Be Here Now': Spiritual teacher slowly recovering" we can hear Ram Dass' struggle to communicate with words since his stroke. We can also, however, experience some of the "eloquence to silence" which has become a tool for Ram Dass since his stroke.

On March 11th, 1998 Ram Dass gave his first public lecture since his stroke. He was invited to speak at Don Holmlund's class on "America in the '60s" at the College of Marin. Ram Dass spoke about the many ways psychedelics had shaped the social and spiritual values of a generation, and he told stories of the Harvard psychedelic experiments and of his adventures with Tim Leary.

Ram Dass has begun to travel and offer satsang again. If you go to the Ram Dass Tapes web site and check out "Ram Dass - Schedule & Lectures" you will find his teaching schedule.  Ram Dass has written a number of books on spiritual topics. The Ram Dass Tape Library offers copies of those books, as well as tapes and videos of his talks, for sale. As someone who has used the books and tapes extensively I highly recommend them to you.

Psychedelic Science in the 21st Century - Conference - April 15 2010

With the economic breakdown will the next move be back to "Brave New World" Psychedelic's?
The Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies (MAPS) is a membership–based, IRS–approved 501 (c) (3) nonprofit research and educational organization. Our mission is

1) to treat conditions for which conventional medicines provide limited relief—such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), pain, drug dependence, anxiety and depression associated with end-of-life issues—by developing psychedelics and marijuana into prescription medicines;

2) to cure many thousands of people by building a network of clinics where treatments can be provided; and

3) to educate the public honestly about the risks and benefits of psychedelics and marijuana.

Psychedelic Science in the 21st Century
April 15-18, 2010 in the San Francisco Bay Area
An International Conference
Offering Continuing Medical Education (CME) Credits.

Open to Physicians,  Other Therapeutic and Medical Professionals,
and the General Public

Psychedelic Science will bring together international experts to present on psychedelic research and psychedelic psychotherapy topics for the largest conference dedicated solely to psychedelics in the U.S. in 17 years. There will be three full days of programming with concurrent tracks exploring clinical applications, issues relevant to healthcare professionals, and social and cultural issues surrounding the therapeutic and recreational uses of psychedelics.

Psychedelic Science will offer pre- and post-conference workshops with Stanislav Grof, M.D., Rick Doblin, Ph.D., Michael Mithoefer, M.D., Annie Mithoefer, B.S.N., Alex and Allyson Grey, David Nichols, Ph.D., Franz Vollenweider, M.D., Ralph Metzner, Ph.D., and Ann Harrison and Carolyn "Mountain Girl" Garcia of the Women's Visionary Congress.

Here's a great documentary where you can hear it from the source regarding LSD.

Very interesting book, the conclusion Albert Hoffman offers:
"I see the true importance of LSD in the possibility  of providing material aid to meditation aimed at the mystical experience of a deeper, comprehensive reality. Such a use accords entirely with the essence and working character of LSD as a sacred drug. "

Excerpts of analysis of "The Aquarian Conspiracy" by Executive Intelligence Review

Other than Willis Harman and SRI their is not much of a direct connection to the Sequoia Seminars. But it does show that the Sequoia Seminars/LSD experimentation could have been a precursor operation/project used to evaluate the possible direction of the future projects. Also by the 1970's Harman had switched hats and with Hubbard was creating an "anti-LSD" opposition.

In the spring of 1980, a book appeared  called The Aquarian Conspiracy [ by Marilyn Ferguson ] that put  itself forward as a manifesto of the  counterculture. Defining the  counterculture as the conscious  embracing of irrationality -- from rock  and drugs to biofeedback, meditation,  "consciousness-raising," yoga, mountain  climbing, group therapy, and  psychodrama. The Aquarian Conspiracy  declares that it is now time for the 15  million Americans involved in the  counterculture to join in bringing about  a "radical change in the United States."
The counterculture is a conspiracy -- but  not in the half-conscious way Ferguson  claim -- as she well knows. Ferguson  wrote her manifesto under the direction  of Willis Harman, social policy director  of the Stanford Research Institute, as a  popular version of a May 1974 policy  study on how to transform the United  States into Aldous Huxley's Brave New  World. The counterculture is a  conspiracy at the top, created as a  method of social control, used to drain  the United States of its commitment to  scientific and technological progress.

That conspiracy goes back to the 1930s,  when the British sent Aldous Huxley to  the United States as the case officer for  an operation to prepare the United  States for the mass dissemination of  drugs. We will take this conspiracy apart  step-by-step from its small beginnings  with Huxley in California to the  victimization of 15 million Americans  today. With 'The Aquarian Conspiracy',  the British Opium War against the United  States has come out into the open.
Aldous Huxley, along with his brother  Julian, was tutored at Oxford by H.G.  Wells, the head of British foreign  intelligence during World War I and the  spiritual grandfather of the Aquarian  Conspiracy. Ferguson accurately sees the  counterculture as the realization of what  Wells called The Open Conspiracy: Blue  Prints for a World Revolution. The "Open  Conspiracy,"
What Ferguson left out is that Wells  called his conspiracy a "one-world brain"  which would function as "a police of the  mind." Such books as the Open  Conspiracy were for the priesthood  itself.
Under Wells's tutelage, Huxley was first  introduced to Aleister Crowley. Crowley  was a product of the cultist circle that  developed in Britain from the 1860s  under the guiding influence of Edward  Bulwer-Lytton -- who, it will be recalled,  was the colonial minister under Lord  Palmerston during the Second Opium War.
In 1937, Huxley was sent to the United  States, where he remained throughout  the period of World War II. Through a Los  Angeles contact, Jacob Zeitlin, Huxley  and pederast Christopher Isherwood  were employed as script writers for  MGM, Warner Brothers, and Walt Disney  Studios. Hollywood was already  dominated by organized crime elements  bankrolled and controlled through  London. Joseph Kennedy was the  frontman for a British consortium that  created RKO studios, and "Bugsy" Siegel,  the West Coast boss of the Lansky  syndicate, was heavily involved in  Warner Brothers and MGM.

Huxley founded a nest of Isis cults in  southern California and in San Francisco,  that consisted exclusively of several  hundred deranged worshipers of Isis and  other cult gods. Isherwood, during the  California period, translated and  propagated a number of ancient Zen  Buddhist documents, inspiring  Zen-mystical cults along the way.8

In effect, Huxley and Isherwood (joined  soon afterwards by Thomas Mann and his  daughter Elisabeth Mann Borghese) laid  the foundations during the late 1930s  and the 1940s for the later LSD culture,  by recruiting a core of "initiates" into the  Isis cults that Huxley's mentors,  Bulwer-Lytton, Blavatsky, and Crowley,  had constituted while stationed in India.
The CIA operation was code named  MK-Ultra, its result was not  unintentional, and it began in 1952, the  year Aldous Huxley returned to the  United States.

Lysergic acid diethylamide, or LSD, was  developed in 1943 by Albert Hoffman, a  chemist at Sandoz A.B. -- a Swiss  pharmaceutical house owned by S.G.  Warburg. While precise documentation is  unavailable as to the auspices under  which the LSD research was  commissioned, it can be safely assumed  that British intelligence and its  subsidiary U.S. Office of Strategic  Services were directly involved.

Allen  Dulles, the director of the CIA when that  agency began MK-Ultra, was the OSS  station chief in Berne, Switzerland  throughout the early Sandoz research.  One of his OSS assistants was James  Warburg, of the same Warburg family,  who was instrumental in the 1963  founding of the Institute for Policy  Studies, and worked with both Huxley and Robert Hutchins."10

Aldous Huxley returned to the United  States from Britain, accompanied by Dr.  Humphrey Osmond, the Huxleys' private  physician. Osmond had been part of a  discussion group Huxley had organized at  the National Hospital, Queens Square,  London. Along with another seminar  participant, J.R. Smythies, Osmond  wrote Schizophrenia: A New Approach, in  which he asserted that mescaline -- a  derivative of the mescal cactus used in  ancient Egyptian and Indian pagan rites  -- produced a psychotic state identical in  all clinical respects to schizophrenia.

On  this basis, Osmond and Smythies  advocated experimentation with  hallucinogenic drugs as a means of  developing a "cure" for mental disorders.

Osmond was brought in by Allen Dulles to  play a prominent role in MK-Ultra. At the  same time, Osmond, Huxley, and the  University of Chicago's Robert Hutchins  held a series of secret planning sessions  in 1952 and 1953 for a second, private  LSD mescaline project under Ford  Foundation funding.11

Hutchins, it will  be recalled, was the program director of  the Ford Foundation during this period.  His LSD proposal incited such rage in  Henry Ford II that Hutchins was fired  from the foundation the following year.

It was also in 1953 that Osmund gave  Huxley a supply of mescaline for his  personal consumption. The next year, [1954] Huxley wrote The Doors of Perception,  the first manifesto of the psychedelic  drug cult, which claimed that  hallucinogenic drugs "expand  consciousness." Although the Ford  Foundation rejected the Hutchins-Huxley  proposal for private foundation  sponsorship of LSD, the proposal was not  dropped.

Beginning in 1962, the Rand  Corporation of Santa Monica, California  began a four-year experiment in LSD,  peyote, and marijuana. The Rand  Corporation was established  simultaneously with the reorganization  of the Ford Foundation during 1949.  Rand was an outgrowth of the wartime  Strategic Bombing Survey, a "cost  analysis" study of the psychological  effects of the bombings of German  population centers.

According to a 1962 Rand Abstract, W.H.  McGlothlin conducted a preparatory  study on "The Long-Lasting Effects of  LSD on Certain Attitudes in Normals: An  Experimental Proposal." The following  year, McGlothlin conducted a year-long  experiment on thirty human guinea pigs,  called "Short-Term Effects of LSD on  Anxiety, Attitudes and Performance."  The study concluded that LSD improved  emotional attitudes and resolved anxiety  problems.12

Huxley At Work Huxley expanded his own  LSD-mescaline project in California by  recruiting several individuals who had  been initially drawn into the cult circles  he helped establish during his earlier  stay. The two most prominent  individuals were Alan Watts and the late  Dr. Gregory Bateson (the former husband  of Dame Margaret Mead). Watts became  a self-styled "guru" of a nationwide Zen  Buddhist cult built around his  well-publicized books.

Bateson, an  anthropologist with the OSS, became the  director of a hallucinogenic drug  experimental clinic at the Palo Alto  Veterans Administration Hospital. Under  Bateson's auspices, the initiating "cadre"  of the LSD cult -- the hippies -- were  programmed.13

Watts at the same time founded the  Pacifica Foundation, which sponsored  two radio station WKBW in San Francisco  and WBM-FM in New York City. The  Pacifica stations were among the first to  push the "Liverpool Sound" -- the  British-imported hard rock twanging of  the Rolling Stones, the Beatles, and the  Animals. They would later pioneer "acid  rock" and eventually the self-avowed  psychotic "punk rock."

During the fall of 1960, Huxley was  appointed visiting professor at the  Massachusetts Institute of Technology in  Boston. Around his stay in that city,  Huxley created a circle at Harvard  parallel to his West Coast LSD team. The  Harvard group included Huxley, Osmund,  and Watts (brought in from California),  Timothy Leary, and Richard Alpert.

The ostensible topic of the Harvard  seminar was "Religion and its  Significance in the Modern Age." The  seminar was actually a planning session  for the "acid rock" counterculture.  Huxley established contact during this  Harvard period with the president of  Sandoz, which at the time was working  on a CIA contract to produce large  quantities of LSD and psilocybin (another  synthetic hallucinogenic drug) for  MK-Ultra, the CIA's official chemical  warfare experiment.

According to  recently released CIA documents, Allen  Dulles purchased over 100 million doses  of LSD -- almost all of which flooded the  streets of the United States during the  late 1960s. During the same period,  Leary began privately purchasing large  quantities of LSD from Sandoz as well.14

From the discussions of the Harvard  seminar, Leary put together the book  The Psychedelic Experience, based on  the ancient cultist Tibetan Book of the  Dead. It was this book that popularized  Osmund's previously coined term,  "psychedelic mind-expanding."

The Roots of the Flower People

Back in California, Gregory Bateson had  maintained the Huxley operation out of  the Palo Alto VA hospital. Through LSD  experimentation on patients already  hospitalized for psychological problems,  Bateson established a core of "initiates"  into the "psychedelic" Isis Cult.

Foremost among his Palo Alto recruits  was Ken Kesey. In 1959, Bateson  administered the first dose of LSD to  Kesey. By 1962, Kesey had completed a  novel, One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest,  which popularized the notion that  society is a prison and the only truly  "free" people are the insane.15

Kesey subsequently organized a circle of  LSD initiates called "The Merry  Pranksters." They toured the country  disseminating LSD (often without  forewarning the receiving parties),  building up local distribution  connections, and establishing the  pretext for a high volume of publicity on  behalf of the still minuscule  "counterculture."

By 1967, the Kesey cult had handed out  such quantities of LSD that a sizable drug  population had emerged, centered in the  Haight-Ashbury district of San Francisco. 

Here Huxley collaborator Bateson set up  a "free clinic," staffed by Dr. David  Smith -- later a "medical adviser" for the  National Organization for the Reform of  Marijuana Laws (NORML);

Dr. Ernest  Dernberg an active-duty military officer,  probably on assignment through  MK-UItra; Roger Smith-a street gang  organizer trained by Saul Alinsky.

During  the Free Clinic period, Roger Smith was  the parole officer of the cultist mass  murderer Charles Manson;

Dr. Peter  Bourne -- formerly President Carter's  special assistant on drug abuse. Bourne did his psychiatric residency at the  Clinic. He had previously conducted a  profiling study of GI heroin addicts in Vietnam.

The Free Clinic paralleled a project at  the Tavistock Institute, the  psychological warfare agency for the  British Secret Intelligence Service.  Tavistock, founded as a clinic in London  in the 1920s, had become the Psychiatric  Division of the British Army during World  War II under its director, Dr. John  Rawlings Rees.16

During the 1960s, the Tavistock Clinic  fostered the notion that no criteria for  sanity existed and that psychedelic  "mind-expanding" drugs are valuable  tools of psychoanalysis.

In 1967,  Tavistock sponsored a Conference on the  "Dialectics of Liberation," chaired by  Tavistock psychoanalyst Dr. R.D. Laing,  himself a popularized author and  advocate of drug use. That conference  drew a number of people who would  soon play a prominent role in fostering  terrorism; Angela Davis and Stokely  Carmichael were two prominent  American delegates.

Thus, by 1963, Huxley had recruited his  core of "initiates." All of them -- Leary,  Osmund, Watts, Kesey, Alpert -- became  the highly publicized promoters of the  early LSD counterculture.

By 1967, with  the cult of "Flower People" in  Haight-Ashbury and the emergence of  the antiwar movement, the United  States was ready for the inundation of  LSD, hashish and marijuana that hit  American college campuses in the late  1960s.

'The Beating of Drums . . .'

In 1963, the Beatles arrived in the  United States, and with their decisive  airing on the Ed Sullivan Show, the  "British sound" took off in the U.S.A. For  their achievement, the four rocksters  were awarded the Order of the British  Empire by Her Majesty the Queen. The  Beatles and the Animals, Rolling Stones,  and homicidal punk rock maniacs who  followed were, of course, no more a  spontaneous outpouring of alienated  youth than was the acid culture they  accompanied.
The Vietnam War and the Anti-Vietnam  War Trap

But without the Vietnam War and the  "anti-war" movement, the Isis cult would  have been contained to a fringe  phenomenon -- no bigger than the  beatnik cult of the 1950s that was an  outgrowth of the early Huxley ventures  in California. The Vietnam War created  the climate of moral despair that opened  America's youth to drugs.

In the United States, the New York banks  provided several hundred thousand  dollars to establish the Institute for  Policy Studies (IPS), effectively the U.S.  branch of the Russell Peace Foundation.  Among the founding trustees of the IPS  was James Warburg, directly  representing the family's interests.

IPS drew its most active operatives from  a variety of British-dominated  institutions. IPS founding director Marcus  Raskin was a member of the Kennedy  administration's National Security  Council and also a fellow of the National  Training Labs, a U.S. subsidiary of the  Tavistock Institute founded by Dr. Kurt  Lewin.
After its creation by the League for  Industrial Democracy, Students for a  Democratic Society (SDS), the umbrella  of the student anti-war movement, was  in turn financed and run through IPS --  up through and beyond its splintering  into a number of terrorist and Maoist  gangs in the late 1960s.21 More broadly,  the institutions and outlook of the U.S.  anti-war movement were dominated by  the direct political descendants of the  British-dominated "socialist movement"  in the U.S.A., fostered by the House of  Morgan as far back as the years before  World War I.

This is not to say that the majority of  anti-war protesters were paid, certified  British agents. On the contrary, the  overwhelming majority of anti-war  protesters went into SDS on the basis of  outrage at the developments in Vietnam.  But once caught in the environment  defined by Russell and the Tavistock  Institute's psychological warfare experts,  and inundated with the message that  hedonistic pleasure-seeking was a  legitimate alternative to "immoral war,"  their sense of values and their creative  potential went up in a cloud of hashish  smoke.
In 1962, Huxley helped found the Esalen  Institute in Big Sur, California, which  became a mecca for hundreds of  Americans to engage in weekends of  T-Groups and Training Groups modeled  on behavior group therapy, for Zen,  Hindu, and Buddhist transcendental  meditation, and "out of body"  experiences through simulated and  actual hallucinogenic drugs.23
As described in the Esalen Institute  Newsletter: "Esalen started in the fall of  1962 as a forum to bring together a wide  variety of approaches to enhancement of  the human potential . . . including  experiential sessions involving encounter  groups, sensory awakening, gestalt  awareness training, related disciplines.  Our latest step is to fan out into the  community at large, running programs in  cooperation with many different  institutions, churches, schools,  hospitals, and government."24

Esalen's nominal founders were two  transcendental meditation students,  Michael Murphy and Richard Price, both  graduates of Stanford University. Price  also participated in the experiments on  patients at Bateson's Palo Alto Veterans  Hospital. Today Esalen's catalogue  offers: T-Groups; Psychodrama Marthon;  Fight Training for Lovers and Couples;  Religious Cults; LSD Experiences and the  Great Religions of the World; Are You  Sound, a weekend workshop with Alan  Watts; Creating New Forms of Worship;  Hallucinogenic Psychosis; and Non-Drug  Approaches to Psychedelic Experiences.
The next leap in Britain's Aquarian  Conspiracy against the United States was  the May 1974 report that provided the  basis for Ferguson's work. The report is  entitled "Changing Images of Man,"  Contract Number URH (489~215O, Policy  Research Report No. 414.74, prepared by  the Stanford Research Institute Center  for the Study of Social Policy, Willis  Harman, director.

The 319-page  mimeographed report was prepared by a  team of fourteen researchers and  supervised by a panel of twenty-three  controllers, including anthropologist  Margaret Mead, psychologist B.F.  Skinner, Ervin Laszlo of the United  Nations, Sir Geoffrey Vickers of British  intelligence.

The aim of the study, the authors state,  is to change the image of mankind from  that of industrial progress to one of  "spiritualism." The study asserts that in  our present society, the "image of  industrial and technological man" is  obsolete and must be "discarded":

"Many  of our present images appear to have  become dangerously obsolete, however .  . .

Science, technology, and economics  have made possible really significant  strides toward achieving such basic  human goals as physical safety and  security, material comfort and better  health. But many of these successes  have brought with them problems of  being too successful -- problems that  themselves seem insoluble within the set  of societal value-premises that led to  their emergence . . .

Our highly  developed system of technology leads to  higher vulnerability and breakdowns.  Indeed the range and interconnected  impact of societal problems that are  now emerging pose a serious threat to  our civilization . . . If our predictions of  the future prove correct, we can expect  the association problems of the trend to  become more serious, more universal  and to occur more rapidly."

Therefore, SRI concludes, we must  change the industrial-technological  image of man fast: "Analysis of the  nature of contemporary societal  problems leads to the conclusion that . .  . the images of man that dominated the  last two centuries will be inadequate for  the post-industrial era."

Since the writing of the Harman report,  one President of the United States,  Jimmy Carter, reported sighting UFOs his  National Security Adviser Zbigniew  Brzezinski made speeches proclaiming  the advent of the New Age, the Joint  Chiefs of Staff every morning read  so-called intelligence reports on the  biorhythms and horoscopes of the  members of the Soviet Politburo. The  House of Representatives established a  new congressional committee, called the  Congressional Clearinghouse on the  Future, where the likes of Ferguson have  come to lecture up to a hundred  congressmen.25

What began as Britain's creation of the  counterculture to open the market for  its dope has come a long way.

The LSD Connection

Who provided the drugs that swamped  the anti-war movement and the college  campuses of the United States in the  late 1960s? The organized crime  infrastructure which had set up the  Peking Connection for the opium trade in  1928 -- provided the same services in the  1960s and 1970s it had provided during  Prohibition. This was also the same  network Huxley had established contact  with in Hollywood during the 1930s.

The  LSD connection begins with one William  "Billy" Mellon Hitchcock. Hitchcock was a  graduate of the University of Vienna and  a scion of the millionaire Mellon banking  family of Pittsburgh. (Andrew Mellon of  the same family had been the U.S. Treasury Secretary throughout  Prohibition.)

In 1963, when Timothy  Leary was thrown out of Harvard,  Hitchcock rented a fifty-five-room  mansion in Millbrook, New York, where  the entire Leary-Huxley circle of  initiates was housed until its later move  back to California.26

Hitchcock was also a broker for the  Lansky syndicate and for the Fiduciary  Trust Co., Nassau, Grand Bahamas --- a  wholly owned subsidiary of Investors  Overseas Services. He was formally  employed by Delafield and Delafield  Investments, where he worked on buying  and selling vast quantities of stock in the  Mary Carter Paint Co., soon to become  Resorts International.

In 1967, Dr. Richard Alpert put Hitchcock  in contact with Augustus Owsley Stanley  III. As Owsley's agent, Hitchcock  retained the law firm of Babinowitz,  Boudin and Standard 27 -- to conduct a  feasibility study of several Caribbean  countries to determine the best location for the production and distribution of  LSD and hashish.

During this period, Hitchcock joined  Leary and his circle in California.

Leary  had established an LSD cult called the  Brotherhood of Eternal Love and several  front companies, including Mystics Art  World, Inc. of Laguna Beach, California.  These California-based entities ran  lucrative trafficking in Mexican  marijuana and LSD brought in from  Switzerland and Britain.

The British  connection had been established directly  by Hitchcock, who contracted the  Charles Bruce chemical firm to import  large quantities of the chemical  components of LSD with financing from  both Hitchcock and George Grant Hoag,  the heir to the J.C. Penney dry goods  fortune, the Brotherhood of Eternal Love  set up LSD and hashish  production-marketing operations in  Costa Rica in 1968. 28

Toward the end of 1968, Hitchcock  expanded the LSD-hashish production  operations in the Caribbean with funds  provided by the Fiduciary Trust Co.  (IOS). In conjunction with J. Vontobel  and Co. of Zurich, Hitchcock founded a  corporation called 4-Star Anstalt in  Liechtenstein.

This company, employing  "investment funds" (that is, drug  receipts) from Fiduciary Trust, bought up  large tracts of land in the Grand  Bahamas as well as large quantities of  ergotamine tartrate, the basic chemical  used in the production of LSD.29

Hitchcock's personal hand in the LSD  connection abruptly ended several years later. Hitchcock had been working  closely with Johann F. Parravacini of the  Parravacini Bank Ltd in Berne,  Switzerland. From 1968, they had  together funded even further expansion  of the Caribbean-California LSD-hashish  ventures.

In the early 1970s, as the  result of a Securities and Exchange  Commission investigation, both  Hitchcock and Parravacini were indicted  and convicted of a $40 million stock  fraud. Parravacini had registered a $40  million sale to Hitchcock for which  Hitchcock had not put down a penny of  cash or collateral. This was one of the  rare instances in which federal  investigators succeeded in getting inside  the $200 billion drug fund as it was  making its way around the "offshore"  banking system.

Another channel for laundering dirty drug  money -- a channel yet to be  compromised by federal investigative  agencies is important to note here. This  is the use of tax-exempt foundations to  finance terrorism and environmentalism.  One immediately relevant case makes  the point.

In 1957, the University of Chicago's  Robert M. Hutchins established the  Center for the Study of Democratic  Institutions (CSDI) in Santa Barbara,  California. Knight Commander Hutchins  drew in Aldous Huxley, Elisabeth Mann  Borghese, and some Rhodes Scholars who  had originally been brought into the  University of Chicago during the 1930s  and 1940s.

The CSDI was originally funded 1957 to  1961 through a several-million-dollar  fund that Hutchins managed to set up  before his untimely departure from the  Ford Foundation.

From 1961 onward, the  Center was principally financed by  organized crime. The two funding  conduits were the Fund of Funds, a tax  exempt front for Bernie Cornfeld's lOS,  and the Parvin Foundation, a parallel  front for Parvin-Dohnnan Co. of Nevada. 

IOS and Marvin-Doorman held controlling  interests in the Desert Inn, the Aladdin,  and the Dune -- all Las Vegas casinos  associated with the Lansky syndicate

IOS, as already documented, was a  conducting vehicle for LSD, hashish, and  marijuana distribution throughout the  1960s.30

In 1967 alone, IOS channeled  between $3 and $4 million to the center.  Wherever there is dope, there is Dope,  Inc.

Part II

Degree's of Uma Thurman Separation

Famntaget Nena Birgitte Caroline von Schlebrugge
You're Nobody Till Somebody Loves You - 1964 - D A Pennebaker

This movie is something of a mystery. Timothy Leary was getting married to a model named Nena Von Schlebrugge up in Millbrook, New York at the Hitchcock house, where Leary had been carrying on his hallucinogenic revelries for the past year or so after leaving Harvard. It was rumored that this was going to be the wedding of the season, the wedding of Mr. And Mrs. Swing as Cab Calloway put it.  Blackwood took me downtown to meet Monte Rock III who was singing at Trudy Heller’s but who was also a very pricey and off-the-wall hairdresser and was in fact going to be doing the bride’s hair.  Nena’s brother, Bjorn, known as the “Baron” was a friend of the Hitchcock’s, as was I, and the idea of going along and filming the wedding seemed not unwarranted. I’ve always wanted to film someone getting married.  

So we drove up in Monte Rock’s ancient Buick, Diane Arbus, an editor from Vogue whose name I can no longer remember, and of course Monte Rock, his fingers covered in rings.  Close behind, Proferes and Desmond filmed us as we drove, up the Taconic and through the gates of the Hitchcock mansion.  

There were Hitchcocks and friends and relations of Hitchcocks, the Baron and his court, a score of models, and Charles Mingus playing a lonely piano. Even Susan Leary fresh out of jail.  It was indeed an amazing wedding, and for all I know, an amazing marriage, although someone later told me it was over before I’d even finished editing the film.  

After Nena divorced Leary she married a Tibetan scholar, Dr. Robert Thurman and her daughter Uma is Uma the actress.  Dick Alpert became his own guru, Baba Ram Dass and achieved a sainthood of his own.  Monte Rock III left Trudy Heller’s and went out to Hollywood and became famous for his line in the John Travolta movie, Saturday Night Fever, when as the disco DJ he exclaims, “I love that polyester look.” Charles Mingus got thrown out of his loft and sadly perished, and in time the Hitchcock house itself burned down, or so I’ve been told.  The mystery is that we never filmed anyone actually getting married.

D A Pennebaker

Edie at the Factory - 1964
l-r: John Palmer, Carol James, Gerard Malanga, Marisa Berenson and Edie. Jane Holzer: "It was getting very scary at the Factory. There were too many crazy people around who were stoned and using too many drugs. They had some laughing gas that everybody was sniffing. The whole thing freaked me out, and I figured it was becoming too faggy and sick and druggy. I couldn't take it.

Edie had arrived, but she was very happy to put up with that sort of ambience."; Danny Fields: "Edie fit wonderfully into all this. What was great about her was that she was attracted to the most brilliant and crazy people - Ondine, Chuck and Andy. She was really a poet's lady. Most of these people were probably gay, but they were seriously in love with her. She was very beautiful, which anyone can respond to. And she made them feel like men. She would come on helpless, which brought out their strengths." -
Photo courtesy of Stephen Shore from

Edie Sedgwick - The Ciao Manhattan Tapes
Edith Minturn Sedgwick Interview
edie sedgwick goes shopping . . .outtake from "Ciao! Manhattan"

There is much more to Edie Minturn Sedgewick ... please refer to these bio's that describe how she inspired many songs by Bob Dylan and others...

Bob Dylan and Bobby Neuwirth first met Edie in December of 1964 - approximately a month before she met Warhol.

Biography of Edith Minturn Sedgwick (April 20, 1943 - November 15 1971)
 She is rumoured to be one of the main inspirations behind Dylan's seminal 1966 opus Blonde on Blonde and songs as famous and diverse as the tender ballad Just Like a Woman and the raucous stomper Leopardskin Pillbox Hat. She also inspired Lay Lady Lay.

Ciao Manhattan

Edie Sedgwick ...  Susan Superstar
Nena von Schlebrügge Thurman ...  (scenes deleted)

In this hip,beat and drugged out portrait of famed underground glitter Queen and palsy walsy of Andy Warhol,we have a trippy docudrama of that time period and how one very cutesy and impressionable little rich girl didn't survive the wear and tear of a life dedicated to drugs and big city glitter.Edie Sedgewick was almost the perfect model,being very camera friendly and celluoid exposed.

Nena von Schlebrügge

Birgitte Caroline 'Nena' von Schlebrügge (born 1941) was a fashion model in the 1950s and 1960s and is now a psychotherapist. She is the mother of actress Uma Thurman.

She was born in Mexico City in 1941, the daughter of a Swedish mother, Birgit Holmquist, and a German father, Friedrich Karl Johannes, Baron von Schlebrügge.[1] Her mother served as the model for a 1930 statue of a nude woman that overlooks the harbor of Smygehuk in Sweden.[2]

She married LSD guru Timothy Leary in 1964. They were married in Millbrook, New York, at the Hitchcock house where Leary had been carrying on his hallucinogenic experiments. Present at the wedding was Monte Rock III (hairdresser & singer at Trudy Heller's), Nena's brother Bjorn (also known as the "Baron"), Nick Proferes, Jim Desmond, Charles Mingus, D.A. Pennebaker (who documented the event in his short film You're Nobody Til Somebody Loves You), scores of models, and more.

Von Schlebrügge divorced Leary in 1965. In 1967, she married Tibetan-Buddhist scholar, Dr. Robert Thurman. Uma Thurman, born in 1970, was the first of their four children.
Robert Alexander Farrar Thurman (born August 3, 1941)

He married Christophe de Ménil, an heiress to the Schlumberger Limited oil-equipment fortune, in 1959;
He converted to Buddhism and became an ordained Buddhist bhikshu in 1964, the first American Buddhist monk of the Tibetan Buddhist tradition. He studied with Tenzin Gyatso, the 14th Dalai Lama, who became a close friend. In 1967, back in the United States, Thurman resigned his monks vows of celibacy and married his second wife, German-Swedish model, Nena von Schlebrügge, who had previously been briefly married to Timothy Leary. Thurman and Schlebrügge have four children, the oldest being actress Uma Thurman.
In 1987, Mr. Thurman and Richard Gere founded New York City's Tibet House, a nonprofit institution devoted to preserving the living culture of Tibet.
Meanwhile, Robert Thurman, son of New York stage actress Elizabeth Farrar, was on a pathway all his own. Coming from a well-to-do WASP family, he'd gone to Harvard to study the classics but, at 19, had married Houston oil heiress Christophe de Menil, 7 years his senior. It didn't last, and Robert took off with some mates to ride across India on motorbikes. It was here that his life would change radically, for he'd meet the Dalai Lama and, after a protracted period of study, would become the first American to be made a Tibetan monk. He would henceforth be known as Tenzin - even his children would call him that.

Back in the US, Thurman was invited to lecture at the Hitchcock estate in Millbrook, New York, where, at the time, Leary and his acolytes were enjoying a frenetic course of acid experimentation. It was here that Robert met Nena, already attempting to extricate herself from a poorly conceived marriage. In 1966, when her divorce came through, Robert would renounce his robes and the couple would wed. Children would come soon. First Ganden (later a computer whizz), then Uma, then Dechen (an actor and director) and finally Mipam. All the names were culled from Buddhist theology.

Anne Livet, Keith Sonnier, Christophe de Menil (right).
Dominique de Ménil (March 23, 1908 – December 31, 1997) was a French-American art collector and museum founder who was an heiress to the Schlumberger Limited oil-equipment fortune.

A daughter of French scientist Conrad Schlumberger, she married a French banker, Baron Jean de Ménil (a.k.a. John de Menil), in 1931; he died in 1973. They had five children, including daughters Christophe (who was married to Robert Thurman), Adélaďde (a photographer who is married to anthropologist Edmund Snow Carpenter), and Philippa (co-founder of the Dia Art Foundation). The artist Dash Snow was Dominique's great-grandson.

Fleeing Nazi-occupied France, the Ménils immigrated from Paris to New York and later Houston, where Schlumberger had significant operations. For over forty years the Ménils collected some 10,000 objects. Their namesake institution, The Menil Collection, is a private museum in Houston and is often cited as one of the most significant privately assembled art collections, alongside the Barnes Foundation and the J. Paul Getty Museum.
The Menil Under Masks by Daniel Cappello

Houston —It began in a storied architectural icon, and, last week, the story came full circle, in a modern architectural landmark all its own. Jean de Menil and Dominique Schlumberger met, in 1930, at a dance held at Versailles. He was an ambitious banker from a military family; and she, the daughter of Conrad Schlumberger, the entrepreneurial scientist who built the worldwide oil company Schlumberger, Ltd.

By 1931, the couple had married and settled together in the noble 7th arrondissement of Paris. During the Second World War, the family, including two daughters, Christophe and Adelaide, moved around France, escaping the advancing German troops. Jean left the country and eventually found himself in Houston, Texas, where Schlumberger’s American headquarters were located. He would take over American operations for the company, and his wife and their three children (Georges, the couple’s third, meanwhile was born in France) would join him by the early 1940s.

The family grew (another son, François, and daughter, Philippa, were born in America), and Houston became their new home. Jean anglicized his name to John, and the de Menils commissioned a young architect to build a new home for them. John and Dominique’s new residence in the River Oaks section of town was Phillip Johnson’s first commission, and the result was one of the first International Style residences in the state of Texas.

The house was filled with the art that John and Dominique had begun to pursue with a passion – their collection that would grow to include more than 15,000 paintings, sculptures, objets, prints, drawings, photographs, and rare books. European artists dominated the collection, from Surrealist artists such as Max Ernst, René Magritte, Man Ray, and Giorgio de Chirico, to Cubist and School of Paris painters like Léger, Matisse, and Picasso.

By the 1960s though, American, Pop Art, and Minimalist artists were being acquired, from Jasper Johns to Andy Warhol and the de Menil residence had become the salon of Houston, often filled with visiting artists, intellectuals, scientists, and civil-rights leaders. (John and Dominique were as dedicated to Houston’s art scene as they were to progressive politics.)

| ------
odd clues into who lead the JFK execution team
One Nexus that is rarely dicussed is  George ("Oswald's best friend") and Dimitri Von Mohrenschildt. George later commits suicide with a shotgun.
George is connected to everyone.  Auchincloss ( Bovier Jackies Family), Rockefeller, Bush, Paley, Luce, Dulles
from Richard Russell's book: "The Man Who Knew Too Much".
George Sergei de Mohrenschildt is another of those remarkablely enigmatic characters whom we find permeating the assassination's landscape. He was born in Czarist Russia in 1911, his father a "marshal of nobility" who served as director of Nobel oil interests--hence his own title of "baron." He was a world traveler who spoke six languages and boasted membership in both the exclusive Dallas Petroleum Club and the World Affairs Council....

..."He was traveling extensively ..." one of his friends Mrs. Igor Voshinin, would tell the Warren Commission.
The commission took notice that de Mohrenschildt was acquainted with several powerful people in Houston.....Lyndon Johnson: oil millionaire John Mecom...Another friend of de Mohrenschildt was Jean De Menil of Schlumberger Wells Services Company, who in 1961 permitted his New Orleans branch to be used as an ammunition conduit for the CIA.
De Mohrenschildt's personal telephone book, discovered after his alleged suicide in 1977, contained this entry: "Bush, George. H. W. (Poppy) 1412 W. Ohio also Zapata Petroleum Midland." (Footnote: "Bush name in de Mohrenschildt notebook: Mark Lane, Plausible Denial p. 332.) Lane also notes odd similarities among Bush's Zapata Offshore oil company, the "Operation Zapata" code name given to the Bay of Pigs invasion, and the names of the invasions ships "Barbara" (Bush's wife's name) and "Houston" (Bush's business abode).
May 1938-Emigrated to the United States with approximately $10,000 from his mother's estate and sports business . Worked for Chevalier Garde in New York selling perfumes. Worked as salesman for Shumaker & Co. Met Jackie Kennedy and her mother at Belport, Long Island, during the summer vacation.
 Jon Presco
My Friend Ed Parties With Schlumberger Art Nazis
(Images: De Menil Collection, Houston. Adel De Menil. Joy,Victoria,Benjamin DeMenil. Houston Burlesque)
"Mr. DE MOHRENSCHILDT. I think they should have---in my opinion, they shouldn't have let him come back to the United States--No. 1. And No. 2, the people like us should have been protected against even knowing people like Oswald. Maybe I am wrong in that respect."
My good friend Ed partied with the Schlumbergers back in 1964. Tom, Ed’s friend from Harvard, married a Schlumbreger. Ed was Best Man at the wedding. ...
The List - JFK Assassination Key People
Jean de Menil--CIA
Military-Industrial Complex
In many respects, Halliburton seems to be an "American" version of Schlumberger...

Schlumberger is an arm of one of Europe's most important banking and intelligence operations. Banque de Neuflize, Schlumberger, Mallet, Demachy, now a unit of ABN AMRO, is one of those small but important merchant banks which specializes in shaping world events. The families behind the bank have a long history of molding the Synarchist movement as an assault-force against the United States, from the spying of Major André in 1780 to the assassination of JFK. Today, as an indication of its continuing intelligence activities, Schlumberger's board includes former CIA Director John Deutch.

Schlumberger also helped bring Fidel Castro to power by helping overthrow the Batista regime. It was involved in the assassination of Kennedy through company president Jean de Menil, the White Russian husband of Schlumberger heiress Dominique Schlumberger de Menil, acting through the New Orleans office of the Swiss-based company Permindex. Permindex had also organized several attempts on the life of French President Charles de Gaulle.

There are indications that both Halliburton and Brown & Root were also involved in Permindex. According to the Nomenclature of an Assassination Cabal manuscript written under the nom de plume "William Torbitt," both Halliburton and George and Herman Brown were among the principal financiers of Permindex, along with Jean de Menil, mob lawyer Roy Cohn, Dallas oilman H.L. Hunt, and others.

...It would also confirm the Schlumberger link and suggest that, rather than being a rival, Halliburton is more of a clone and junior partner of Schlumberger.

July 14, 2009, 1:12 pm
Dash Snow, New York Artist, Dies at 27

Dash Snow, a promising young New York artist, died Monday night at Lafayette House, a hotel in Lower Manhattan. He was 27 and lived in Manhattan. His death was confirmed by his grandmother, the art collector and philanthropist Christophe de Menil, who said that Mr. Snow had died of a drug overdose.

Mr. Snow gained prominence after being featured in an article titled “Warhol’s Children” that appeared in New York magazine in 2007. He worked in video and photography and also developed a distinctive collage style that fused and contrasted found images in fresh and suggestive ways. He exhibited in galleries and museums in New York, Los Angeles and Europe.

Ms. de Menil said that he had been in rehabilitation in March and had been off drugs until very recently.
Copyright 1994 Osprey Productions/Grand Royal

Was Timothy Leary a CIA Agent?
Was JFK the "Manchurian Candidate"?

Was the Sixties Revolution Really a Government Plot?
Tinker, Tailor, Stoner, Spy
by Mark Riebling


Summer-bachelor Jack Kennedy stands on the Harry Truman balcony overlooking the rose-garden fountain, a soothing sight before him: prisms of lighted water shooting into darkness, the white spike of the Washington Monument, auto headlights flickering along Executive Avenue. He begins to feel a deep-seated goodness within, centered between his chest and throat. From the bedroom behind him, through white chiffon curtains in open french doors, float the chords of a Sinatra song -- "All I Need is the Girl." With strange clarity, JFK can suddenly make out every note....

Behind the curtains moves the shadow of a tall woman who is not his wife. She is deeply connected to CIA, and has just dispensed to the President of the United States a dose of LSD. In the next few hours she will be "brainwashing" him, and she will be doing so on the directions of a Harvard psychologist, Dr. Timothy Leary, whose colleagues are all taking CIA money, and who has himself designed a personality test used by CIA....

This, or something very much like this, actually happened. To understand how and why it happened requires cruising back a few years, digging through government documents, reading between the lines of Leary's autobiography, Flashbacks. It's a trip through the secret maze of the American pyschedelic underground, a journey that is its own destination, a mystery that must be solved by the reader's own detective work. What follows are the undisputed facts, the clues:

September 1942: The Office of Strategic Services (OSS), wartime precursor to CIA, begins searching for a drug that will force subjects of interrogation, such as captured Nazi U-boat crews, to reveal secrets.

As project director Dr. Stanley Lovell will recall, the idea of a "truth drug" is "considered fantastic by the realists, unethical by the moralists, and downright ludicrous by the physicians." But according to OSS records, Lovell goes ahead and tests "mescaline, various barbiturates, scopolamine, benzedrine, cannabis indica (marijuana), etc."

The best results are obtained with the marijuana: "A few minutes after administration, the subject gradually becomes relaxed, and experiences a sensation of well-being... thoughts flow with considerable freedom... conversation becomes animated and accelerated. Inhibitions fall away.... [the drug] makes manifest any strong characteristics of the individual.... Whatever the individual is trying to withhold will be forced to the top of his subconscious mind."

To "administer" the pot without a subject's knowing it, OSS scientists dissolve marijuana leaves in acetone, then heat the result into a clear, odorless, viscous liquid -- tetrahydrocannabional acetate -- which can be "injected into any type of food, such as mashed potatoes, butter, salad dressing, or in such things as candy."

May 25, 1943: THC acetate is tested on an unknowing subject, Lower East Side mafioso August "Little Augie" Del Gaizo, who has been helping OSS smuggle agents into Nazi-held Sicily. Little Augie is considered an ideal subject because he has secrets he is "most anxious to conceal, the revelation of which might result in his imprisonment"; in fact, he prides himself on having never informed, and has even "been instrumental in killing some persons who have been informants."

But after smoking two proffered cigarettes, laced with a total of .14 grams THC, Little Augie becomes "obviously 'high' and extremely garrulous" as he sits in the apartment of OSS officer George White, a former Treasury agent who had arrested him several times in the past.

When White turns the subject to law enforcement, Little Augie "with no further encouragement" divulges the identities of city officials on the take; details of the criminal empire run by Meyer Lansky and Bugsy Siegel; "and other information that subject would not give under ordinary circumstances. There is no question but that administration of the drug was responsible for loosening the subject's tongue." Henceforth, OSS refers to the THC acetate simply as "TD," a cryptonym for "Truth Drug."

1944: OSS uses "TD" in secret operations. Lovell reports that "Certain disclosures of the greatest value are in the possession of our military intelligence as a result of this treatment, which it is felt would otherwise not be known. Properly employed... it may be a national asset of incalculable importance." But OSS officials, fearing political backlash if use of the drug is revealed, shut the program down.

April-May 1945: Jack Kennedy, before entering politics, is working as a reporter for the Hearst newspaper chain. While covering the charter conference of the United Nations at San Francisco, he frequently sees an old flame from Choate, Mary Pinchot Meyer, and her husband, Cord Meyer, Jr., who is an assistant to the American delegation.

A young Yale graduate and award-winning literary talent, Cord Meyer was badly wounded by a Japanese hand-grenade on Guam and has a glass eye; when he smokes cigarettes, the smoke slowly drifts up and into his open, nerveless, unblinking left eye, curling around the glass orb. The sight so disconcerts JFK that he finds himself rubbing his own left eye in a kind of sympathetic agony.

September 1946: Timothy Leary begins doctoral studies in psychology at Berkeley.

1947: Dr. Werner Stoll, a researcher at Sandoz Laboratories in Basel, Switzerland, publishes the first scientific articles on LSD-25, an extract of rye mold, noting that it accelerates thinking and blunts suspicion in schizophrenics.

1947-48: As a graduate student in psychology, Leary attends the first two national conventions of the American Veterans Committee (AVC), a left-wing veterans group, as a California state delegation leader. At the second AVC convention, in Milwaukee, Leary meets Cord Meyer, who is then spearheading an anti-communist purge of the organization. Meyer lectures Leary about communism, and the importance of liberal resistance to it. Leary will later credit Meyer with "helping me understand my political-cultural role more clearly."

Late 1950: Cord Meyer joins CIA and begins working in its International Relations Division, of which he is soon put in charge. The express purpose of this division is to covertly finance, infiltrate, and encourage noncommunist liberal-left movements and institutions, such as labor unions, creative-academic societies, and student groups.

April 13, 1953: CIA launches Operation MK/ULTRA, a major drug and mind-control program.

Although THC acetate is studied as an interrogation aid, CIA is more concerned about reports of communist brainwashing experiments on American POWs in Korea, and focuses on stronger, hallucinogenic drugs. "Aside from the offensive potential, the development of a comprehensive capability in this field... gives a thorough knowledge of the enemy's theoretical potential, thus enabling us to defend ourselves against a foe who might not be as restrained in the use of these techniques as we are."

Some CIA employees, including perhaps Meyer, volunteer for experiments. Through a front organization called The Society For Human Ecology, CIA begins sponsoring $25 million in research into the effects of mind-altering drugs -- LSD, psilocybin and mescaline -- at Harvard University and at several cites in the San Francisco-Oakland area, including Stanford and Berkeley.

1954-59: Leary is director of clinical research and psychology at the Kaiser Foundation Hospital in Oakland. He devises a personality test, "The Leary," which is used by CIA to test prospective employees. He has also become a close friend to Frank Barron, a graduate school classmate who has ben working for CIA since at least 1953.

Barron works at the Berkeley Institute for Personality Assessment and Research, which Leary will later acknowledge is "funded and staffed by OSS-CIA psychologists."

1960-61: Barron founds the Harvard Pyschedelic Drug Research Center.

Leary follows Barron to Harvard and becomes a lecturer in psychology. After Barron administers to him some CIA-supplied psilocybin and LSD, Leary begins tripping regularly. He also studies the effects of psycheledics on others in controlled experiments.

He later admits to knowing, at the time, that "some powerful people in Washington have sponsored all this drug research." In addition to Barron, Leary's associates and assistants during this period include former OSS chief pyschologist Harry Murray, who had montiored military experiments on Truth-Drug brainwashing and interrogation, and Martin Orne, a researcher receiving funds from CIA. Leary also consults British philosopher Aldous Huxley, author of the psychedelic manifesto, The Doors of Perception (from which Jim Morrision would later take name his band).

Huxley, who is at Harvard on a visiting professorship, urges Leary to form a secret order of LSD-Illuminati, to launch and lead a psychedelic conspiracy to brainwash influential people for the purposes human betterment. "That's how everything of culture and beauty and philosophic freedom has been passed on," Huxley tells him. "Initiate artists, writers, poets, jazz musicians, elegant courtesans. And they'll educate the intelligent rich."

Spring 1962: Mary Meyer, recently divorced from her CIA husband, visits Leary at Harvard. She leans against the door post, hip tilted provocatively, studying him with green-blue eyes. Leary will later recall here as "amused, arrogant, aristocratic." She tells him she has a "friend who's a very important man, who wants to try LSD for himself."

At the time, though Leary does not know this, Mary is having an affair with President Kennedy, which will include more than thirty visits to the White House (later confirmed by Presidential Secretary Kenneth O'Donnell).

Mary tells Leary that the government is studying ways to "use drugs for warfare, for espionage, for brainwashing."

She asks him to "teach us how to run [LSD] sessions, use drugs to do good." Leary agrees. He provides her with drug samples and "session" reports, and is in touch with her every few weeks, advising her on how to be a "brainwasher." She swears him to secrecy.

Late July, 1962: While the First Lady is away at the Kennedy summer home in Hyannisport, Mary calls on JFK at the White House. She records the visit in her diary, and later describes it to her close friend James Truitt of the Washington Post. She and the President of the United States smoke two joints of marijuana, reportedly prompting the leader of the free world to say, "This isn't at all like cocaine. I'll get you some of that."

Once he is suitably "loosened up" -- Leary has emphasized the need to put subjects in a "benevolent state" before turning them on -- Mary dispenses to Jack a dose of LSD. As it starts to "kick in," he goes out and stands on Harry Truman's balcony overlooking the rose-garden fountain, a soothing sight before him....

Fall 1962: Leary meets Mary Meyer in a room at Boston's Ritz Hotel. She alludes to her "hush-hush love affair," and tells him that "top people in Washington are turning on." According to Leary's recounting, she also says: "Do you remember the American Veterans Committee, that liberal veterans group you belonged to after the war? The CIA started that."

She explains to him that "CIA creates the radical journals and student organizations and runs them with deep-cover agents.... dissident organizations in academia are also controlled." When Leary asks her how she knows all this, she explains: "I knocked you with those facts to get your attention. It's a standard intelligence trick."

She confides that CIA has not only been running left-wing groups as fronts, but has been sponsoring more psychedelic research than he will ever know. "You are doing exploratory work the CIA tried to do in the 1950s. So they're more than happy to have you do their research for them. Since drug research is of vital importance to the intelligence agencies of this country, you'll be allowed to go on with your experiments as long as you keep it quiet," she advises.

Spring 1963: Leary again meets Mary Meyer at the Ritz. She says that her love affair has been exposed, although no publicity has resulted. "I don't trust the phones or the mail," she warns. He is to make no contact with her until further notice.

May-June 1963: Mary warns Leary, who is conducting a psychedelic summer camp in Mexico, that their "sessions" are "in jeopardy" because he is attracting "too much publicity."

September 1963: Mary drives up to see Leary, now conducting experiments at a large private estate in Milbrook, New York. She gives him, for his experiments, a bottle of "the best LSD in the world," from the National Institute of Mental Health. She takes countersurveillance precautions, and says: "We had eight intelligent women turning on the most powerful men in Washington. And then we got found out.... I made a mistake in recruitment. A wife snitched on us... I've gotten mixed up in some dangerous matters."

December 1, 1963: Around this time Mary calls Leary, who had been "expecting a phone call from [her]... ever since the Kennedy assassination." According to Leary, she says: "They couldn't control him anymore. He was changing too fast. They've covered everything up.... I'm afraid. Be careful."

October 12, 1964: Mary Meyer is shot to death, execution-style, at 12:45 p.m., on a park towpath by the Georgetown Canal in Washington, D.C. Her body is identified by Ben Bradlee, Cord Meyer's brother-in-law, editor of the Washington Post.

CIA counterintelligence chief James Angleton confiscates and later burns the diary in which Mary has recorded her liaisons with JFK. A black laborer with a wife and five children, 26-year old Raymond Crump, Jr., is arrested on suspicion of murdering Mary in a robbery attempt, but she had not been carrying a purse, and there is no credible eyewitness testimony placing Crump at the site. On July 20, 1965, a jury deliberates only eleven hours before acquitting him. The murder weapon is never found; the crime is never solved.

1965-66: FBI agents openly surveil Leary's drug experimentation compound at Milbrook. Leary, intimidated, considers relocating to Mexico. For jurisdictional reasons, the Bureau turns the case over to former FBI agent G. Gordon Liddy, now a county prosecutor, who later says: "The word was that at Leary's lair the panties were dropping as fast as the acid." Liddy leads a raid by sheriffs in March 1966. Leary is charged with possession of illegal drugs, but the case is dropped on technicalities after the Supreme Court's Miranda decision in June. This series of events imprints on Leary a deep distrust of the FBI and of "cops" generally.

January-August 1967: Ramparts, a radical magazine, exposes CIA sponsorship of the National Student Association, a Cord Meyer project. Meyer's best friend, James Angleton, assigns CIA officer Richard Ober to begin a leak investigation into the Ramparts story. Ober's probe is soon expanded into a spy program on the countercultural and student-protests movements, code named CHAOS.

September 1967: Just as CHAOS is launched, Leary moves from the isolation of upstate New York, where he has been philosophically contemplating the Tibetan Book of the Dead, and becomes a gregarious, media-hounding fixture of the Southern California countercultural scene, telling young people to "Tune in, Turn On, Drop Out."

1968: While other New-Left leaders preach violent overthrow of the U.S. Government and creation of a Marxist dictatorship, Leary urges instead a nonviolent, drug-oriented "hippie capitalism," an artsy-craftsy, decentralized, libertarian sort of entrepeneurship that will also soon find its expression in the culture of the Grateful Dead.

While Leary's position does constitute a rejection of the corporate world, it also embraces private property and the profit motive. Because of this, the Marxist Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) denounces Leary and his noncommunist followers for "limiting the revolution." The Progressive Labor Party (PLP), a Maoist "Old Left" group, goes so far as to claim that Leary is a CIA agent. But the PLP is accusing everyone it disgarees with of being CIA.

1969: Leary critics will eventually point with suspicion to his close connections during this time to an international LSD-smuggling cartel, the Brotherhood of Eternal Love, which is rumored to be a CIA front.

The Brotherhood is controlled by Ronald Stark, whom an Italian High Court will later conclude has been a CIA agent since 1960, and the Brotherhood's funds are channeled through Castle Bank in the Bahamas, a known CIA "proprietary." For two years Leary lives at Brotherhood headquarters, located on a ranch in Laguna Beach.

During this period, the Brotherhood corners the U.S. market on LSD and begins distributing only one variety of the drug, "Orange Sunshine." Stark says he plans to distribute the product to CIA-backed guerillas fighting Chinese occupation; he reportedly knows a high-placed Tibetan close to the Dalai Lama, and wants to provide enough LSD to dose all Chinese troops in Tibet.

In the U.S., meanwhile, Stark provides enough Orange Sunshine to dose the hippie culture and radical left many times over. This is the "bad acid" on which Charles Manson's followers murder Sharon Tate, and on which Hell's Angels stab to death a black man during a concert by the Rolling Stones.

The Summer of Love has been supplanted by a Season of Hate. Because of this, many countercultural insiders -- including William S. Burroughs, White Panther leader John Sinclair, and Merry Prankster Ken Kesey -- will eventually entertain the theory that Stark, Leary, and Orange Sunshine are all part of CIA plot to discredit and neutralize the radical left.

According to former radicals Martin Lee and Bruce Shalin, widespread use of Orange Sunshine "contributed significantly to the demise of the New Left, for it heightened the metabolism of the body politic and accelerated all the changes going on... In its hyped-up condition, the New Left burned itself out."

Fall 1969: According to declassified government documents, CIA now has a CHAOS agent with "particularly good entree into the highest levels of the domestic radical community," who is providing "extremely personal data." It is decided to send this agent to infiltrate the overseas headquarters of the Black Panthers, but this will not be accomplished for many months.

In the meantime, CIA will debrief him for purely domestic information about his associates, in part because he does not "wish to deal with the FBI." This description perfectly fits Leary. No one has better "entree" than Leary, who has recently been helicoptered in as the guest of honor at Woodstock. Few have more "personal" data on radical figures than the man who is personally turning them on. The overall pattern of Leary's career, his continual links to people who are linked to CIA, is certainly suggestive. So is the fact that, like CIA's "star agent," his willingness to mix with CIA-types does not extend to the FBI, which Leary has disliked since Liddy's raid on Milbrook.

1970: In February, Leary is convicted of marijuana possession and jailed at Lompoc, California. This seems clear evidence that he is not, after all, a CIA asset or government informant. Yet CIA has at times employed agents or informants who are later prosecuted for activities unrelated to their government work.

For instance, Johnny Rosselli, and other Mafiosi hired by CIA to assassinate Fidel Castro in the early 1960s, are eventually taken down by the FBI, though over CIA protest. If then, Leary is working for CIA, this may complicate, but ultimately not preclude, his prosecution for other "crimes." In any case, Leary is not exactly chained to the wall in a dark cellar. Lompoc is a minimum-security, white-collar "joint," the plushest in the United States, and Leary is still able to get acid. His movements, moreoover, soon keep him in a position to provide valuable intelligence to the U.S. government.

On September 12, he is "liberated" from Lompoc by members of the Weather Underground, an SDS offshoot named after Bob Dylan's lyric, "You don't need a weatherman to know which way the wind blows." The Weathermen have launched a Marxist guerilla struggle in the United States, and Leary pledges his solidarity in a a "POW Statement." It reads, in part: "Listen Americans! Your government is an instrument of totally lethal evil. Resist actively, sabotage, jam the computer... hijack planes, trash every lethal machine in the land.... To shoot a genocidal robot policeman in the defense of life is a sacred act.... Total war is upon us.... WARNING: I am armed and should be considered dangerous!" This especially provocative and hyperbolic communique has two main effects. It re-establishes Leary's bona fides in the radical underground, and it turns American opinion farther against the New Left.

October 1970: According to Angleton's deputy, Scott Miler, CIA is at this time trying quite hard to the answer the question: "What was Eldridge Cleaver doing in Algeria?" As it happens, Leary now flies to Algiers and joins up with Black Panther Party leader Eldridge Cleaver. Leary's travels, and the operation to spring him from jail, have been financed by Stark and the Brotherhood.

October 21, 1970: A CIA memo records that its prized CHAOS source -- Leary? -- is now overseas.

November 1970 - May 1971: Cleaver grows suspicious of Leary, searches Leary's apartment "for documents proving that we [Leary and his wife] were CIA operatives," and imprisons him in the Panthers' Algerian compound as "white slaves."

On February 12, 1971, a CIA document reports that "Eldridge Cleaver and his Algiers contingent have apparently become disenchanted with the antics of Tim Leary.... Electing to call their action protective custody, Cleaver and company, on their own authority, have put Tim and Rosemary under house arrest." Since Leary's condition is not publicly known, this report can only have come from penetration of Cleaver's entourage. Unless CIA has recruited black militants -- a sociologically unlikely scenario -- the information has most probably come from electronic surveillance on the Panther compound, or from secret communications by Leary or his wife.

May 1971: Leary and his wife escape to Switzerland with the assistance, according to Leary, of an "Algerian bureaucrat named Ali," who "made no bones about his connection to the CIA." "Are you sure you can trust him?" Leary's wife asks him. "He's liberal CIA," Leary says, "and that's the best mafia you can deal with in the twentieth century." The escape operation is financed by the Brotherhood of Eternal Love, though checks drawn on CIA's Castle Bank.

June 18-19, 1972: G. Gordon Liddy, now working for Republicans' Campaign to Re-Elect the President (CREEP), oversees a break-in of the Democratic National Committe at Watergate. The burglars are caught and Liddy is arrested. The next day, top CIA officials meet secretly to discuss the burglary, in which Liddy has used some ex-CIA agents working for ex-CIA officer Howard Hunt at the White House. CIA director Richard Helms orders his deputies to carry out a "damage control" strategy, to deflect suspicion away from the Agency and toward the President's Men.

This is exactly what is accomplished by Washington Post reporter Bob Woodward's key "intelligence community" source in the case, Deep Throat, who begins providing tips to Woodward this very day, a few hours after CIA's damage control meeting. The coincidence of timing suggests that Throat is someone who is at the CIA conference and who has close connections to the Post.

Cord Meyer, now #2 man in CIA's Operations Directorate, is at the meeting, and is still close with his in-law Bradlee, the Post's editor. He also fits perfectly the many clues Woodward later drops as to Throat's identity, including chain smoking, a knowledge of literature (Meyer was an award-winning fiction writer before joining CIA) and a battle-scarred face (Meyer had a glass eye).

1973-78: After two years of "jet-setting" in Switzerland, Leary returns to the U.S. By his own account, this has occured through the machinations of CIA; Leary says they have "kidnapped" him.

He is convicted on drug charges, and begins doing hard time at Folsom Prison. This seems clear evidence, again, that suspicions about his ultimate loyalties are merely left-wing paranoia. But after a few months out of public view, Leary comes into the open as a government informant. Under the code-name CHARLIE THRUSH, he turns State's evidence against the Weather Underground. Freed from prison, he is taken into custody for fear that radical revolutionaries have marked him for execution. His former colleagues in the movement form a group calling itself People Investigating Leary's Lies (PILL). Abbie Hoffmann declares that "Timothy Leary is a name worse than Benedict Arnold." Allen Ginsburg says that Leary is "like Zabbath Zvi, false Messiah, accepted by millions of Jews centuries ago."

1978-93: After his last offical contacts with security agencies, in 1978, Leary distances himself both from the government and the "movement" that no longer really exists. Out in the cold, he becomes a sophist in the true sense, a wise-man for rent or hire. Early in the Reagan years he "debates" G. Gordon Liddy, the Watergate burglar who once busted him at Milbrook, on a nationwide tour. Former sixties radicals disgustedly describe the event as "bogus," and say it is proof that Leary is "in with the fuzz." At the very least, Leary seems to the Left a lightweight, a one-man Madison Avenue scam, a functional part of the Establishment he once swore to subvert. He hangs out at Helena's, the trendy restaurant in which Jack Nicholson has an interest, and he occasionally philosophizes for a fee at Carlos and Charlie's, a local restaurant that also headlines Joan Rivers. He defends his New Style by saying, quite earnestly: "If Aristotle were alive today, he'd have a talk show."

He also publishes Flashbacks: An Autobiography, recounting obliquely his dealings with Cord and Mary Meyer and his work as a government informant, touching only in passing on CIA's funding of LSD resarch.

In 1992 appears, as himself, in Roadside Prophets, a film starring Adam Horovitz. In 1993, he appears in an ad for the Gap. (Cf. "The Great Gap Conspiracy," by Hugh Gallagher, in the previous issue of Grand Royal.) He designs computer software and hails the coming of the Information Superhighway. Though lacking family wealth, or any gainful employment since 1962, he has nevertheless managed to become a rich man. He lives in Benedict Canyon, only a doors away from the house where Manson's followers, and Orange Sunshine, did their worst. From his yard he can survey the whole City of Light, and he likes the symbolism of that.

April 14, 1994: Leary, aged 73, visits Gainesville, Florida, where I live. He has come to present a multi-media lecture demonstration of electronic mind expansion, "How To Operate Your Brain."

Three thousand people sit down to see him. He wears white Adidas, black polyester pants, and a psychedelic vest with a '93 Lollapalooza Guest Pass stuck on it. In his warm-up remarks, he describes looking out the window of his plane on the way in, and comments that "the clouds in Gainseville have been constructed by George Lucas." He complains that it's hard to buy marijuana anymore, and says that pot causes short-term memory loss, but also "long-term memory gain." He says he will be trying to "brainwash" the audience, "not to resist or fight authority, but to engage it in a dialogue to force progressive change."

The lights go down, and some electronic funk comes on. Leary serves as narrator-guide while colors and words flicker and flash on a screen. He quotes Socrates and Ralph Waldo Emerson. People should think for themselves and question authority. Also, "Divinity resides within." After the lights come on, Leary opens the gig up for questions -- but only after warning us, "You're not supposed to believe anything I say." People start queueing up for questions at two microphones, and I'm about fifth in line at one of them. I'm planning to ask him about his rumored connections to CIA. Most of the "questions" before mine are pretty uncool.

A lot are from NORML activists: "If you wanna come over to my place afterward..." Then some crazy-eyed man says, "The state of Florida is shaped like a gun, and Gainesveille is the trigger -- look at a map. Anyway, I'm a schizophrenic and I think I'm Jesus Christ. So Dr. Leary, am I Jesus Christ?" He is serious. Leary dispenses with him by saying, "Just don't get yourself crucified."

Finally it's my turn. I step up to the mike. Leary looks at me, looks at his watch. "Sorry, no more time for questions." A fist-faced steroidal security guard gets between me and the mike. Leary disappears behind the curtain. As fans mill about afterward, I hear there's some kind of VIP reception for Leary in a side-room, guarded by more fat-necks in blue blazers. I scam my way in: My girlfriend is a professor at the Univeristy, and she talks to some guy who talks to some guy. The side room is one of those harshly lit holding tanks, like where a record company's PR girl puts you when she doesn't know you're "with the band." People nibble nervously on peanut-butter cookies until Leary enters. There's an initial crush forward, but then everyone sort of hestitates, afraid to get too close to "the man," unsure what to say. He sits down at the far side of the room. What the hell, I go for mine -- I sit down right next to him. He inscribes to me a copy of Flashbacks. I notice that his hands are weird in the way old people's hands are, with these corroding purple spots. He seems tired and distracted, so I try the standard espionage trick: Knock him with some facts to get his attention.

"You know, my stepmother used to work for Cord Meyer." Which is true; she was for some years a secretary at CIA. Leary's reaction is physical: He jerks, as if jolted by some alternating current for which he has no adapter. His eyes are bright with memory.

"Cord Meyer was a pretty intense guy," he says, smiling. I ask a couple other questions, tacking around. Then I put it to Leary like this. "You say in your book that a lot of the LSD experiments at Harvard and Berkeley were, like, paid for by CIA. So I was wondering -- I mean, what were your connections with the Agency?" Suddenly he seems tight and defensive, finds the adapter and plugs it in. "They never gave me a dime," he says. I look into his eyes, the way you do when you try to tell if someone is lying. I don't see deception, exactly; only pain.

He doesn't say anything to me after this, so I awkwardly say goodbye and leave. Driving home, in the dark, I feel some journalistic guilt for having bothered this good-hearted sage, whose views on life are mostly right. Maybe he has actually told me the truth. The pain in his eyes was probably injured innocence, the kind I'd feel if I'd done a great life's work and some punk kid asked me, at the end of it, if I'd been funded all along by the KGB.

On the other hand, if he did collaborate with CIA, he'd hardly be at liberty to say so, would he? Might he not also feel just a bit guilty; thus the pain? And if the Agency never gave him any money, how did they get the rights to use the personality test that bears his name? I come to a red light.

Flashing in my mind is a subliminal message from Leary's "brainwashing" session: "Think for yourself -- question authority." And then I remember his warning to us, before the question & answer period: "You're not supposed to believe anything I say."

An impossible transition is required here. Questions hang, uanswered, like bats on the ceiling of a cave. Was Timothy Leary CIA, or what? What was Mary Meyer trying to "brainwash" JFK to do, and why did both die such untimely, mysterious deaths? Was Orange Sunshine really part of a government-orchstrated plot? Is Leary's Online Tip a new way to free the mind, or merely the final phase of his one-man plot to hijack the history of the world?

Damn if I know. The secret world of intelligence and espionage has been called a "wilderness of mirrors," and rightly. You can spend a lot of time saying, "On the one hand.... On the other hand," especially if you are on Truth Drug.

For 20,000 dollars for The brotherhood of Love,  The Weathermen Underground bust Leary out of Jail:
In October 1969, hundreds of young people wielding lead pipes and clad in football helmets marched through an upscale Chicago shopping district, pummeling parked cars and smashing shop windows. Thus began the “Days of Rage,” the first demonstration of the Weathermen, later known as the Weather Underground. Outraged by the Vietnam War and racism in America, this group of former student radicals waged a low-level war against the United States government through much of the 1970s, bombing the Capitol building, breaking Timothy Leary out of prison and finally evading the FBI by going into hiding.

In this Link TV special presentation of THE WEATHER UNDERGROUND, former Weathermen including Bernardine Dohrn, Bill Ayers, Mark Rudd and David Gilbert speak frankly about the idealist passions and trajectories that transformed them from college activists into the FBI’s Most Wanted.
Discretely waiting until after the election, William Ayers and his wife, fellow former terrorist Bernardine Dohrn, will release their new book in 2009 entitled Race Course Against White Supremacy. Their book will be published by Third World Press which was established by close associates of Obama's Rev. Jeremiah Wright. Over the last decade, when it came to education issues, Barack Obama, Bill Ayers, and Jeremiah Wright shared the same anti-white, separatist, black liberationist plans.

Bernardine Dohrn, is the wife of William Ayers and former SDS Weatherman Underground bomb-throwing terrorist. Avowed anti-American seditionist. She is pictured here in a Chicago Police Department mug shot from 1969. Dohrn is living and working in Chicago
In 2007, Dorhn told a group that she continues to work to destroy the evil that is the US and "remove capitalism, that evil thing that it is... he is... she is".
William Ayers and Bernardine Dohrn, Weather Underground Domestic Terrorism, Fugitive Search, FBI Declassified Documents, Bombings, Plans for Violent Revolution (CD-ROM) [CD-ROM]

This up-to-date and comprehensive electronic book on CD-ROM presents a collection of important documents and formerly secret FBI files about the Weather Underground Organization (Weatherman), including William Charles Ayers and Bernardine Rae Dohrn. Katherine Ann Power, Karen Lynn Ashley, Kathie Boudin, Scott Braley, Peter Clapp, John Fuerst, Theodore Gold, and many others. The Chicago Office of the FBI prepared a summary in 1976 discussing the main activities of the Weather Underground Organization....
The Weather Underground  by Descrates

Having staged the "Flint War Council", the weathermen had finished with their last above ground stand. On February 9th, 1970 the national S.D.S (weatherman) office was quietly evacuated and closed down.  The vast quantity of S.D.S archives housed in the office were sold for $300 dollars to the State Historical Society of Wisconsin.  Over the next month weathermen began to sever ties with family and friends and disappear.  As Jeff Jones would later put it, "The best place to hide a leaf was in the forest."   The weathermen disappeared into the sea of humans that populated the country.  The Weather Underground had been born.

In January, just before going under, the Weathermen had developed a central command structure know as The Weather Bureau.  Members of the Bureau traveled to weathermen collectives across the country and engaged them in harsh self-criticism sessions where L.S.D usage was a prerequisite.  The L.S.D. served to weed out police infiltrators, as well as to reveal the hidden bourgeoisie tendencies that might prevent certain individuals from becoming effective guerilla fighters.

 After these sessions, the Weather Bureau made decisions about who would go under and who would be asked to leave the organization and serve as above ground support (It was practical usages of L.S.D., such as was just described, that many right winghistorians have used to discredit the weathermen as crazed druggies).  In February, after all members had severed above ground contacts, sold off their possessions, pooled their monies, and developed false identities, they were ready.  Small cells of 3-5 weathermen each, organized as Focos , were sent out across the country to set up bases and compile lists of targets.

1968: While other New-Left leaders preach violent overthrow of the U.S. Government and creation of a Marxist dictatorship, Leary urges instead a nonviolent, drug-oriented "hippie capitalism," an artsy-craftsy, decentralized, libertarian sort of entrepreneurship that will also soon find its expression in the culture of the Grateful Dead.  Shocked the horror  Roll Eyes

See how cointel works?

1968: While other New-Left leaders preach violent overthrow of the U.S. Government and creation of a Marxist dictatorship, Leary urges instead a nonviolent, drug-oriented "hippie capitalism," an artsy-craftsy, decentralized, libertarian sort of entrepreneurship that will also soon find its expression in the culture of the Grateful Dead.

Devotional Soul

I went to Grateful Dead shows in the early 90's.  Many deadheads knew that the band members were working for the CIA.  This is where I first learned that fluoride is not good for the brain, and that there is a plan to get people micro-chipped, and other nwo info.  So, although there was a majority of brain-cell killing going on with all the drugs, there was still awareness for some.  People seriously walked around pouring liquid L onto my 13 year old hand!  Shocked

Most of the songs were written by Robert Hunter: 
"Around 1962, Hunter was an early volunteer test subject (along with Ken Kesey) for psychedelic chemicals at Stanford University's research covertly sponsored by the CIA in their MKULTRA program. [McNally 42] He was paid to take LSD, psilocybin, and mescaline and report on his experiences..."

A few of their songs were written by John Barlow, who were very political and anti-nwo.  Bob sang most of these songs, especially Throwing Stones, which had lyrics like:

"Commissars and pin-striped bosses role the dice
Any way they fall guess who gets to pay the price
Money green or proletarian gray
Selling guns instead of food today"

Grateful Dead Timeline - GD Timeline 2

1947-48  Tim Leary meets Cord Meyer at the American Veterans Committee (AVC) conventions - possible CIA hookup
05/22 1949 - James Vincent Forrestal - first Secretary of Defense falls out of a Bethesda Naval Hospital window

1951 - France - Bread spiked with LSD in CIA experiment - August 16, 1951 - Pont-Saint-Esprit
1952 - George Hunter White did release a small amount of aerosol LSD in a New York subway car
1952 - Dr Humphrey Osmond and Dr Abram Hoffer begin LSD experiments at Regina General Hospital Saskatchewan with Sandoz Montreal LSD product
1953 - Sandoz patents on LSD formula expire allowing for Eli Lilly Production
1953 - Humphrey Osmond meets Al Hubbard thru mutual friend Aldous Huxley
12/00 1953 - L. Ron Hubbard characterized Scientology as a religion incorporates three churches
04/13 1953 - CIA launches Operation MK/ULTRA, a major drug and mind-control program
11/28 1953 - Frank Olson plunged to his death from room 1018A in New York’s Statler Hotel - opposite Penn Station

1954 - Willis Harman had attends study group led by Harry Rathbun begins attending Sequoia Seminars
1954 - Gerald Heard gives a lecture a Sequoia Seminar on mind expansion; describes effects of mind-altering drugs - Myron Stolaroff and Willis Harman attending
10/26 1954 - Large-Scale Availability of LSD through Newly-Discovered Synthesis by Eli Lilly

1955–1975 - Army tested LSD (termed EA-1729) and PCP on several of its enlisted men at what was then the headquarters of its Chemical Corps, Edgewood Arsenal in Maryland
1955 - Order of the Trapezoid begun by Anton LaVey

1956 - Dr. Ewen Cameron tests LSD in conjunction with "depatterning" experiments designed to reprogram personalities
1956 - Sequoia Seminars - Emilia Rathbun and Betty Eisner - LSD Therapy sessions begin - Willis Harman - Al Hubbard

1957 - Hollywood Hospital in New Westminster (Vancouver) Dr Ross MacLean. The suave hospital administrator gets  $1,000/dose fees from Hollywood's elite patients, who included members of the Canadian Parliament and the American film community
prior to this for years was the elites alcoholics's detox center - thousands of patients who were treated there with LSD between 1957 and 1975 (among them Robert Kennedy's wife Ethel Kennedy)
1957 - Al Hubbard meets Ross MacLean, medical superintendent of the Hollywood Hospital in New Westminster (Vancouver) -
Ross gives Hubbard an entire wing of the hospital to the study of psychedelic therapy for chronic alcoholics
1957 - Al Hubbard quits, after dispute with Ross MacLean, Frank Ogden takes his place

1958 - Edgewood Arsenal in Maryland, obtained sample of a "reject" called phenylbenzeneacetic acid (BZ) developed by pharmaceutical giant Hoffmann-LaRoche, later known by its street nickname as "brown acid."
1958 - Palo Alto Mental Research Institute begins conducting LSD Research studies
1959 - Sequoia Seminars LSD Therapy sessions  end
1959 - Willis Harman - Stolaroff - Al Hubbard LSD Therapy sessions begin
1959 - Theodore Kaczynski (future unabomber) becomes subject in MK-Ultra experiments at Harvard - Dr. Henry Murray

1960 - FDA approves Birth Control Pill - Syntex Enovid for use in the United States History of "The Pill"
11/03 1960 - Kennedy elected President over Nixon
03/00 1961 - International Foundation for Advanced Study LSD Therapy - Stolaroff - Willis Harman - Al Hubbard officially begins
10/00 1961 - Mary Meyer begins visiting John F. Kennedy in the White House

1962 - Esalen - Del Carlson is co-leader of the first formal seminar ever held when it was still called Slate's Hot Springs
1962 - Mary Meyer makes contact with Timothy Leary. Leary supplies LSD to Mary who used it with Kennedy

1963 - Sandoz patents for LSD production expire (there seems to be various patent dates)
03/01 1963 - Timothy Leary and Richard Alpert are fired from Harvard
11/02 1963 - president of South Vietnam Ngo Dinh Diem arrested and killed in CIA backed coup
11/22 1963 - John F. Kennedy Assassinated

1964 - Project MKULTRA becomes Project MKSEARCH- a program to develop a capability to manipulate human behavior through the use of mind-altering drugs
1964  - STP developed as an incapacitating agent for the Army in 1964 at Dow Chemical
02/09 1964 - The Beatles appear on "The Ed Sullivan Show"
02/26 1964 - Cassius Clay becomes Muhammad Ali - converts to Islam - resists draft in June 1964

03/07 1964 - Sheraton-Palace Hotel San Francisco demonstration organized by the Ad Hoc Committee to End Discrimination
07/02 1964 - Civil Rights Act of 1964
08/02 1964 -  Gulf of Tonkin (FalseFlag) Incident  - Jim Morrison's (Doors) father in command - Johnson escalates Vietnam Conflict.
10/12 1964 - Mary Minturn Pinchot Meyer was shot dead - murder never solved
11/03 1964 - Johnson elected President over Goldwater

1965 - The Process Church of the Final Judgment splinter group from Scientology appears
1965 -  Queen's Birthday  MBE awarded to The Beatles
02/01 1965 - Owsley "Bear" Stanley first succeeded in synthesizing crystalline LSD. Distribution began March 1965
07/25 1965 - Bob Dylan goes Electric at Newport Folk Festival - Maggies Farm
10/03 1965 - Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965
11/21 1965 - Vietnam Day march - 10,000 march through the streets of Oakland, California
12/01 1965 - The Beatles "Rubber Soul" album released - John: Rubber Soul was the pot album, and Revolver the acid.
12/01 1965 - Acid Tests organizer Ken Kesey enlists Warlocks as house band
12/04 1965 - San Jose Acid Test first Grateful Dead show

1966 - Owlsey builds Pt. Richmond, CA  LSD Lab
01/21 1966 - 8th Acid Test at the Trips Festival in Longshoremen's Hall - Kesey splits to Mexico
05/01 1966 - Anton LaVey begins the Church of Satan
07/29 1966 - Bob Dylan crashed his 500cc Triumph Tiger 100 motorcycle
08/05 1966 - The Beatles "Revolver" album released - John Lennon: Rubber Soul was the pot album, and Revolver the acid.
10/06 1966 - Love Pageant Rally protests illegalization of LSD in California
10/24 1966 - Possession of LSD is banned federally in the U.S.
10/-- 1966 - Owsley leaves soundman position with Grateful Dead  

01/01 1967 -CIA Operation Chaos begins
1967 - Owlsey and Scully build Denver LSD Lab
1967 - George Jung ("Blow") begins smuggling Pot into Calfornia and later the east coast
03/21 1967 - Charles Manson released from prison - goes to S.F. - Free Clinic -  Dr. David  Smith (NORML) - Roger Smith - the parole officer of the cultist mass murderer Charles Manson
04/00 1967 - Brian Wilson of Beach Boys begins mental breakdown
05/00 1967 - Syd Barrett of Pink Floyd has mental breakdown
06/08 1967 - USS Liberty attacked by Israeli jet fighter planes
06/18 1967 - Monterey Pop Festival
09/01 1967 - Timothy Leary - "Tune in, Turn On, Drop Out"

10/00 1967 - Stop the Draft Week - Oakland, CA
10/02 1967 Band members jailed for 6 hours after 710 Haight Street drug raid

1968 - Tim Scully builds Denver LSD lab
04/04 1968 - Martin Luther King, Jr assassinated
06/05 1968 - Robert Kennedy assassinated

07/-- 1968 - Owsley takes over sound again for Grateful Dead
08/26 1968 - Democratic Convention Chicago riots
10/00 1968 - Al Hubbard officially employed as a security officer for SRI
11/06 1968 - Nixon elected president over Humphrey

1969 - Tim Scully Builds Windsor, CA LSD lab - produces "Orange Sunshine",  ALD-52 ?, Nick Sand learns the process
1969 - John Lennon returns his MBE to the Queen - "Your Majesty, I am returning my MBE as a protest against Britain's involvement in the Nigeria-Biafra thing, against our support of America in Vietnam and against 'Cold Turkey' slipping down the charts. With Love, John Lennon."

1969 - Nixon ends BioWarfare development with Geneva Accord
1969 - Unification Church establishes recruitment headquarters on the south side of the UC Berkeley campus two-story stucco house at 2955 Ashby CARP (Collegiate Association for the Research of Principles), a church-linked nonprofit with outposts in college towns nationwide.

02/21 1969 - Kissinger's first secret meeting with Soviet Amb Dobrynin
05/14 1969 - Nixon secret meeting with Soviet Amb Dobrynin -  “prepared to accept any political system in South Vietnam - even if South Vietnam became a Communist regime, that would be acceptable
05/15 1969 - Berkeley Peoples Park Riot
06/00 1969 - Orange sunshine acid first appears
07/03 1969 - Brian Jones - Rolling Stones of Dies - Murder?
07/19 1969 - Ted Kennedy  Chappaquiddick car "accident" death of Mary Jo Kopechne - Bobby Baker scandal - JFK assassination connection
07/21 1969 - Apollo 11 lands two men on the moon - The Eagle has landed
08/09 1969 -  Charles Manson  - Tate Murders
08/15-18 1969 - Woodstock Festival (08/16 Grateful Dead)
10/09 1969 - Weather Underground - "Days of Rage"
10/27 1969 - Giant Lance - Nixon threatens the Soviet Union with a massive nuclear strike - episode remained secret for 35 years
12/06 1969 - Altamont Music Festival  Grateful Dead - Rolling Stones - Hells Angels - Orange Sunshine

01/-- 1970 - Bill Graham books Grateful Dead throughout the country

01/01 1970 - Weather Underground Organization issued a "Declaration of a State of War" against the United States government
1/31 1970 - Jerry Garcia & Bob Weir "busted down on Bourbon St." New Orleans  - Band members and Owsley Stanley arrested - the band did no long term jail time in New Orleans La. .... so were they protected?

02/-- 1970 - Owsley leaves soundman position after New Orleans bust
02/-- 1970 - Leary is convicted of marijuana possession 10 years - jailed at Lompoc, California
04/04 1970 - Kent state guardsmen fired 67 rounds over a period of 13 seconds, killing four students and wounding nine others

09/12 1970 - Leary escaped from the State Men’s Colony in San Luis Obispo  
09/-- 1970 - Leary flies to Algeria - joins Black Panther Eldridge Cleaver, later flees to Switzerland
09/18 1970 - Jimmi Hendrix dies - Murder?
10/04 1970 - Janis Joplin dies - Murder?

1971 - Nixon begins "War on Cancer"
1971 - Rev Moon moves to the United States, establishes Unification Church
06/00 1971 -  Nixon officially declares a "war on drugs," identifying drug abuse as "public enemy No. 1."
07/03 1971 - Jim Morrison Dies - Murder?
08/15 1971 - President Richard Nixon unilaterally devalued the United States dollar
10/29 1971 - Duane Allman killed in a motorcycle accident
10/00 1971 - Army's Fort Detrick, Maryland, biological warfare facility was converted to a cancer research center

1972: The first issue of Ms. magazine hits the stands.
1972: Eisenstadt v. Baird legalizes contraception for unmarried people
1972 - ERA passed the U.S. Senate and House of Representatives

02/21-28, 1972 - U.S. President Richard Nixon travels to Beijing, meets Chairman Mao - makes secret deals
05/15 1972 - The Attempted Assassination of George Wallace
06/28 1972 - first official San Francisco Gay Freedom Day on Polk Street (a street known for violence and drugs) becomes yearly event (not on Polk street)

08/22 1972 - Jane Fonda makes radio address from Hanoi Vietnam

11/03 1972 - Nixon re-elected President over George McGovern

1973 - CIA Director Richard Helms orders all MK-ULTRA files destroyed  - (a few survived)
1973 - Roe v. Wade, the U.S. Supreme Court - abortion bans were unconstitutional in every state, legalizing abortion throughout the United States.
1973 - Rev. Moon purchased second Berkeley property — this time just across from the north side of campus - 2717 Hearst Avenue - New Education Development Systems
1973 - Rev. Moon establishes the "Creative Community Project" -a communelike piece of property in Boonville in Mendocino County that served as the church's indoctrination facility .

01/-- 1973 - Leary was kidnapped at gun point in Afghanistan by American agents returned to California (Dates and place not clear Switzerland?)
01/14 1973 - Phil Lesh busted on drugs in California  
03/05 1973 - Michael Jeffery (Hendrix Manager) dies in Mid-Air collision - (possible Hendix killer)
03/08 1973 - Ron "Pigpen" McKernan dies stomach hemorrhage
03/27 1973 - Garcia busted outside Philadelphia for drugs during interstate traffic stop - stopped for speeding and LSD possession
03/29 1973 - Last U.S. troops leave South Vietnam when Hanoi freed the remaining American prisoners of war
07/00 1973 - Nixon creates the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) to coordinate the efforts of all other agencies
09/00 1973 -  First article about disco was written by Vince Aletti for Rolling Stone Magazine
10/00 1973 - Jim Jones authorizes establishment of a branch church and agricultural mission in Guyana.
10/00 1973 -  03/00 1974 - Oil Embargo and gas rationing begins 73-74 stock market crash

1974 - Eric Clapton kicks Heroin
1974 - George Jung arrested in Chicago for smuggling 660 pounds of marijuana - prison 26 months
02/04 1974  19-year-old Patty Hearst was kidnapped from the Berkeley, California by SLA
08/09 1974 - Nixon Resigns
09/16 1974 - Ford signs Condition Amnesty to Vietnam Draft Evaders

04/30 1975 - At 8:35 a.m., the last Americans, ten Marines from the embassy, depart Saigon

1976 - Freebase cocaine first developed (probably in California).
01/30 1976 - George Bush  becomes Director of Central Intelligence til  January 20, 1977 (Carter begins as President)
04/21 1976 - Tim Leary released from prison by Governor Jerry Brown (in return for FBI work as a government informant
11/03 1976 - Jimmy Carter elected President over Ford

1977 - George Jung ("Blow") begins smuggling Cocaine for the Medellín cartel
04/26 1977 - Disco - Studio 54 opens owners Steve Rubell & Ian Schrager - Drugs were common
03-26-1977 - Operation Julie LSD Raid - Largest UK lsd bust - Richard Kemp - David Solomon

1978 - Gay Hepatitis-B  Vaccine experiments begin (1978-1981) - manufactured by Merck
11/18 1978 - JonesTown mass suicide/murder
11/27 1978 - Harvey Milk and George Moscone are shot and killed by Dan White

02/04 1980 - Disco - Studio 54 closes - Steve Rubell & Ian Schrager head to prison
07/02 1980 - Bob Weir & Mickey Hart jailed obstructing drug bust, San Diego
07/21 1980 - Keith Godchaux injured in car wreck (dies 7/23)
12/08 1980 - John Lennon is shot and murdered by unknown assailant
11/03 1980 - Reagan elected President over Carter - Vice President George Bush

1981 -  The Medellin cartel rises to power - Cocaine use sky rockets
1981 - Barry Seal works for the Ochoa family and the Medellin Cartel transporting cocaine shipments into Mena Arkansas
1981 - CDC reports AIDS
03/30 1981 - President Reagan and three others were shot and wounded by John Hinckley, Jr..
05/00 1981 - Volker's Fed Funds rate peaks at 20 percent  - recession begins July 1981 and ends in November 1982
09/12 1981 - Studio 54 reopens
1982 - the ERA was reintroduced
1982 - Willis Harman publishes SRI's "Changing Images of Man"

1983 - Cocaine use rose steadily (from 1965) to its 1983 peak (1.5 million new users).

1984 - Nancy Reagan launches her "Just Say No" anti-drug campaign
1984 - Roger Clinton pleads guilty to cocaine distribution and served one year of a two-year sentence
1984–1989 - "Miami Vice"  by Michael Mann TV show runs on NBC - primarily about Cocaine Smugglers and dealers - starred Don Johnson  who was once a "hustler" in L.A.

Mid 1980's - Freebase cocaine becomes popular
01/18 1985 - Jerry Garcia busted in Golden Gate Park for drugs

02/19 1986 - Barry Seal cocaine smuggler was shot to death in Baton Rouge
03/00 1986 - Studio 54 finally closes
07/10 1986 Jerry Garcia hospitalized 3 weeks after going into Diabetic coma, hospitalized 3 weeks.
1986 - Phil Lesh - Diagnosed with  Hepatitis non A Non B (HEP C)

10/25 1991 - Bill Graham's helicopter hit a power line returning from a Huey Lewis and the News concert on a windy Friday evening at the northern end of San Francisco Bay. With him were Melissa Gold and Steve Kahn, the pilot

07-20-1993 - Largest USA LSD Bust - Bolinas, California

08/09 1995 - Jerry Garcia died of a heart attack
05/31 1996 - Timothy Leary dies (prostate cancer)
12/18/98 - Phil Lesh underwent successful liver transplant surgery

Quote from: Edgar on January 22, 2010, 07:34:53 PM
How does the Jefferson Airplane fit in???

[ I always seem to mix up Paul Krassner (very much the Berkeley intellectual Hippie/Yippie writer with Paul KANTNER the S.F intellectual Hippie/Yippie  SCIFI/writer/musician  - so here are both bio's  this also connects us to David Crosby and Laurel Canyon...

Now what ARE the chances of the then no-where Paul Kantner traveling down from San Jose to meet up and live with future superstar David Crosby? ]
David Crosby definitely was there at the very beginning of the LA / Laurel Canyon music scene in 1963.
Note that Kantner in 1963-1964 lives in a "proto commune" in "L.A." ( Venice Ca. ) with David Freiberg and David Crosby who was even then completely on the inside track of what was to come. I am having trouble finding material on the Nexus point.
David Freiberg [ joins Airplane later in 1972]
David [Freiberg] taught himself the guitar and began performing in folk clubs. In 1962, he began singing in a duo called David and Michaela, who played their last show on February 9, 1964, the night the Beatles debuted on the Ed Sullivan Show. David also joined a trio called the Folksingers of Peace, who reportedly were deported from Mexico for being subversive.  
During 1963-64, David [Freiberg] lived in a "proto-hippie commune" in Los Angeles with Paul Kantner and David Crosby.  According to San Francisco Chronicle reporter Joel Selvin, David found himself busted for drugs on two separate occasions in 1965. During the first stretch in jail, he was visited by Paul, who announced the formation of his new band, Jefferson Airplane. On the night before he began his second sentence, he heard his other friend, Crosby, singing with the Byrds on the radio. In an LSD-induced epiphany, David decided that rock 'n' roll was the way to go. Upon his release, he learned to play bass and soon co-founded Quicksilver Messenger Service.
Freiberg began his career as a coffee house folk musician. For a while he shared a house in Venice, California, with other future folk-rockers David Crosby and Paul Kantner. Janis Joplin was also one of his roommates.


Also the SciFi connection also connects with Manson - Heinlein’s Stranger in a Strange Land:
Laurel Canyon - David McGowan - Birth of the Hippie Generation - Abstract
David Crosby was a big Heinlein fan as well. In his autobiography, he references Heinlein on more than one occasion, and proclaims that, “In a society where people can go armed, it makes everybody a little more polite, as Robert A. Heinlein says in his books.

Frank Zappa was also a member of the Robert Heinlein fan club. Barry Miles notes in his biography of the rock icon that his home contained “a copy of Saint-Exupery’s The Little Prince and other essential sixties reading, including Robert Heinlein’s sci-fi classic, Stranger in a Strange Land, from which Zappa borrowed the word ‘discorporate’ for [the song] ‘Absolutely Free.’”
Michael Clarke had been born Michael Dick in Spokane, Washington......
The year was 1963. According to rock history as told by David Crosby, [Michael] Clarke and Crosby met in Big Sur, which coincidentally happens to be the location of the notorious Esalen Institute (where CSNY would play some years later). A year later, the vagrant teenager with no drumming experience would find himself cast to play the role of the drummer in the band designed to be America’s answer to the Beatles. According to Crosby, Clarke’s first LA address was the home of Terry Melcher.


"Kantner and Freiberg go all the way back to when David Crosby and Janis Joplin were their roomies in Venice"

Although he never wrote or sang lead on a hit single, Paul Kantner had the greatest impact on Jefferson Airplane/Starship of any member. He holds the record for the longest, unbroken membership (19 years), and he has been at times the only original member of the band present. His interest in science fiction helped transform Jefferson Airplane into Jefferson Starship, and, throughout it all, he presided over the band's loose and sometimes messy democracy. If Marty Balin was the soul of the band, and Grace Slick its public persona, then Paul Kantner could be considered its brain.

The only native San Franciscan among the Airplane/Starship principles, Paul Lorin Kantner was born March 17, 1941, to Paul S. and Cora Lee (Fortier) Kantner. Paul had a much older half brother and half sister. When Paul was about six, his mother died; he later recalled that instead of being allowed to attend the funeral, he was sent to the circus. Paul's father, a traveling salesman, could not raise the boy on his own and sent him to live in a Jesuit military boarding school. It was there, in the second or third grade, that he discovered science fiction while being left alone in the school library. The Jesuits apparently also taught Paul the military-like discipline and determination that would serve him well through his career's ups and downs.

Nevertheless, Paul was once described as a troublemaker while in his teens. Around 1960, he was involved in a motorcycle accident that left a permanent hole in the left side of his skull. (Ironically, this hole is credited with saving Paul from brain damage when he later suffered a cerebral hemorrhage, by allowing the pressure to escape.)

Paul completed three years of college at the University of Santa Clara (1959-61) and San Jose State College (1961-63), before dropping out when someone reportedly introduced him to the electric guitar and LSD in the same week. He decided to become a musician and hit the folk club circuit as an acoustic guitarist and five-string banjoist. Before leaving San Jose, however, he lived in a "proto-hippie commune" with future Byrd David Crosby and future Jefferson Starship member David Freiberg. Also in San Jose, in 1962, he met another guitarist who would play a prominent role in his future, Jorma Kaukonen.

[Jorma's DAD:  An FBI, and later a State Department, man, Jorma Sr. spent much of his son's childhood moving the family from exotic location to exotic location. Though their home base was Washington, D.C., where the junior Jorma attended Woodrow Wilson High School, they spent much of Jorma's childhood in places such as the Philippines and Pakistan.]

By March 1965, Paul had returned to San Francisco. While working in a cannery by day, he was playing by night in a folk club called the Drinking Gourd. One night a young singer introduced himself and suggested they form a band together. The singer's name was Marty Balin, and the group they formed was Jefferson Airplane.

Although Marty was clearly the leader, Paul took an active role in how the band developed. He recalled his earlier acquaintance with Jorma Kaukonen, and campaigned to get Jorma in the band. According to some sources, Paul also recommended female vocalist Signe Toly Anderson, also a Drinking Gourd regular, for the group. Ironically, Paul, according to bassist Bob Harvey, initially dismissed "Jefferson Airplane" as the band's name; Paul felt the public wouldn't accept it, and that the band should keep it as it's "secret" name. But despite Paul's reservations, the name stuck.

Paul originally adopted a subdued role within the band, playing rhythm guitar and singing backup and the occasional lead. His early compositions included Come Up the Years (with Marty) and Go to Her (later released on Early Flight). But if Paul took his time in finding his voice as a songwriter, his natural competitiveness wouldn't be held in check for long.

The Airplane became friendly with members of another band, the Great Society, and Paul, as he later admitted, fell instantly in love with its singer, Grace Slick. Grace, of course, was married [to Jerry Slick an artist], but Paul would bide his time. In September 1966, Paul suggested Grace as a replacement for Signe Anderson; within a month, Grace had joined the Airplane.

After the Airplane's rise to success the following year, the band began to pair off in factions, with Grace and drummer Spencer Dryden allied in one camp, and Jorma and bassist Jack Casady in another. Marty, lost in the shuffle, withdrew from the band, and Paul, by default, emerged as de facto leader. He began to assert himself, writing the majority of the band's third album, After Bathing at Baxter's (1967). That album contained Paul's loopy ode to A.A. Milne, The Ballad of You & Me & Pooneil.

As the '60s wore on, the Airplane became a symbol of the burgeoning counterculture, and Paul reflected this in songs such as Crown of Creation (1968) and We Can Be Together (1969). To Paul, the "Establishment" included everything from cops who unplugged the band during curfew to the band's own record company, RCA. In We Can Be Together, he included the line, "Up against the wall, motherf**ker," which launched a bitter contest of wills between the band and RCA over its inclusion; the company finally backed down.

On the same album (Volunteers), Paul combined music and science fiction for the first time on Wooden Ships (co-written by David Crosby and Stephen Stills and simultaneously recorded by Crosby Stills & Nash), a song about a group of people who escape from a totalitarian society to start a free colony elsewhere. This concept would become a major theme of much of Paul's subsequent efforts.

Paul reportedly had numerous girlfriends during the Airplane's first few years, and, circa 1968, he fathered a son named Gareth. But in 1970, his unrequited love for Grace was finally requited. They began a casual affair and soon started living together. Grace wanted to have his child; in January 1971, their daughter, China, was born.

By now the Airplane was moving in different directions. With Grace housebound for the duration of her pregnancy, Paul began recording a solo album in conjunction with David Crosby, Jerry Garcia, and others. The album, Blows Against the Empire, contained a mini science fiction epic on one side. As an afterthought, the album was co-credited to "Jefferson Starship," marking the first use of that name. Blows was not only a commercial success, but was also nominated for science fiction's prestigious Hugo Award.

From this point on, Paul and Grace tried to balance Airplane albums with solo projects, but were never fully able to pull it off. Although their joint solo efforts -- Sunfighter (1971) and Baron Von Tollboth & the Chrome Nun (1973) -- are regarded by some fans as better than concurrent Airplane releases, they sold poorly. Meanwhile, Paul's contributions to the Airplane continued to be in the form of science fiction epics (When the Earth Moves Again, War Movie, both 1971), or overt attempts to be controversial (Son of Jesus, 1972). Grace later recalled that Paul would spend hours on the phone with the president of RCA, discussing whether Son of Jesus should be included on Long John Silver; such polemics might have attracted notice, but didn't always translate into record sales. Long John Silver did earn a gold record, but it could hardly sustain the weight of other failed projects on the band-owned Grunt Records.

By 1973, the Airplane was no more, though neither Paul nor Grace wanted to admit it. Paul continued to work relentlessly in the studio -- his workaholic habits earned him the nickname "Mr. Rock and Roll, 24 hours a day." But, in early 1974, he and Grace were faced with the prospect of moving on and forming a new band. Not wanting to completely break with the past, they hired musicians from the latter-day Airplane as well as their solo projects, and dubbed the band Jefferson Starship.

SOURCE: Got a Revolution! The Turbulent Flight of Jefferson Airplane by Jeff Tamarkin, 2003 Atria Books

Jefferson Airplane cofounder Paul Kantner, a San Francisco native who'd been raised in Catholic and military schools, was introduced to marijuana around 1959 by future Jefferson Airplane lead guitarist Jorma Kaukonen (YOR-ma COW-ka-nen) when they were students at Santa Clara University (a Catholic college). A year older than Kantner, Kaukonen was an accomplished guitarist, "well-traveled, intelligent and steeped in the blues." Kantner picked up the guitar at the same time and began performing in folk clubs while still in college. "Despite the warnings it would lead to harder stuff, the folk crowd on the Peninsula made pot a staple of its diet."

After the Folk Music Theatre in San Jose was transformed into the Offstage,
Kantner and some of the other folkies set up the Folklore Center in a corner of the club, "selling guitar picks, strings and marijuana." Kantner also started booking acts for the club, including Mother McCree's Uptown Jug Champions (with future members of the Grateful Dead) and David Crosby. JFK's assassination in 1963 "proved the linchpin point of our generation," said Kantner, and "almost switched the universe--What R. Crumb calls the Space-Time Motherf**king Continuum -- over 180 degrees. Everything that was before was not after that." Soon Kantner was introduced to LSD by someone who brought it to the Offstage along with a Fender guitar and amplifier, with reverb and vibrato. "Went off into the cosmos," Kantner recalls.

In the Spring of 1965 Bob Dylan's new album added electricity to folk and Kantner met Marty Balin at Balin's club the Drinking Gourd on Union Street in San Francisco, where Balin asked him if he wanted to start a band.

Grace Wing was raised in an upper middle class family in San Francisco and various Peninsula suburbs. Feeling like an oddball, she supressed her interests in classical music and art and took up comic books and R&B, drinking alcohol and smoking cigarettes (by the age of 16). She enrolled in Finch College in New York in 1957 and transferred to the University of Miami in her Sophomore year to study art. There she discovered Lenny Bruce and marijuana. In 1961 she married Jerry Slick, a film student at San Francisco State College. The two rented a house in Potrero Hill where "we'd grow dope in the backyard, for our own entertainment," said Grace.

In 1964 the couple met a British chemist named Baxter who introduced them to peyote, and they soon tried LSD as well. According to Tamarkin, psychedelics "showed her that there were many levels of consciousness, and that there was no finality. Acid allowed her to see that there was much more than meets the eye, and it showed her how to apply those lessons to a personality that already operated under the assumption that life was ludicrous."

Grace found the Beatles early songs childish and prefered Bartok, Prokofiev, the musical South Pacific, and jazz, in particular Miles Davis's Sketches of Spain. She played guitar and provided soundtrack music for one of Jerry's films and soon began spending time smoking pot and making music with Jerry's guitarist brother, Darby. The three Slicks formed a band in the Summer of 1965 called The Great Society, after LBJ's disdained social program. Sly Stone was their producer for a short time (calling himself then Sylvester Stewart, he was a R&B disc jockey at the time) and they worked on material to record. One morning, while coming down from an acid trip, alone and depressed because his girlfriend had spend the night with another man, Darby wrote,

When the truth is found to be lies
And all the joy within you dies
Don't you want somebody to love?

Drawing on her love of Spanish songs, Grace fashioned a bolero rhythm for a new song of her own. Then, thinking back on her childhood fantasies, she suggested a correlation between the mystical worlds of those timeless tales and the quests that she and her fellow seekers were undertaking as young adults:

One pill makes you larger and one pill makes you small
And the ones that Mother gives you don't do anything at all
Go ask Alice, when she's ten feet tall.

It was Lewis Carroll meets Ravel meets Sketches of Spain. Slick said, "What I was trying to say was that between the ages of zero and five the information and the input you get is almost indelible. In other words, once a Catholic, always a Catholic. And the parents read us these books, like Alice in Wonderland, where she gets high, tall, and she takes mushrooms, a hookah, pills, alcohol. And then there's the Wizard of Oz, where they fall into field of poppies and when they wake up they see Oz. And then there's Peter Pan, where if you sprinkle white dust on you, you could fly. And then you wonder why we do it? Well, what did you read to me?"

The Great Society recorded "Somebody to Love" and "Go Ask Alice" with Grace on vocals in November 1965, a year before the Jefferson Airplane version hit the charts bigtime. After The Great Society broke up and Slick joined the Jefferson Airplane, the band recorded Surrealistic Pillow. Marty Balin contributed his composition "Comin' Back to Me" written in one sitting after smoking some potent marijuana.

The summer had inhaled and held its breath too long
The winter looked the same as if it had never gone
And through an open window where no curtain hung I saw you,
I saw you Comin' back to me.

Another song on the Album, DCBA-25 refers to the tune's chord progression and to LSD-25. A year later, in 1967, the band graced the cover of the first issue of Rolling Stone and recorded After Bathing at Baxter's, a reference to taking LSD, for which the band's nickname was Baxter.

Paul Krassner's introduction to LSD was very much in the Huxley vein of getting LSD to as many artists and influential people as possible....
An interesting article: My Acid Trip with Squeaky Fromme - Paul Krassner - 1971
LSD as gateway drug When I told my mother about taking LSD, she was quite concerned
Tuesday August 18, 2009

I took my first acid trip in 1965 at Tim Leary's LSD research center in Millbrook, N.Y. He was supposed to be my guide, but he had gone off to India. Ram Dass (then Richard Alpert) was supposed to take his place, but he was involved in preparing to open at the Village Vanguard as a psychedelic comedian-philosopher. So my guide was Michael Hollingshead, the British rascal who had originally turned Leary on.

When I told my mother about taking LSD, she was quite concerned.

"It could lead to marijuana," she warned.

Meanwhile, a whole new generation of pioneers was traveling westward, without killing a single Indian along the way. San Francisco became the focus of this pilgrimage. On Haight Street, runaway youngsters — refugees from their own families — stood outside a special tour bus — guided by a driver "trained in sociological significance."

On the day that LSD became illegal — Oct. 6, 1966 — at precisely two o'clock in the afternoon, a cross-fertilization of mass protest and tribal celebration took place, as several hundred explorers of inner space simultaneously swallowed tabs of acid while the police stood by helplessly.

Internal possession wasn't against the law.

On another occasion, folks from all over the Bay Area were ingesting LSD in preparation for the Acid Test at Longshoreman's Hall, organized by Ken Kesey and his Band of Merry Pranksters. The ballroom was seething with celebration, thousands of bodies stoned out of their minds, undulating to rock bands amid balloons and streamers and beads, with a thunder machine and strobe lights flashing, so that even the Pinkerton guards were high by contact. Kesey asked me to take the microphone and contribute a running commentary on the scene.

"All I know," I began, "is that if I were a cop and I came in here, I wouldn't know where to begin...."

My next stop was determined by a press release from the campaign headquarters of Robert Scheer, a Democrat who was running for Congress in Oakland: "Usually informed sources reported today that an outlawed left-wing psychedelic splinter within the Scheer campaign will caucus with Paul Krassner at 2 a.m. Saturday night, at the Jabberwock. These authoritative sources reported that Krassner, who has just returned from Washington, will deliver a preview of the State of the Union Message for 1966."

Although decriminalization of marijuana was one of Scheer's platform planks, he admitted to the audience that he wouldn't smoke pot himself as long as it was illegal. I in turn announced that I wouldn't stop smoking pot until it was legal. The previous year, before I emceed a teach-in at the Berkeley campus, Stew Albert of the Vietnam Day Committee had introduced me to Thai stick, and I became a dedicated toker.

"Now I know why there's a war going on in Southeast Asia," I observed. "To protect the crops."

That simple quote was enough to land my picture on the cover of the Berkeley Barb, smoking a joint. But my mother was right. LSD did lead to marijuana. *

Paul Krassner was the founder of The Realist (an alternative press prototype), is the author of Who's to Say What's Obscene: Politics, Culture and Comedy in America Today and In Praise of Indecency: Dispatches From the Valley of Porn, and is a monthly columnist for SF Carnal Nation ( )

From Monterey Pop to Altamont.
OPERATION CHAOS: The CIA's War Against the Sixties Counter-Culture
by Mae Brussell, November 1976


American and British pop/rock music during the 60's created an art form that has been described as one of the most important cultural revolutions in history.

Within a few years, between 1968 and 1976, many of the most famous names associated with this early movement were dead. Mama Cass Elliott (earlier with the Mamas and Papas), Jimi Hendrix, Otis Redding, Brian Jones (helped form the Rolling Stones with Mick Jagger and Keith Richards), Janis Joplin were all at the Monterey Pop celebration, summer 1967.

Duane Allman Berry Oakley (helped form Allman group with Duane and Gregg Allman), Tim Buckley, Jim Croce, Richard Farina, Donald Rex Jackson (road manager for Grateful Dead) Michael Jeffery (Jimi Hendrix' personal manager), Brian Epstein (Beatles manager), Al Jackson (drummer for Wilson Pickett, back-up drummer for Otis Redding), Vinnie Taylor (Sha-Na-Na) Paul T. Williams (choreographer for the Temptations, and one of the original Temptations), Clarence White (Byrds), Robbie McIntosh (drummer Average White Band), Jim Morrison (Doors), Pamela Morrison (Jim's wife), Rod McKernan "Pig Pen" (Grateful Dead), Phil Ochs, Gram Parsons (Byrds, Flying Burritos, International Submarine Band, singing with Emmylou Harris), Sal Mineo, Meredith Hunter (victim of ritual killing at Altamont Festival), Steve Perron (lead singer of Children, wrote hit songs for ZZ TOP), and Jimmy Reed (influenced many groups, combined harmonica with guitar) were a few possible victims.

Family and friends accepted the musicians depressions or accidents as having to do with alcohol, drug usage, or both. Was anything added to their beverages or drugs to cause personality changes and eventual suicides?

Almost every death was shrouded with unanswered questions and mystery.

Persons around the musicians had strange backgrounds and were often suspect.

All of these musicians were at the peak of a creative period and success at the time they were offered LSD. Their personalities altered drastically. Optimism and gratification were replaced with doubt and misery.

Why would young people with so much talent and influence as Phil Ochs, Janis Joplin, Gram Parsons, or Brian Jones wallow in suffering, self doubt, and despondency? They were all loved, doing important contributions to their concerts and compositions, cutting new records, recognized for their talent. It just doesn't make sense.

Jimi Hendrix, Mama Cass Elliott, Steve Perron choking from their vomit? I doubt it!!

Phil Ochs just happened to be touring Africa when a native "robber" jumped after him and cut his throat so that it affected his singing? The most political symbol of protest against the war in Vietnam, songwriter for Bob Dylan, Joan Baez, and many others, is selected from millions of U.S. tourists for assault to his vocal chords. Incredible!!

Way back in 1966 the American Broadcasting Co. was planning to merger with International Telephone and Telegraph Co.(ITT). ABC had put aside $100,000 advance for the first television special by writer-poet Bob Dylan. The production was to climax the season.

On Saturday, July 30, 1966, Bob Dylan had a motorcycle accident. Dylan never got on the air, and ABC never merged with ITT. The merger required a lack of protest from the Antitrust Division of the Justice Department. No comment. By now you know what I am thinking!!!

In addition to Dylan, Stevie Wonder, Eric Clapton, and the Dave Mason band, many others suffered near fatal accidents.

The nine years in which the musicians allegedly overdosed, drank themselves to death, drove over cliffs, hung themselves, choked, crashed their motorcycles, went insane, or freaked out without any reasonable explanation, were the same years that the FBI and CIA waged a domestic war against any kind of dissent.

Was Lennie Bruce the first victim? How about Jack Kerouac? Did Bruce pay his dues for comparing United States police to Hitler's Gestapo. Was all the fuss about dirty words only a cover story?

An important part of neutralizing any group is to kill or discredit the leaders.

Monterey Pop set the combined Government agencies in motion.

"Never again was there a festival such as the one that took place that weekend of 1967. Never was there another event where over thirty rock groups were inflated by no more that the joy of an enraptured audience and the gorgeous pleasure of performance itself. There were eight, nine, ten times as many people running rock festivals taking place only two years later. There was never another Monterey! The weekend was too intoxicating, too radiant, too pure."
"Janis Joplin, Buried Alive" Myra Friedman

By 1968, the FBI's Counterintelligence Program, and the CIA's Operation Chaos, had included among their long list of domestic enemies "Advocates of New Lifestyles," "New Left," "Apostles of Non-Violence and Racial Harmony" and "Restless Youth."

Justification for indexing 300,000 law abiding citizens into files, and wiretapping, bugging, or burglarizing offices was rationalized on the basis that violence was prevalent, the cities were burning.

Now we find out that being "non-violent" and wanting "racial harmony," according to recent Congressional investigations, was also a crime.

The meeting place for this social, economic, and soon to become political, revolution was at the folk festival, rock concerts, free park love-ins, at the FM radio stations, or home with favorite records.

In the music there were many messages.

American youth were provided with a wide variety of radio stations to manage, alternative news sources, and new ways to learn what was going on in the world.

For the first time, young Americans found themselves with enough space and time to communicate.

The space was the entire continent, then the globe. They wandered. Many left homes in large numbers, seeking contacts from strangers in distant communities.

The time was often twenty four hours each day. They dropped out from established institutions. Clocks disappeared.

Musicians were bringing these young people together from far away places.

"I see a great deal of danger in the air. Teenagers are not screaming over pop music anymore, they're screaming for much deeper reasons. We're only serving as a means of giving them an outlet. Pop music is just the superficial tissue. When I'm on the stage I sense that the teenagers are trying to communicate to me, like by telepathy, a message of some urgency. Not about me or my music, but about the world and the way they live. I interpret it as their demonstration against society and it's sick attitudes. Teenagers the world over are weary of being pushed around by half-witted politicians who attempt to dominate their way of thinking and set a code for their living. This is a protest against the system. And I see a lot of trouble coming in the dawn."
Mick Jagger 1967

Everything was beautiful until the insanity began.

The CIA got into the business of altering human behavior in 1947.

 "Project Paperclip," an arrangement made by CIA Director Allen Dulles and Richard Helms, brought one thousand Nazi specialists and their families to the United States. They were employed for military and civilian institutions.

Some Nazi doctors were brought to our hospitals and colleges to continue further experimentations on the brain.

American and German scientists, working with the CIA, then the military, started developing every possible method of controlling the mind.

Lysergic Acid Diethylmide, LSD,, was discovered at the Sandoz Laboratories, Basel, Switzerland, in 1939 by Albert Hoffman. This LSD was pure. No other ingredients were added.

The U.S. Army got interested in LSD for interrogation purposes in 1950. After May, 1956, until 1975, the U.S. Army Intelligence and the U.S. Chemical Corps "experimented with hallucinogenic drugs."

The CIA and Army spent $26,501,446 "testing" LSD, code name EA 1729, and other chemical agents. Contracts went out to forty-eight different institutions for testing. The CIA was part of these projects. They concealed their participation by contracting to various colleges, hospitals, prisons, mental hospitals, and private foundations.

The LSD I will refer to is the same type of LSD that the CIA used because of the similarity of symptoms between their reports and what happened to musicians or hippies after 1967. We shall be speaking of CIA-LSD, not pure LSD.

Government agents and the ability to cause permanent insanity, identical to schizophrenia, without physician or family knowing what happened to the victim.

"No physical examination of the subject is required prior to the administration of LSD. A physician need not be present. Physicians might be called for the hope they would make a diagnosis of mental-breakdown which would be useful in discrediting the individual who was the subject of CIA interest. Richard Helms, CIA Director, argued that administering drugs, including poisonous LSD, might be on individuals who are unwitting as this is the only realistic method of maintaining the capability considering the intended operational use to influence human behavior as the operational targets will certainly be unwitting."

"Senate Report to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities"
Book I, page 401, April 1976.

When the first reports came out that the CIA could administer a tasteless substance into the beverage of one of their most responsible co-workers, and drive that man into a mental institution, or cause him to jump out of a window to his death, all existing CIA records were destroyed.

Hippies and musicians, previously normal and creative, with families and loved ones identical to Dr. Frank Olson, responded in the same manner as Dr. Olson after their introduction to the same drugs.

Valuable documentation of LSD experiments should not have been in the hands of CIA Director Richard Helms. January 31, 1973, one day before he retired from the CIA, he removed some possible answers as to the fate of persons minds the past ten years.

Helms had been behind all the types of experimentations since 1947.

Mind altering projects went under the code names of Operation Chatter, Operation Bluebird/Artichoke, Operation Mknaomi, Mkultra, and Mkdelta.

By 1963, four years before Monterey Pop, the combined efforts of the CIA's Directorate of Science and Technology, Department of U.S. Army Intelligence, and U.S. Chemical Corps were ready for any covert operations that seemed necessary.

U.S. agents were able to destroy any persons reputation cause by inducing hysteria or excessive emotional responses, temporary or permanent insanity, suggest or encourage suicide, erase memory, invent double or triple personalities inside one mind, prolong lapses of memory, teach and induce racism and hatred against specific groups, cause subjects to obey instructions on the telephone or in person, hypnotically assure no memory remains of the assignments.

The CIA has poison dart guns to kill from far away, tranquilizers for pets so the household or neighborhood is not alerted by entry or exit.

While pure LSD is usually 160 micrograms, the CIA was issuing 1600 micrograms. Some of their LSD was administered to patients at Tulane University who already had wired electrodes in their brain.

Was being crazy an occupational disease of being a musician? Or does this LSD, tested and described in Army documents, explain how a cultural happening that was taking place in 1967-68 could be halted and altered radically?

Janis used to say that her speed experience was induced by a man. He had been the cause of it. He had brought her lower than she had ever been in her life. Her involvement with the young man started in the spring of '65.    He was a very sharp brain and questionable character, engaged in some rather odd activities. Neither his history or his name was his own. He set up a fraudulent international pharmaceutical company in Canada to obtain drugs. He was also a methadrine addict. Janis was an exceptionally vulnerable girl. It had taken Janis about seven months from the time she returned from New York to degenerate into a vegetable, an eighty pound spastic speed-freak.

"Buried Alive, Janis Joplin" - Myra Friedman

Chrissie Shrimpton described how Mick Jagger's mind was affected after he started taking acid. Jagger had a nervous breakdown in the United States, June 1966, some months after he started taking acid. His collapse came just weeks before the start of a new concert tour.

Several friends from America visited Jagger and Chrissie and surreptitiously slipped acid into her drink. She was literally out of her mind. A short while later, Chrissie attempted to kill herself.

"Henry Schneiderman, a sinister American, or Canadian...he had so many passports no one was certain of his origin, brought to Keith Richards home a suitcase...which contained several pounds of heroin, cannabis, pills acid, DMT, every herb and chemical to stab or stroke the mind...along with choice LSD from San Francisco.

    Schneiderman had let believe he was really bending the law all over the world. He was on a James Bond thing, the CIA or something."

"Mick Jagger"
Tony Scaduto

Brian Jones had a complete personality change after taking LSD.

Janis Joplin's first LSD was administered surreptitiously. When she discovered what happened, she ran to spit it out.

Before Watergate, long before our understanding of Government agents interfering with our privacy or right to assemble, many autopsies and descriptions of mental conditions were never challenged. Today there is healthy suspicion.

When Tim Buckley died, following a successful concert in Dallas, Texas, his death was first attributed to a heart attack. Ten days later, Buckley's cause of death was discovered to be brought on by a drug overdose.

UCLA graduate student Richard Keeling was finally charged with murder after it was discovered that Buckley had sniffed heroin-morphine-ethanol. A police eyewitness actually saw Buckley ingest the powder.

Robbie McIntosh sniffed cocaine at a party.

The cocaine was laced with heroine and strychnine. Host Kenneth Moss was charged with murder.

In the cases of rock musicians becoming ill or passing away, there were so many variations of possibilities that could have been narrowed down to the facts if the doctors had been aware of all the circumstances. Jimi Hendrix was given a tab of acid just before his show at Madison Square Garden where he was playing with Buddy Miles and Bill Cox. The audience, as well as Hendrix, were completely freaked out by his irrational behavior. The result was that Hendrix was discredited.

The effect of one LSD dose could cause permanent brain injury. Anything Hendrix did after this experience, up to and including the time of his death, could be attributed to that earlier event.

Government manufactured LSD included countless combinations of chemicals.

New York State Psychiatric Institute was granted the first known contract for research into psychochemical drugs. The purpose was to determine the psychological effect of psychological chemical agents on human subjects. These subjects were given derivatives of LSD and mescaline. Other chemicals that were tested, which could be distributed at a later date included morphine, demerol, seconal, scopolamine, ditan, atrophine, psilocybin, BZ (benzilate), glycolate, atrophine substitutes, dimethyl, tryptamine, chlorpromazine, LSD with Dibenzyline (blocking agents), LSM (Lysergic acid morpholide), LSD like compounds, psilocybin, and various chemical glycolate agents.

It is no easy feat to alter society's consciousness. An arsenal of weapons was available.

Included among the chemicals were also choking agents, nerve agents, blood agents, blister agents, vomiting agents, incapacitating agents and toxins.

"The glycolates cause incapacitation by interfering with muscle, gland functions and the central nervous system, they depress or inhibit nervous activity. In addition to delirium there is physical incoordination, blurred vision inhibition of sweating and salivation, rapid heart rate, elevated blood pressure, increased body temperature and , at high doses, vomiting, prostration, and stupor or coma. The onset may be minutes, hours, or days."

U.S. Army "Use of Volunteers in Chemical Agent Research"
Released from the Pentagon March 1976


"How does it feel
to be
One of the
Beautiful people?"

The Beatles "Baby, You're Rich Man" - Magical Mystery Tour Album

Robert Hall, a private detective in Hollywood, was killed by a single bullet on July 22, 1976.

So far, there has been a wire service news blackout on the implications of Hall's murder for obvious reasons. The facts in this case should expose more than the tip of Watergate. What was going on is Los Angeles is part and parcel of the Washington, D.C. scandals.

If one Army report alone exposes that millions of dollars were spent using and testing chemical combinations for operational purposes, then somebody has to be around to distribute the poison.

Managers of seven rock groups, seven different groups, had hired private eye Hall to find out how their stars were getting "stoned."

Turning on or feeling "high" doesn't warrant hiring the professional assistance of a detective. That they were obviously complaining about was that the stars were being altered in such a way that it hampered with their public appearances, credibility, personal lives, and recordings.

Hall's inquiry revealed the drugs were coming from two pharmacies with which he had been employed.

Hall used to own a drug store in Hollywood with co-partner Jack Ginsburg, an admitted pornographer, who was charged with Hall's murder.

Gene LeBell, 44, the other man arrested along with Ginsburg, refereed the Muhammed Ali bout with a Japanese wrestler in July, '76. LeBell, a professional wrestler, is the son of Aileen Eaton, a well known boxing promoter who owns and operates the Olympic Auditorium in Los Angeles.

The reports that Hall concluded for the managers of the rock musicians included the names of two physicians and one dentist as having supplied false prescriptions. The cause of apparent freaking out was centered in a small area of operation.

This information was turned over to the proper authorities for arrests before Hass was murdered. No actions were taken by the police. No arrests have been made.

The same frustrations plagued Robert Hall that bothered Phoenix, Arizona reporter Don Bolles. The higher-ups get police and law protection. The investigators get killed.

Don Bolles and Robert Hall were investigating some of the same people, an actual who's who of the cold war.

Hall's contacts were important because they touched the prime movers of our politics, movies, electoral processes, entertainment, and also our tastes in music and in sounds.

Within moments of Hall's murder, his name was linked with possible murder for hire, kidnapping plans for millionaire financier Robert Vesco's son, gun running to Vesco in Costa Rica, the unsolved stabbing of actor Sal Mineo, blackmail, the lost safe deposit box of Howard Hughes that could contain his original will, Beverly Hills financier Thomas P. Richardson (recently convicted of a $25 million stock fraud), Hollywood's most famous celebrities in drug and sex scandals, exposures of televisions stars and high Washington officials, drug traffic from Los Angeles to the Malibu community, international sports events, the Los Angeles Police Department (one of their former agents is now retired, heads the Police Science Department at L.A. Valley College and supplied the fatal weapon used to kill Hall), Los Angeles Police Department Chief Ed Davis (because of his links to the FBI and CIA) a possible plot to kidnap Bernard Cornfeld (associate of Robert Vesco), past contacts with Mickey Cohen, the long drug addiction of singer Eddie Fisher, contract employment of Hall by Howard Hughes Summa Corp., the two burglaries of Hughes headquarters in Van Nuys and on Romaine Street. The burglary on Romaine Street set off the Glomar Explorer scandal of Hughes fronting the contract for the CIA.

Hall sent his pals to New York. Dr. Max Jacobson, titled Dr. Feelgood, the source of John F. Kennedy's happy time vitamins. Roy B. Loftin, contractor for NASA, Texan, with a long association and friendship for Bobby Baker, Lyndon Johnson's protege, knew Hall.

Investigations into the slain Burbank private detective caused Beverly Hills Police Captain Jack Eggers, on the force seventeen years, to resign.

Hall worked as a double agent for the Beverly Hills Police and the Los Angeles Police.

The relationship between law enforcement, drug traffic, and personalities as varied as politicians and musicians makes it sometimes impossible to get an impartial investigation of certain deaths. What appears as suicide can be murder.

At the time of Hall's murder, his possessions included tranquilizer guns, drug loaded darts that fire gas canisters, electronic bugging equipment of all kinds, and a wide variety of chemical formulas.
    The chemicals were possibly a combination from the many tested by the U.S. Government from 1953 to 1963.


Why were Hippies such a threat, from the President on down to local levels, objects for surveillance and disruptions?

Many of the musicians had the potential to become political. There were racial overtones to the black-white sounds, the harmony between people like Janis Joplin, Otis Redding, and Jimi Hendrix. Black music was the impetus that got the Rolling Stones into composing and performing.

The war in Vietnam was escalating. What if they stopped protesting the war in Southeast Asia and turned to expose domestic policies at home with the same energy? One of the Byrds stopped singing at Monterey Pop to question the official Warren Report conclusion that Lee Harvey Oswald was a "lone assassin."
Bob Dylan's "Bringing it All Back Home" album has a picture of Lyndon Johnson on the cover of Time.

By 1966, LBJ had ordered all writers and critics of his Commission Report on the JFK murder to be under surveillance.

That research was hurting him. Rock concerts and Oswald. What next?

While preacher preach of evil fates
teachers teach that knowledge waits
Can lead to hundred dollar plates
Goodness hides behind its gates
But even the president of the United States
Sometimes must have
to stand naked.

Bob Dylan - "It's Alright Ma"  - Bringing it All Back Home album

John and Yoko Lennon were protesting the Vietnam war. The State Department wrote documents describing them as "highly political and unfavorable to the administration." It was recommended their citizenship be denied, and they be put under surveillance.

Mick Jagger, before he was offered Hollywood's choicest women and heavy drugs, was concerned about the youth protests in Paris, 1968, and the anti-war demonstrations at the London Embassy.

"War stems from power-mad politicians and patriots. Some new master plan would end all these mindless men from seats of power and replace them with real people, people of compassion."----Mick Jagger

Woodstock, summer of 1969, was the turning point of rock festivals. Time magazine [Bilderburg]described this happening as "one of the most significant political and sociological events of the age."

One half million American youth assembled for a three day rock concert. They were non-violent, fun-loving hippies, who resembled the large followings of Mahatma Gandhi in India and Rev. Martin Luther King in the USA, both strong advocates of non-violence. And both assassinated.

It is important to understand the kinds of drugs and agents available to stifle dissent, the mentality of people hell-bent on changing the course of history, in order to comprehend that cultures and tastes can be moved in directions according to game plans in the hands of a few people.

Adolf Hitler's first targets in Nazi Germany were the Gypsies and the students. LSD was a youth oriented drug; that was perfected in the laboratory. When it was combined with other chemicals, and given the wide distribution necessary all that remained were the marching orders to go to war.

July, 1968, the FBI's counterintelligence operations attacked law abiding American individual's and groups.

The stated purpose of these assaults was to disrupt large gatherings, expose and discredit the enemy, and neutralize their selected targets.

Neutralization included killing the leaders, if necessary. Preferably, turn two opposing segments of society against each other to do the dirty work for them.

Remember that among these dangers to the security of the United States were persons with "different lifestyles" and also "apostles of non-violence and racial harmony."

CIA Director Richard Helms warned National Security Advisor Henry Kissinger, Feb. 18, 1969, that their study on "Restless youth" was "extremely sensitive" and "would prove most embarrassing for all concerned if word got out the CIA was involved in domestic matters."

The FBI sent out a list of suggestions on how to achieve their goals. They can all be applied to what happened to musicians, youngsters at folk rock festivals, and hippies along the highway.

Gather information on their immorality. Show them as scurrilous and depraved. Call attention to their habits and living conditions. Explore every possible embarrassment. Send in women and sex, break up marriages. Have members arrested on marijuana charges. Investigate personal conflicts or animosities between them. Send articles to the newspapers showing their depravity. Use narcotics and free sex to entrap. Use misinformation to confuse and disrupt. Get records of their bank accounts. Obtain specimens of handwriting. Provoke target groups into rivalries that may result in death."------Intelligence Activities and Rights of Americans. Book II, April 26, 1976, Senate Committee Study with Respect to Intelligence

The IRS admitted that "people who attend rock concert festivals" were listed among targets for investigation by its special staff. Agent Leon Levine said that "ideological groups such as rock festival patrons were to be watched."

A San Diego police officer was penalized for throwing rocks at a concert that injured a 17 year-old girl. She was treated for a fractured nose and facial lacerations.

John and Yoko's legal problems began when marijuana was planted in some binoculars while moving. After Mr. Schneiderman showed the British police his full suitcase of drugs during the bust with Mick Jagger, Keith Richards, and Robert Frazier, Schneiderman left town. He was never arrested. The Stones went to jail. Mick Jagger was then put on the International Red List as a possible narcotics smuggler every time he went through customs.

Cable Splicer III, martial law plans, set to control civil disturbances, May 1970, described as dangerous "love-in type gatherings in the parks where in large numbers freak out, peace marches, rock festivals where violence is commonplace and sex is unrestrained."

Chicago Police Chief Rockford, overall commander during the police clashes at 1968 demonstrations, was also in charge of the police who fired a volley of shots, wounding one youth in a riot at the 1970 rock festival in Grant Park.

Louis Tackwood, agent provocateur with the Los Angeles Police Department, exposed CREEP and the Republicans who were going to turn San Diego into a scene of violence during the conventions in 1972. Part of the plans were to seal off and them bomb a hundred thousand demonstrators attending a rock concert on Fiesta Island in Mission Bay, San Diego.

Employees at the CIA's Langley, Virginia, headquarters don't have to stand in line to get tickets to these events. They have a top-secret ticketron outlet for rock concert appearances.

A similar top-secret ticketron outlet is administered by the National Security Agency at For George Meade, Md.

 Howard Hughes organization ordered "all rock concerts prohibited in Las Vegas."

Fortune [Bilderburg], January 1969, described the Movement as encompassing "hippies and doctrinaire Leninists, anarchists and populists, revolutionaries, whose domain is the human mind, rock bands and cultural guerrillas."

 During the 1968 riots in Washington, D.C. group singing was outlawed by the police department. They were aware that people "get high" singing together.

 Records of Led Zeppelin, Cat Stevens, Alice Cooper, Simon and Garfunkel, Jethro Tull and others were burned at the Hollywood Christian Academy in Hollywood, Fla. Rock music was described as being "of the devil, having no place in a Christian life."

 The rock group Black Cat won a $570,000 slander suit against a minister in Arkansas. Their concert had been prevented, claiming they were a "mongrel group of Satanic origins."

 Following the slaying of two Americans in South Korea in August, the government issued tighter controls on long hair and "decadent music." Korea has a list of 260 decadent rock-folk and protest songs. Among them is "I Shot the Sheriff" and "We Shall Overcome." A survey of Quebec policemen showed that more of them were hostile to hippies or beatniks than they are toward criminals.

    Art Linkletter, a television personality, told a Congressional committee investigating drug abuse that the "Beatles were the leading advocates of an acid society." This is an example of turning one hostile group against another. There is every reason to believe that the LSD that caused Dr. Frank Olson and Diane Linkletter to leap from buildings to their death could be manufactured from the same laboratories. With justified anger, Linkletter became a mouthpiece. Meanwhile, the so-called straight society Linkletter was defending, spent sixteen years and millions of dollars perfecting LSD into an operational weapon.

Los Angeles Police arrested 511 persons attending the Pink Floyd concert. There were no mass arrests at Elton John's performance in the same city, around the same time.

 Somebody is selecting their targets, because there is plenty of grass at Elton's concert.

"Peace Pills" were distributed at the Santa Clara Fairgrounds for a folk-rock festival. Youngsters were hospitalized. A strange drug was handed out freely and poured into drinks.

All of those who took the drug were treated, but sent home without any knowledge of the psychological damage.

 This pill was blamed for the death of Mrs. Loid Dodd de Lattre, wife of a beatnik priest. Mrs. de Lattre's heart burst under the stimulation of the drug. Under its influence, she tore out her hair and threw herself on the floor.

A man had jumped on the musician's platform and announced they had 4,000 pills to hand out. The pills caused "marked disorientation as to time and space, inability to sustain directed thought, presence of a trance-like state."

 This kind of scene was so common that large groups were discouraged from performing in the manner they had before these assaults took place.

 The irreplaceable loss of lives and talent has been noticed by persons sensitive to the rock-folk music.

We can't bring them back to life. We might take time to examine their deaths, if only to stop the still going attack upon certain artists and musicians.

Some of my information on the details of these deaths is incomplete. The circumstances surrounding them caused me to ask some hard questions.

JOHN CARPENTER, 45 yrs, Sept. 18, 1976, killed by hit and run driver, Ben Lomand, Calif. Part of the earliest rock scene, once managed Grace Slick, wrote for Rolling Stone from issue one through eight, disc jockey at KPFK, music critic for L.A Free Press. Got "totally crazed" and committed himself to a mental institution for a while.

TIM BUCKLEY, 28 yrs, June 29, 1975, Los Angeles. Just returned from a concert in Dallas, Texas, about to make a movie of Woodie Guthrie's "Bound for Glory." Death caused by heroin-morphine-pentathol. Police eyewitness to his taking the drug. Joe Falsia, Buckely's manager "never knew Tim used drugs." Richard Keeling charged with his murder.

THE CHASE, August 11, 1974, Four in rock group killed, airplane crash. Bill Chase, Jazz trumpeter with Woody Herman, Walt Clark, drummer, John Emma, guitarist, and Wallace Wouhne, organist. Three years ago the Chase had a single, "Get It On," that became a hit. Popular with radio stations. Played often in Las Vegas, Japan, Africa, released three albums.

JIM CROCE, 30 yrs. old, Sept. 20, 1973. Airplane crash, Louisiana. Recorded hit albums, including "Bad, Bad LeRoy Brown." Degree in psychology from Villanova U., sang at small colleges. Croce's widow filed a $2.5 million suit against Federal Aviation Administration. Allegations that preparation of maps on the airport runway were faulty, leaving a tree unmarked which the fatal plane struck.

BRIAN JONES, July, 1969, London. One of the original members of the Rolling Stones. Unique musician, helped the group get started, under control of drugs by 1966, took LSD that caused personality changes and depression. Seemed to have brain damage and disintegrated. Compared his arrests and planted grass to the treatment Lennie Bruce had received, forced to drop from the group. Keith Richards, of the Stones, said,

"Some very weird things happened the night Brian died. We had these chauffeurs working for us, and we tried to find out. Some of them had a weird hold over Brian. I got straight into it and wanted to know who was there and couldn't find out. The only cat I could ask was the one I think who got rid of everybody, and did a whole disappearing thing so that when the cops arrived, it was just an accident. Maybe it was. I don't know. I don't even know who was there that night, and finding out is impossible. It's the same feeling with who killed Kennedy. You can't get to the bottom of it."
"Mick Jagger"
Tony Scaduto

MAMA CASS ELLIOT, 33, former member of Mamas and Papas, London. Found dead in her apartment. "Probably choked to death on a ham sandwich," or "possibly of heart attack. The coroner said it "appears the singer had not died of natural causes." She was propped up in bed, and had been dead for a considerable time before her body was found. Had just completed two weeks at the London Palladium, was ready to tour Britain, was in excellent mental spirits. Performed at the Monterey Pop.

JANIS JOPLIN, 27 yrs., Oct. 3, 1970, Los Angeles. Cause of death listed as "drug overdose, accidental." Lawsuit in 1974 claimed "it was possible that something unknown triggered a fatal reaction." Fought alcohol and drug usage most of her adult life. Body at autopsy didn't show large amounts of morphine. The night she died, Janis was with a mysterious character who accompanied her to the Landmark Hotel, L.A. She made three calls to her drug "connection" on the hotel switchboard. No arrests or effort to locate this party. Went to the lobby, bought cigarettes, talked, walked back to her room, and fell on the floor inside the door. Was taking pills to stop drug habit? Engaged to be married, slim, tan, recording what was to be a tremendous success, Pearl, happy with her band, climbing out of darker days when she dropped dead. Sang at Monterey Pop with Big Brother and the Holding Company. One of the top blues-acid rock stars.

DONALD REX JACKSON, 31, Sept. 28, 1976. Automobile accident. Manager for the Grateful Dead, just set group up for a national tour. Car swerved off the road, killed instantly.

AL JACKSON, 39 yrs., October, 1975. Former drummer with Booker T. and the MG's. Back up drummer for Otis Redding. Shot to death five times, Memphis, Tenn. Cause of death "apparent robbery." Produced Stax Records.

JIMI HENDRIX, 27 yrs., Sept. 18, 1970. Cause of death clouded. Suggestions of drug plants, mafia connections, murder. Kidnapped shortly before he died. Surrounded by groupie females, one of whom boasted giving him his first acid trip. Affected by acid, depression, interfered with performances. One of top stars at Monterey Pop. Into rock-blues, jazz. Media assumption of "suicide" or "drug overdose" like Joplin. Earned millions. Freaked out and couldn't do his serious music.

JIM MORRISON, 27 yrs., July 3, 1971. Paris, France. Lead singer for the Doors. Cause of death "heart attack," or "pneumonia" or "died peacefully of natural causes." Best known hit "Light My Fire." Author "The Lords," "The New Creatures." Poet, UCLA graduate, writer, musician, politically controversial. Completed tour of Europe, South Africa, writing a movie script in Paris. Sometime irrational behavior on stage. Harassed by police, some false arrests, some charges later dropped. Described as "appearing to be in a hypnotic trance." Found guilty of using "lewd and lascivious conduct" in Miami, Florida, March, 1969. His arrest the excuse for "rally for decency" by singers, TV personalities. Deeply affected by the death of Brian Jones. (Janis Joplin died a month after Jimi Hendrix. Jim Croce died a day after Gram Parsons.) Group broke up after Morrison's death.

PAMELA MORRISON, April 27, 1974, Hollywood, Calif. Wife of Jim Morrison. Cause "an apparent drug overdose." A hypodermic syringe discovered in the apartment. No mention of drugs in her system or if there were needle marks.

RICHARD FARINA, Carmel Valley, Calif. Motorcycle crash. Author, musician, just completed a book, attended autographing party, drove down the road, met fatal crash. Brother-in-law of Joan Baez, married to Mimi. Recorded a new album "The Falcon." "Celebrations for a Gray Day," as described on the jacket, "Goldwater was about to win the California primary and the skies were somewhat uneasy."

ROBBIE McINTOSH, 28 yrs., Sept. 23, 1974, Los Angeles, died from heroin and strychnine that he believed was cocaine. Host Kenneth Moss, Freelandia Airlines, might have been singled as the target. Moss formed new charter, low cost airline. Cher Bono at the party, saved the life of Alan Gorrie. Gregg Allman working for Jimmy Carter's nomination at the time. Allman's drug arrests just before elections, Cher's attending a party where drugs with poison administered, might have caught McIntosh as innocent victim. Moss was charged with murder. (Janis Joplin's known drug connection was not held for her death.)

SAL MINEO, 1975, Los Angeles. Stabbed in back. One time singer, actor, whose next role was to play Sirhan Sirhan. Controversial movie about the hypnotic state of Sirhan, and LAPD suppression of evidence on the Robert Kennedy assassination. Robert Hall was allegedly following Mineo the night he was killed.

ROD McKERNAN, "PIG PEN" 27 yrs. old, March 1973, Corte Madera, Calif. Member of Grateful Dead, organist, singer. Body found in an apartment by neighbor who hadn't seen him for a few days. Coroner's office reports, first accounts probably natural causes, probably liver disease. Had been suffering from cirrhosis of the liver, swelling of blood vessels in his throat. No explanation for his sudden death, or why not at the hospital, or gone for help. Hadn't touched alcohol for two years.

PHIL OAKS, 35 yrs. old, April 1976, New Jersey. "Death by hanging." No suicide notes, nobody sure why Oaks died. Active during Vietnam war, got depressed 1971, using alcohol. Sang at Madison Square Garden, with Bob Dylan, "An evening with Salvadore Allende" in 1974, obsessed with JFK assassination. Developed two personalities, John Train and Phil Oaks. Talked of death, had erratic behavior. "Band of robbers" in Africa one of the reasons for his depression. Oaks was attacked Hendrix was kidnapped just before his death. Known as the troubadour of the "New Left," one of the FBI's target groups.

STEVE PERRON, 28 yrs., Aug. 8, 1973. San Antonio, Texas. Died from inhaling vomit fumes during sleep. Composer, writer, lead singer for Children. Was off drugs, preparing to cut new album for Ode Records. Wrote "Francine" for ZZ TOP, hit records. Composed over 100 songs. Married, child, happy, productive composing when died.

GRAM PARSONS, 26 yrs., Sept. 19, 1974, Calif. Cause of death shrouded in mystery. Autopsy report "inconclusive." Body taken off airplane on way to Louisiana, cremated 200 miles away from L.A. Composer, singer, musician. Former theology student from Harvard who went into country-western music, sang with the Byrds, Flying Burritos, Submarine Blues, and Emmylou Harris. Made some informal recordings with actor Brandon DeWilde, child star of "Shane" and "Member Of The Wedding", who died in July 1972 in a car accident in Denver, Colorado. DeWilde was driving to a stage play performance of "Butterflies Are Free", in which he was starring.

Once happy family life, conventional, turned on to LSD, drugs, alcohol, became depressed, left mysteries about what happened to him. Phil Kaufman, ex-convict charged with drug smuggling, lived with Charles Manson two months, managed Parsons. Kaufman took Gram to Joshua Tree Inn, where he died, and removed the coffin to the desert, where the body was assured of never having another autopsy.

OTIS REDDING, 26 yrs., December 1967. Airplane crash over Wisconsin. First star of Monterey Pop to die. Brought soul to every American city. Best known hit record "By the Dock of the Bay." A poll before his death claimed Redding the most popular musical star in Europe.

JIMMY REED, 50 yrs., Aug. 29, 1976. Natural causes, "died the night before he was set for a California tour." Blues writer, harmonica player, influenced Dylan, Steve Miller, Grateful Dead.

VINNIE TAYLOR (CHRIS DONALD), 25 yrs., April 1974, Virginia. Lead guitarist for Sha-Na-Na. Played at Woodstock. Found by National Guard in motel room following a concert in Va. On way to appear in Pittsburgh, Pa. for a sell-out performance.

CLARENCE WHITE, Car crash. Los Angeles, Calif. One of the Byrds. Close friend of Gram Parsons.

PAUL WILLIAMS, 34 yrs., Aug. 23, 1973, Detroit, Michigan. Found dead in the car, gun on his lap. One of the original Temptations. Did the choreography for Temptations. Had solved drinking problems, emotional crisis. Dead only a few blocks from Motown, where first records made.


Helter Skelter and Gimme Shelter

War, Children
It's just a shot a-way,
It's just a shot a-way
See the fire sweeping our very street today,
Barns like a red coal carpet, ma
Mad bull lost its way
Rape! Murder! It's just a shot away
Gimme Gimme Shelter
or I'm gonna fade away
Love sister,
It's just a kiss away.

Mick Jagger Keith Richards "Gimme Shelter" Let it Bleed Album

    By the end of 1969, the folk-music festival was killed in spirit and was over as a cultural happening. It never was the same again. There are musical performances, but it just isn't the same feeling.

The two most popular groups, The Beatles and the Rolling Stones, would be identified, through media and factual distortions, with cold blooded murder and violence.

Helter Skelter, the name of a Beatles song, would become the title of Manson Family prosecutor Vincent Bugliosi's book.

 What a strange twist of fate!!

Gimme Shelter, the name of a movie depicting the ritualistic murder of a black man attending the Rolling Stones concert in Altamont Racetracks, California, is from a song by the Rolling Stones.

How did this all happen?

 Coincidence or conspiracy?

  There are so many published Government documents today, and Congressional Hearings exposing illegal CIA and FBI domestic activities, that it is almost impossible to ride the coincidence coat tails much longer.

  Just as pocket calculators add numbers faster, history's dates also put pieces of the puzzle into better perspective.

 FACT   1    Social structures are rearranged by architects. Politica, the game plan for overthrowing Salvador Allende's elected government in Chile was arranged by Abt. Associates, Cambridge, Mass., in 1965.

 Abt. was a front for the Pentagon and CIA. They had another plan titled Camelot.

 Was Camelot the military answer to future dissent in America that would follow other necessary assassinations? The war in Vietnam escalated Nov. 24, 1963, with no known provocation from North Vietnam. It was only a matter of time before the natives at home would find out what was happening, before Norman Mailer would be writing "Why are We in Vietnam?"

FACT   2    In 1972, at time the Watergate, E. Howard Hunt was employed by the White House to forge secret State Department papers. The sole purposes of this procedure was to distort history and make the late President Kennedy responsible for the assassination of Ngo Dinh Diem, president of South Vietnam. There would be attempts to blame Kennedy for the assassination plot against Fidel Castro, in spite of massive evidence to the contrary.

For all who remembered Kennedy kindly, who complained about his assassination, history was being arranged with a scissors and scotch tape.

Kennedy would come out a scummy killer himself.

This wasn't taking place in some strange office, or dark cellar, but in the same White House offices where Nixon was screaming "Manson did it."

 If President Nixon went to so much trouble to identify murder with an innocent man like Kennedy, there is every reason to believe his hatred of anti-war hippies and their folk-rock musicians could also be identified with murder. Make them all look violent. Bring it all down.

 FACT   3    In 1969, the combined agencies of the CIA, Army, and FBI, were put into full operational use. The Sharon Tate-La Bianca murders happened August, 1969.

  The Altamont violence and filmed movie was Dec. 6, 1969.

  CIA    The CIA prepared for defense against American youth unrest in 1965, the same year as Camelot and Politica.

  With full knowledge of their illegal activities, they joined forces with the CIA and the Army.

 By August 1967, Special Operations group went after the youth. By July, 1968, Operation Chaos, identical to Chilean "Chaos," went after the "Restless Youth." This wasn't a study. It was an attack.

 Mid-summer of 1969, one month before the Manson Family massacres, Operation Chaos went into the most tight security of any assignment ever accomplished inside the CIA.

 From 1956-63, they had perfected enough LSD to cause every violent act or symptom associated with the violence in Los Angeles or at Altamont.

 It was identical to giving poison candy at Halloween. LSD was the moving force, the cause for the Sharon Tate-La Bianca slaughters. It was fed at the Spahn ranch for a steady diet.

LSD was the moving force behind Altamont killing and violence Dec. 6, 1969. Thousands of tablets were distributed to the Hell's Angels, who then went totally berserk and started cracking skulls.

FBI    May, 1964, after the JFK assassination, the FBI formed their COINTELPRO, counterintelligence program.

    July, 1968, explicit orders went out to proceed, accompanied with instructions, to neutralize segments of our society, including those restless youth.

    By 1969, the SSS, Special Services Staff of the FBI, combined with the Justice Department, and with CIA's Operation Chaos.

    August, 1969, was the Sharon Tate-La Bianca slaughter.

    December 6, 1969, was the Altamont concert of the Rolling Stones.

 ARMY    The Army began their chemical testing of LSD, the youth drug, in 1956, the same year they were planning Politica and Camelot in Cambridge, Mass.

 Contracts for testing LSD and chemical agents continued through 1975.

 January 21, 1969, the army reported "the LSD tests are rewarding. It is recommended that the actual application of LSD be utilized in real situations on an experimental basis."

 Acid was distributed, surreptitiously, to large masses of the population. It was the chemical that was to link Helter Skelter and Gimme Shelter with blood and gore.

FACT  4    There is more to the creation of the Manson Family, and their direction than has yet been exposed.

 There is more to the making of the movie Gimme Shelter than has been explained.

 This saga has inter-connecting links to all the beautiful people Robert Hall was associated with.

 The Manson Family and the Hell's Angels were instruments by which enemy forces could attack and discredit hippies and critical American youth who had dropped out of the establishment.

  The violence came down from Neo-Nazi racists, adorned with Swastikas both in L.A. and in the Bay Area at Altamont.

 The blame was placed on persons not even associated with the causes of death at all.

  When it was all over, the Beatles and the Rolling Stones were the icing on this cake, this presentation, to rub musicians into a racist, neo-nazi plot.

  By rearranging the facts, cutting here and there, distorting evidence, neighbors and family feared their own youth wandering through the communities.

 Charles Manson made the cover of Life, with those wide eyes, like Rasputin.

 Charles Watson didn't make the cover. Why not? He participated in all the killings. Manson wasn't inside the house. Because Manson played a guitar and made records. Watson didn't.

 Charles Watson was too busy taking care of matters, at the lawyer's office prior to the killings, or with officials of the Young Republicans.

  What were Watson's protections in Texas, where he remained until his separate trial prevented him from being psychologically linked to all the deaths he actually committed?

  "Pigs" was written in Sharon Tate's house in blood. Was this to make blacks become targets and suspects for stalking white territory?

  Credit cards of the La Bianca family were purposely deposited in the black ghetto after their massacre. The intention was to stir racial fears and hatred.

    Who wrote the first article, "Did Hate Kill Tate?", blaming the Black Panthers for the murders? Army intelligence agent Ed Butler, Lee Harvey Oswald's old pal from New Orleans. They made a record together so that Oswald could pass himself off as a Marxist. Another deception.

  Glasses were left on the floor of Sharon Tate's home the day of the murder. They were never identified.

  Who moved all the bodies after the killers left and before the police arrived?

 The Spahn ranch wasn't a hippie commune. It bordered the Krupp ranch, and has now been combined and incorporated to make a German Bavarian beer garden. Howard Hughes knew George Spahn. He went to this ranch daily while making The Outlaw.

 Howard Hughes bought the 516 acres of Krupp property in Nevada after he moved into that territory. What about Altamont? What distortions and untruths forced that movie?

  Why did Mick Jagger order "the concert must go on"?

 There was a demand the filmmakers be allowed to catch this concert. It couldn't have happened the same in any other state.

The Hell's Angels had a long working relationship with some of the law enforcement, particularly in the Oakland area.

They became heroes of the S. F. Chronicle and other papers when they physically assaulted the dirty anti-war hippies protesting the shipment of arms to Vietnam.

The laboratory for choice LSD, the kind brought to England for the Stones, came from the Bay Area and could be consumed easily by this crowd attending their free love-in.

Persons at the concert said there was "a compulsiveness to the event." It had to take place.

Melvin Belli, Jack Ruby's lawyer, made the legal arrangements. Ruby had complained that Belli had prohibited him from telling the full story on why he killed Lee Harvey Oswald. (another media event) There are so many layers of cover-up, and there are just so many persons whose names reappear, only in different scripts.

Sen. Philip Hart, a member of the Senate Committee investigating illegal intelligence operations inside the USA, claimed that his children were telling him all these things were happening. He had refused to believe them. The Senator felt it was his obligation to defend his country rather than look at the evidence.

November 18, 1975, Sen. Hart realized matters were not only out of hand, but that the past has to be made believable in order to prevent the same things happening over and over again.

The trick now is for this committee to be able to figure out how to persuade the people of this country that indeed it will go on. And how shall we insure that it will never happen again? But it will happen repeatedly, unless we can bring ourselves to understand and accept that it did go on.
Senate Hearings, Vol. 6, p. 41

Meanwhile, it still does go on. Flo and Eddie, the musical group formed after the Turtles, had to cancel their fully booked one year tour of the U.S. and Britain.

Their lead guitarist either fell or was pushed from a ninth-floor hotel room of the Salt Lake City Hilton.

First notice of this murder appeared November 9, 1976, in a small column from the S.F. Chronicle.

 John Austin wrote "the accident has not yet been reported, as the gendarmes are trying to keep the lid on it."

  A few days before, their manager, Jim Taylor, was threatened.
  There were hints the syndicate might be taking over the pop music business.
  Was that the next process, once the counter-culture was removed?


1. Department of the Army, Office of the Inspector General, Washington, D.C. Declassified March, 1976.

  U.S. "Use of Volunteers in Chemical Agent Research" Chapter IX Intelligence Corps Experimentation with Hallucinogenic Drugs, pages 135-147.
  Chapter X, Contracts with Civilian Institutions, pages 152-166. "Use of Volunteers in Chemical Agent Research."
  Attachment "C" U.S. Army pages 212-247 Contracts for testing Chemical Agent Research. Section III, Contract Costs 1950-1975.

2. Intelligence Activities. Book I, April 26, 1976 Foreign and Military Intelligence.
3. Senate Committee to Study Government Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities, Book II, April 26, 1976 Intelligence Activities and the Rights of Americans.
4. Report to the President by the Commission on CIA Activities Within the United States. June 1975. Rockefeller Report.
  Scaduto, Tony, Mick Jagger, David McKay, New York, 1974.
  Friedman, Myra, Janis Joplin, Buried Alive, Bantam, New York, 1973.

Dept. of the Army, Office of the Inspector General and Auditor General, Released March     1976.
Chronology of U.S. Army Intelligence, U.S. Chemical Corps Experiments on LSD, Code name EA 1729.
 LSD considered by Army as method for interrogation, and also for defense against enemy interrogation
May 1956
 Page 136, Army Report. "All beverages served to volunteers had included sufficient LSD, EA 1729, for effective dosage, or additional dosage administering before volunteering."
 Tests included many other chemicals. Also included LSD on electrode implants. Doses as high as 1600 micrograms, normal LSD, street level, 160 micrograms.
March 1958
 Used on memory impairment, motor reactions, affects upon isolation, stress under LSD.
Jan. 21, 1959
Jan. 8, 1960
Dec. 1960
April 28, 1961
 Overseas "testing," LSD. Causing mental diseases, not recognized by physicians, to get diagnosis to discredit.
July 1961
Feb. 1962
  Hawaii military bases, LSD experiments
April 19, 1963
 No records of "volunteers"
Existing records "incomplete"
Most records "totally inadequate"
Foreign and Military Intelligence
Book I. April 26, 1976
Senate Committee to Study Governmental Operations With Respect to Intelligence Activities.
 1947, same year Nazi doctors brought to USA, continued their tests and experiments.
 For the purpose of interrogation.
 Sodium Pentathol Injections, hypnosis Purpose; erase memory, create double, triple personalities, resist torture, conduct covert operations without memory later.
 Death of Dr. Harold Blauer
 Injections of Synthetic Mescaline Derivative. U.S. Chemical Corp. NY State Psychiatric Inst.
 To be used by Technical Services Division. Make sure complete predictability of results. Toxins, shellfish, poison darts, pills, Biological weapons. Drugs to silence animals. Worked with the Army from 1952.
 Electroshock   electrode implants 
 Psychology   LSD + electrodes  psychiatry
 "10 years of tests," then operational. Tested all social levels of society. Native Americans, wide variety of persons used. Army Hospitals. Vacaville Prison, Calif. Lexington, Ky. National Institute of Mental Health.
 Allen Dulles 100,000,000 LSD 
 Millions of Dollars 
 Universities, pharmaceutical houses, hospitals. State, Federal institutions. 
 Special and unique items for dissemination. Combined MKULTRA with Army, Projects Derby Hat, Project Third Chance. 
 Dec. 1963
Intelligence Activities and the Rights of Americans
Book II, April 26, 1976
Senate Committee to Study Governmental Operations With Respect to Intelligence Activities
1964, May
July 1968
 ORDERS FROM FBI HEADQUARTERS: INSTRUCTIONS FOR OPERATIONS Selected "enemy" were to be 1) exposed 2) disrupted
3) neutralized.
 Gather information on their immorality.
 Show them as scurrilous and depraved.
 Call attention to their habits and living conditions.
 Explore every possible ...
Was John Lennon Killed for his Pot Activism?
By David Malmo-Levine - Thursday, June 15 2006

The mystery behind his life and death is thoroughly explored

John Lennon in `How I Won the War,` 1967

"You'd just have to be as strong as they are and show - make them prove they are experts, and don't let it lie once the thing's out. Get on and push and push on every TV, radio, everything you've got and keep the questions going. Don't let it hang in a report and leave it."
- John Lennon, December 22nd 1969, testifying in favor of cannabis legalization at Canada's Royal (LeDain) Commission(1)

"Yoko Ono and John Lennon spent a weekend at my house in Watsonville... In the evening we smoked a combination of marijuana and opium, sitting on pillows in front of the fireplace, sipping tea, munching cookies. We talked about Mae Brussell's theory that the deaths of musicians like Jimi Hendrix, Janis Joplin, and Jim Morrison had actually been political assassinations because they were role models on the crest of the youth rebellion. 'No, no,' Lennon argued, 'they were already headed in a self-destructive direction.' A few months later, he would remind me of that conversation and add, 'Listen, if anything happens to Yoko and me, it was not an accident.'"

- Paul Krassner, writing about a 1972 visit with John and Yoko(2)

Although there is no absolute proof that John Lennon was killed because he was an outspoken proponent of the legalization of cannabis, there is ? to borrow a term from law enforcement officials ? a "constellation of evidence" pointing to that conclusion. In order to convince any rational person that there is a probability (or even possibility) that John Lennon was killed by the powers-that-be for being a pot activist, one would have to present compelling evidence:

1) That the powers-that-be are in the habit of monitoring, persecuting and assassinating people like Lennon ? writers and musicians ? for their outspokenness on drug-war related issues;

2) That Lennon was a lover of cannabis and a vocal proponent of legalization;

3) That the powers-that-be targeted and harassed Lennon; and

4) That Mark David Chapman was a programmed assassin, a "Manchurian Candidate" who had help from outside sources. Admittedly, Lennon may have been assassinated for other reasons; however I'm certain that, by the end of this article, more than a few readers will begin to doubt the official story that a crazed fan simply wanted to "kill the phony".

Everybody's Got Something to Hide

"I don't smoke pot, and I'm glad because then I can champion it without any special pleading. The reason I don't smoke pot is because it facilitates ideas and heightens sensations. And I got enough shit flying through my head without smoking pot."

 Lenny Bruce(3)

Many famous drug peace writers and artists had Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) files established. Early psychonaut and drug peace proponent Aldous Huxley, author of The Doors Of Perception, was one of them. His file had 130 pages.(4) Lenny Bruce, whose cannabis activist credentials have been firmly established (see Cannabis Culture #53), was busted numerous times for obscenity and possession of narcotics. One of his charges was for a prescribed drug, and a later bust was rumored to have been a set up by the police.(5) As with Lennon, Bruce's drug crime record was how Hoover justified his FBI file.(6) Bruce's official cause of death in 1966 was an overdose of morphine. The often-repeated general consensus first articulated by Phil Spector shortly after Bruce's death was, however, that he really died of "an overdose of police."

Allen Ginsberg also was subject to FBI observation and harassment. Ginsberg had been involved with some of the first cannabis protests in the USA. The FBI made sure his poems were kept off the radio, and labeled him as "potentially dangerous".(7) The Federal Narcotics Bureau attempted to frame Ginsberg on a marijuana charge, and put pressure on recently arrested musician Jack Martin for that purpose. Even the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) kept tabs on Ginsberg.(Cool The CIA was watching Tim Leary, an early pioneer of drug peace and drug freedom, as early as 1960.(9) In 1964 Leary co-authored, with Ralph Metzner, The Psychedelic Experience. John Lennon took inspiration from that book, and words from the introduction, for his psychedelic song Tomorrow Never Knows.(10)

Leary helped to start an organization called IFIF (International Federation for Internal Freedom). He was later busted for cannabis, which resulted in the Marijuana Tax Act to be ruled unconstitutional by the Supreme Court for violating the Fifth Amendment (against self-incrimination). Leary decided to run for governor of California against Ronald Reagan in 1970, but was busted for hashish and LSD, and sentenced to 30 years in jail.(11) Leary, a former Harvard professor, had a killer smile and personable manner that made him difficult to demonize. Leary was arrested by Nixon's "dirty tricks" goto guy, G. Gordon Liddy, during a 1966 raid on his Millbrook estate. Nixon would say to his advisors that Leary was "the most dangerous man in America."

Dana Beal ? Yippie leader, ibogaine proponent, originator of the "smoke-in", organizer of today's Global Marijuana March and pot activist since the 1960's ? was the target of FBI informants and agents of harassment. As a result of his activism, Beal was repeatedly arrested on cannabis-related charges. Activist Jerry Rubin suggested that Beal "was such an important symbol that local and Federal law enforcement agencies specifically sought to catch him dealing in drugs."(12) High Times' founding publisher Tom Forcade was harassed by FBI informant, Julie Maynard, and falsely accused of dealing heroin in a poster that fellow activists were encouraged to distribute.(13) According to Dana Beal's website, Forcade was "hounded by the DEA" up to the end of his life, when he apparently shot himself in October of 1978.(14)

Happiness is a Warm Gun

"You know, we are humorous. We are Laurel and Hardy. That's John and Yoko. We stand a better chance under that guise, because all the serious people, like Martin Luther King, and Kennedy, and Gandhi, got shot."

? John Lennon(15)

For those of you who doubt John Lennon's belief that "serious people" get shot by the establishment, there's plenty of proof available. In 1960, the CIA derived its authority to conduct assassinations from President Eisenhower, using the euphemism "executive action" when referring to such activities. The assassination team was hidden within a larger program of burglaries, kidnapping and code-breaking codenamed ?ZR/RIFLE'.(16) In the book The Great Heroin Coup, journalist Henrik Kruger writes: "Assassination, it can be argued, became a modus operandi under Richard Nixon... The White House appears to have sponsored a secret assassination program under cover of drug enforcement. It was continued by the DEA, which seemingly overlapped with the CIA in political, rather than drug, enforcement."(17)

In a deposition to the court in Hunt vs. Weberman, on September 30th 1980, G. Gordon Liddy described the plan to kill syndicated columnist Jack Anderson: "I suggested the only way to stop Mr. Anderson was to kill him. Mr. Hunt and Dr. Gunn agreed. The remainder of the conversation consisted of how we ought to do it best. The conclusion was that the Cuban assets were to stage a mugging in Washington which would be fatal to Anderson."(18)

One recently declassified CIA document, a letter from an Agency consultant to a CIA officer, states: "You will recall that I mentioned that the local circumstances under which a given means might be used, might suggest the technique to be used in that case. I think the gross divisions in presenting this subject might be: 1) bodies left with no hope of the cause of death being determined by the most complete autopsy and chemical examinations; 2) bodies left in such circumstances as to simulate accidental death; 3) bodies left in such circumstances as to simulate suicidal death; 4) bodies left with residue that simulate those caused by natural diseases."(19)

Even though some surface reforms were instituted in the mid-seventies, George Bush Sr. (head of the CIA in 1976) and William Webster (who ran the CIA from mid-1987 to mid-1991) had both claimed a need to again target political enemies of the U.S. for assassination.(20)

Have You Seen The Little Piggies "If it was up to me, there wouldn't be no such thing as the establishment."

? Jimi Hendrix(21)

"COINTELPRO was out to obliterate its opposition and ruin the reputations of the people involved in the antiwar movement, the civil rights movement, and the rock revolution. Whenever Jimi Hendrix's death is blamed on drugs, it accomplishes the goals of the FBI's program. It not only slanders Jimi's personal and professional reputation, but the entire rock revolution in the 60's."

? John Holmstrom, Who Killed Jimi?, Lions Gate Media Works(22)

Jimi Hendrix was a rebel who had a reputation for enjoying LSD and cannabis on a regular basis, and singing about it in his extremely popular songs. Are you experienced? and Purple Haze could easily be viewed as passionate endorsements of psychedelics and marijuana. On tour in Liesburg, Sweden, Hendrix was quoted as saying "In the USA, you have to decide which side you're on... you are either a rebel or like Frank Sinatra."(23) Hendrix was suspicious of his manager Mike Jeffrey, an "ex" intelligence agent with underworld connections. Hendrix's girlfriend Monika Dannemann, a nurse who was with him when he died, made this comment regarding Hendrix's famous ?heroin bust': "In May 1969 Jimi was arrested at Toronto for possession of drugs. He later told me he believed Jeffrey had used a third person to plant the drugs on him ? as a warning, to teach him a lesson."(24)

In 1979, college students filed for release of FBI files on Hendrix. The file revealed that Hendrix had been placed on the federal "Security Index", a list of "subversives" to be rounded up and placed in detainment camps in the event of a national emergency.(25) Many of Hendrix's friends, lovers and associates suspect foul play surrounding his death. Many researchers feel that Jimi died from being forced to drink red wine until he drowned, citing (the surgical registrar) Dr. Bannister's report that "masses of red wine were coming out of his nose and out of his mouth."(26) There is no evidence to support the much-repeated rumor that he died of a heroin overdose.

The more people smoke herb, the more Babylon fall."
? Bob Marley

Bob Marley was no doubt a cannabis proponent, as are all Rastafarians. He sang the tune "Kaya" (a Jamaican term for herb), talked openly about cannabis use on many occasions, and was even buried with a bud of marijuana.(27)

He was also shot at by assassins. In November of 1976, a death squad armed with immense firepower sprayed Marley's home with bullets. Marley, his wife Rita and his manager Don Taylor were all hit and seriously wounded.(28) On December 5th of that year, during the "Smile Jamaica" festival concert, Bob was visited by Carl Colby, son of CIA director (1973-76) William Colby. Carl Colby brought a gift: a pair of boots. Marley put his foot in and was poked in the big toe by a length of copper wire. He later got cancer of the toe, which spread to the rest of his body and eventually killed him.(29) Just in case anybody out there doesn't believe that cancer can be used as a weapon like that, just type in "Special Cancer Virus Program" into Google and begin your education into US domestic biological war.(30)

At first, Marley said he would use cannabis as his medicine to combat the cancer, rejecting Western medicine and the option of amputating his toe. Later on, he was treated by Dr. Josef Issels in Bavaria... up to his death. Dr. Issels was a member of the Nazi Party in Germany in the Hitler regime and was a Nazi Party doctor assigned to the eastern front. It appears that Dr. Issels did nothing but torture Marley in his dying days, cutting off his dreadlocks, denying him food and giving him painful injections (a treatment similar to experiments done at Auschwitz). Devon Evans, who played with the Wailers, visited Marley often and said "they're killing him". It's rumored that Dr. Issels he greeted Marley by saying "I hear that you're one of the most dangerous black men in the world."(31)

"I see everything that is deadly upon creation invented, arranged to assassinate those that speak the truth."

? Peter Tosh, from the film Stepping Razor: Red X

"And when Tosh went, there was nothing random about it. Witnesses and friends insist that he was a political hit. They are convinced that Tosh was killed for his statements on human rights, black liberation and the legalization of marijuana."

? Alex Constantine, The Covert War Against Rock(32)

Peter Tosh was perhaps the most vocal and militant of all pot activists. His 1975 song Legalize It became the pot activist's #1 anthem, and he was rumored to smoke two pounds of bud per week! Police beat up Tosh on many occasions, once for grabbing a roach back and blowing the contents out into the wind.(33) He was shot dead by three supposed "thieves" at his house on September 19th 1987. According to one eyewitness, nothing was stolen from the house. According to another, one of the gunmen said "Peter... You go dead tonight. Me come to kill you."(34) Wayne Johnson, producer of the biographical Red X Tapes, cites an unnamed official of the Jamaican government who told him that one of the gunmen was a police officer. There was a hurried investigation that ignored critical leads, and the two gunmen ? who looked "clean-cut", "professional" and "not local" ? were never found.(35)

If I Ain't Dead Already

When Hunter S. Thompson, famous gonzo journalist, killed himself on February 20th 2005, he was apparently working on a story about the World Trade Center attacks as he felt there was hard evidence showing the towers had been brought down not by the airplanes, but by explosive charges set off in their foundations. At the time of his death, he was talking calmly to his wife on the phone about his next column for

There is an impressive list of drugpeace writers and songwriters who died of suspicious or abnormal suicide. Phil Ochs (who wrote the pot activist anthem A Small Circle of Friends), Hunter S. Thompson (who ran for sheriff of Pitkin County, Colorado in 1970 and used his platform to speak out against the marijuana laws), Gary Webb (who exposed CIA drug running in his book Dark Alliance), Daniel "Danny" Casolaro (who investigated the BCCI [Bank of Credit and Commerce International] and Iran Contra scandals)... even the great Abbie Hoffman (author of Steal This Urine Test) left debate over whether he was "suicided" or not (his brother Jack, and Paul Krassner think not, but son Andrew suspects foul play). There's no room to go into the specifics of their strange suicides, but the information is out there.(37)

The Lennon`s New York arrival disturbed Nixon, the FBI and the INS

I'd Love To Turn You On

"If people can't face up to the fact of other people being naked or smoking pot, then we're never going to get anywhere" ? John Lennon, Penthouse, Oct. 1969(38)

"...We had an answer to Britain's problem. It was to legalize pot and let homosexuals marry and Britain would be the richest nation on earth. It's as simple as that."

? John Lennon, speaking to the Canadian Royal (LeDain) Commission, December 22nd 1969(39)

Most sources claim John Lennon was introduced to cannabis by journalist Al Aronowitz and Bob Dylan on August 28th 1964.(40) One account of the last days of Lennon's life has him smoking pot as late as August of 1980.(41) Lennon considered cannabis to be a tool of inspiration and a gift from the gods right up until the last
year of his life. In 1980, he commented on his inspiration for the backward sound effects in the song Rain: "That one was the gift of God ? of Jah, actually, the god of marijuana. Jah gave me that one. The first backwards tape on my record anywhere. Before Hendrix, before The Who, before any f**ker."(42)

In the article To Smoke or Not to Smoke: A Cannabis Odyssey by Dr. Lester Grinspoon, a similar endorsement of cannabis's inspirational powers was related to the famous pot-activist doctor by John: "I told John... how cannabis appeared to make it possible for me to ?hear' his music for the first time in much the same way that Allen Ginsberg reported that he had ?seen' Cezanne for the first time when he purposely smoked cannabis before setting out for the Museum of Modern Art. John was quick to reply that I had experienced only one facet of what marijuana could do for music, that he thought it could be very helpful for composing and making music as well as listening to it."(43)

But John Lennon's activism was more than just saying nice things about pot. In April of 1967, Rolling Stone Keith Richards had been found guilty of permitting his house to be used for the smoking of marijuana and sentenced to one year in jail and a fine of ?500. Mick Jagger, found guilty of the illegal possession of amphetamine on the same occasion, was sentenced to three months in jail and a ?200 fine. They both spent one night in jail, and once free on bail, they decided to record a song about their experience. John Lennon and Paul McCartney decided to sing in the chorus, providing a little help for their friends. The song was called We Love You, and opened with the sound of footsteps and a prison door slamming.(44)

On July 24th 1967, the Beatles took out a full-page ad in the Sunday Times with "THE LAW AGAINST MARIJUANA IS IMMORAL IN PRINCIPLE AND UNWORK ABLE IN PRACTICE" in bold, large-font letters at the top of the page. Beneath that, the wise words of the rationalist Baruch Spinoza from his 1677 Political Treatise followed: "All laws which can be violated without doing anyone any injury are laughed at. Nay, so far are they from doing anything to control the desires and passions of many that, on the contrary, they direct and incite men's thoughts towards those very objects; for we always strive toward what is forbidden and desire the things we are not allowed to have. And men of leisure are never deficient in the ingenuity needed to enable them to outwit laws framed to regulate things which cannot be entirely forbidden... He who tries to determine everything by law will foment crime rather than lessen it."

Some other quotes were included in the ad: "(It is) worth considering... giving cannabis the same status as alcohol by legalizing its import and consumption... Besides the undoubted attraction of reducing, for once, the number of crimes a member of our society can commit, and of allowing the wider spread of something that can give pleasure, a greater revenue would certainly come to the State from taxation than from fines... Additional gains might be the reduction of inter-racial tension, as well as that between generations." ? The Lancet, November 9th 1963

"There are no long lasting ill-effects from the acute use of marijuana and no fatalities have ever been recorded. There seems to be growing agreement within the medical community, at least, that marijuana does not directly cause criminal behavior, juvenile delinquency, sexual excitement, or addiction." ? Dr. J. H. Jaffe, The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, L. Goodman and A Gillman, eds. 3rd edn. 1965

"The available evidence shows that marijuana is not a drug of addiction and has no harmful effects... [the problem of marijuana] has been created by an illinformed society rather than the drug itself." ? Guy's Hospital Gazette, 1967

The ad also contained a petition, which read: "The signatories to this petition suggest to the Home Secretary that he implement a five-point programme of cannabis law reform: 1) The government should permit and encourage research into all aspects of cannabis use, including its medical applications; 2) Allowing the smoking of cannabis on private premises should no longer constitute an offense; 3) Cannabis should be taken off the dangerous drugs list and controlled, rather than prohibited, by a new ad hoc instrument; 4) Possession of cannabis should either be legally permitted or at most be considered a misdemeanor, punishable by a fine of not more than 10 pounds for a first offense and not more than 25 pounds for any subsequent offense; and 5) All persons now imprisoned for possession of cannabis or for allowing cannabis to be smoked on private premises should have their sentences commuted."

The petition was signed by the Beatles as well as sixty-one of the leading names in British society, including Nobel laureate Francis Crick (co-discoverer of the DNA molecule), novelist Graham Greene, scientist Francis Huxley, and various Members of Parliament.(45) The advertisement was debated in the British House of Commons. Minister of State Alice Bacon in Parliament claimed 97 per cent of heroin addicts ?started on cannabis' (statistics which she appeared to have made up) and blamed the use of cannabis and LSD on the importation of negro music and Indian spirituality.(45A)

Nonetheless, the full-page ad kickstarted a three-year process that ultimately saw penalties for marijuana possession reduced in the UK. Lennon's pot activism wasn't limited to England. Drug-peace activist Tim Leary's 1970 campaign for governor of California had a campaign slogan: ?Come Together, Join The Party'. Lennon's White Album song Come Together was his donation to the campaign, arising from Leary's slogan.(46) Lennon also came to Canada in December of 1969 to speak on behalf of the legalization of cannabis at the Royal (LeDain) Commission on Cannabis & Non- Medicinal Drugs. He spoke for nearly two hours. Lennon's testimony is fascinating, and is available online for those who are curious.(47)

On Friday, December 10th 1971, John and Yoko hosted the "Free John Sinclair" concert in the Chrysler Arena in Ann Arbor, Michigan, with 15,000 people in attendance. John Sinclair was a ?White Panther' and cannabis activist facing ten years in prison for two joints. Chicago 7 lawyer William Kunstler sent a tape recording of his voice to be played at the concert. Kunstler spoke about John Sinclair, saying, "His harsh sentence dramatizes the absurdity of our marijuana laws which are irrational, unjust and indefensible. Recently the National Institute of Mental Health submitted to the Congress its 176 page report ?Marijuana and Health', which comes to the conclusion that, quote, ?For the bulk of smokers, marijuana does not seem to be harmful', end quote. Yet it is made a crime in every state with penalties ranging in severity from life to six months in jail. On the other hand, conventional cigarettes can be legally sold as long as they bear a legend on the package that they can cause serious illness or death..."(48) Then, after a few speakers, it was Lennon's turn. "This song, I wrote for John Sinclair," he said. "Okay, ?John Sinclair', nice and easy now. Sneaky.

One, two
One, two, three, four
It ain't fair, John Sinclair
In the stir for breathing air
Won't you care for John Sinclair
In the stir for breathing air
Let him be, set him free
Let him be like you and me
They gave him ten for two...
What else can Judge Columba do?
We gotta, gotta ... gotta set him free
If he was a soldier man
Shooting gooks in Vietnam
If he was the CIA
Selling dope and making hay
He'd be free, they'd let him be
Free the man like you and me
They gave him ten for two...
What else can Judge Columba do?
We gotta, gotta ... gotta set him free
They gave him ten for two
And they got [inaudible], too
We gotta, gotta ... gotta set him free
Was he jailed for what he'd done?
Or representing everyone?
Free John now, if we can
From the clutches of the man
Let him be. Lift the lid.
Bring him to his wife and kid..."(49)

`The Pope Smokes Dope,` by David Peel

Notice the lyric about the "CIA, selling dope and making hay"? Interestingly enough, that line was missing from the written version in Lennon's FBI file ? "CIA" was replaced by "flying man", but in their written version Lennon also mentions Nixon, Rockefeller and Agnew.(50)

Lennon's actions on behalf of Sinclair had tangible results ? Sinclair was released three days after the concert.(51) The results weren't all positive, though. President Nixon had deportation proceedings against Lennon initiated the moment he heard about the concert.(52) A few months after the concert, Nixon's assassination expert Gordon Liddy and "ex" CIA agent E. Howard Hunt suggested to Nixon's Attorney General John Mitchell that peace demonstrators at the upcoming Republican National Convention (which Lennon at one time planned to attend) should be mugged, kidnapped and deported. Mitchell decided to ignore this advice, instead going with their second plan ? to bug the Democratic Party Headquarters at the Watergate Hotel.(53)

Does It Worry You To Be Alone?

"...And there's this banging on the window, I thought, oh, they've got me, you know, not the police, but whoever it is that's trying to get me."

? John Lennon, speaking about the pot bust seven months earlier, during the British Television interview ?How Late It Is', BBC1, May 2nd 1969(54)

John Lennon's nearly 300-page FBI file and almost entirely unreleased CIA file were probably started in August of 1966, right after he began speaking out against the Vietnam War.(55) On October 18th 1968 in Britain, John and his new girlfriend, Yoko Ono, had been arrested and charged with possession of 1.5 ounces of marijuana. Two weeks before the bust, Lennon had been warned that the police were out to get him because he was a "loudmouth". As a precaution, he had (as he put it) "cleaned the house out [of drugs]."

Nevertheless, marijuana was found by the police. According to Lennon, he had been set up. His opinion is backed up by the fact that the arresting officer was later sentenced to two years in prison for planting evidence in other cases. In order that Ono would not be charged, Lennon copped a plea. Charges against Ono were dropped and Lennon was fined and found guilty of "an offense of moral turpitude." (56)

Money For People With Minds That Hate

In 1968, the FBI's COINTELPRO (counterintelligence program) project merged with the CIA to form ?Operation Chaos', an operation ag ainst "prominent persons"(57), "political dissidents"(58), and "restless youth"(59), which involved monitoring, subterfuge, and sometimes "selective assassinations".(60)

One of the tactics of Operation Chaos was to "Provoke target groups into rivalries that resulted in deaths."(61) It had connections with the ?Plumbers', a band of "rogue" Republicans (including assassination expert Gordon Liddy) that would later get busted at Watergate.(62) Operation Chaos was J. Edgar Hoover's aggressive plan to destabilize the Black Panthers, Weathermen, anti-war groups, activist groups, cannabis activists, and hundreds of other organizations through assassination, drug planting, harassment, wiretapping, surveillance. The Black Panthers lost over 200 leaders, almost all killed under questionable circumstances, in seven years of Operation Chaos.

According to researcher Mae Brussell, the Manson murders were par t of Operation Chaos. Operation Chaos had gone into super-secret "no-paper-trail" mode by the middle of 1969, exactly when the Manson Family murders were to have begun.(63) Another source claims Charles Manson "served as a police informant for years".(64) It was well known that Manson was introduced to both guitar and Scientology (mind control) during his last stay in prison.(65) It was less well known that right before being let out into the summer of love, he met with (RFK assassin/ patsy) Sirhan Sirhan's lawyer(66) and was given a black Volkswagon bus and a credit card (perhaps even some CIA-made LSD) in what looks like an exchange for a promise to associate the Black Panthers and/or the Beatles with murder and terror.(67)

Manson began to take up all the headline space in early December of 1969, within days of the FBI murder of Black Panther Fred Hampton. Thanks to lawyer/ author Vincent Bugliosi and his book Helter Skelter (which ignored establishment connections and focused on connections with the Beatle's White Album), everyone now associates Manson with the Beatles. Bugliosi's next book, due in May of 2007, will feature a defense of the "Oswald acted alone" theory of the JFK assassination.(68) In December 1975, George H. W. Bush faced the Senate Committee on Armed Services in hearings to determine if he was ethical enough to run the CIA. Bush told the Committee "This Agency must stay in the foreign intelligence business and not harass American citizens, like in Operation Chaos."(69) Coincidentally, it was in October 1975 that the New York Supreme Court decided that Lennon shouldn't be deported ? a decision which allowed him to become an American citizen.(70) One of the documents in Lennon's FBI file, half of which was blacked out, had the heading "CHAOS".(71)

Lennon and Chapman, his killer, Dec 8, 1980

When You Can't Really Function - You're So Full Of Fear

"I think it's wise to remember that for six years, he was hounded, not just because of some pot possession charge." ? Abbie Hoffman, speaking about John Lennon(72)

On April 23rd 1970, the FBI wrote, "While Lennon and the Harrisons have shown no propensity to become involved in violent antiwar demonstrations, each recipient (i.e. informant) remains alert for any information of such activity on their part or for information indicating they are using narcotics." The names of the informants mentioned in the notice are to this day blanked out.(73)

In December 1970, Elvis Presley met President Nixon at the White House. The meeting was about Presley wanting to "reach" the kids that were drifting into drugs. Presley had requested to be made a "Federal Agent-at-Large" in the Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs.(74) Presley explained that part of the problem was the Beatles, who "had been a real force for anti-American spirit".(75)

In January 1972, an FBI document was created mentioning Lennon had appeared with Jerry Rubin at a press conference. Written in huge, underlined capital letters were the words ALL EXTREMISTS SHOULD BE CONSIDERED DANGEROUS.(76) On April 21st 1972, another FBI document mentioned that the "New York City Police Department [is] currently attempting to develop enough information to arrest both Lennons for narcotic use."(77) At this time, Lennon was involved in radical music projects involving pot. In May of 1972 the John Lennon-produced album The Pope Smokes Dope, by anarchist NYC minstrel David Peel, was released. The album's lyrics were considered profane and controversial in many places, most certainly in the FBI and White House.

Cannabis Culture magazine asked David Peel about the existence of any photographs of Lennon smoking pot. Peel said, "I've never seen a photograph of John with a joint. John was definitely afraid of ever being photographed smoking pot. He felt that would give the FBI and Nixon and immigration all the evidence they needed to deport him. So he was actually nervous about being photographed with well-known pot activists of the day, and smoking pot in any public place. More than nervous, he avoided it. I have hundreds of Lennon photographs, and he certainly smoked pot, but to have a photograph of him pot smoking that could possibly be entered in court would have had dire consequences for John."

An FBI memo dated July 27th 1972 from the New York FBI office to acting FBI Director Gray suggested that it be "emphasized" to "local Law Enforcement Agencies" in Miami that Lennon should be "arrested if at all possible on possession of narcotics charge." The New York office provided a helpful explanation: "Local INS [Immigration and Naturalization Service] has very loose case in New York for deporting subject... if LENNON were to be arrested... he would become more likely to be immediately deportable." This memo sounds like a proposal to set Lennon up for a drug bust. The American Civil Liberties Union cited this passage as evidence that the FBI was engaged in an "abuse of its authority in order to neutralize dissent."(78)

The Way Things Are Going - They're Going To Crucify Me

"These pacifist revolutionaries are historically killed by the government... Anybody who thinks that Mark Chapman was just some crazy guy who killed my dad for his personal interests is insane, I think, or very naive"

? Sean Lennon(79)

Who was Mark David Chapman? The first and most outstanding fact is that Mark David Chapman wasn't a fan of Lennon or the Beatles. He owned no Beatles albums at the time of the shooting. He had only owned one album, 1964's Meet The Beatles, in his entire life!(80) So if not a "deranged fan", what was he?

Mark David Chapman was from Georgia and began working for the YMCA in 1969, when he was 14. In Philip Agee's book Inside the Company: CIA Diary, the YMCA is cited as a CIA front. Curiously, Chapman's employment record is missing from the headquarters of the organization.( 81) Seven years after being jailed for Lennon's murder, Chapman was still writing to YMCA directors.(82) In March of 1975, Chapman applied to go to the Soviet Union through a YMCA International Camp Counselor Program but he was turned down because he couldn't speak Russian. So he decided to go to Beirut ? a strange choice for a right-wing Christian, especially when one considers that the country had been experiencing shootings and massacres for months.(83) It was also known to have an "assassination school" and an experimental mind-control army unit allegedly involving Frank Terpil, Edwin Wilson, George Korkola, and Exorcist author William Peter Blatty.(84) Assassin George Habash and CIA assassination teams also operated from there(85) and on March 31st 1981, United Press International exposed "military training in a guerrilla camp" in Beirut with "worldwide Nazities".(86)

Returning from Beirut, Chapman worked at a YMCA camp for Vietnamese refugees in Fort Chaffee, Arkansas. Here, his lifelong friend Dana Reeves (AKA "Gene Scott"), the man who would later become a police officer and provide the bullets used to kill Lennon, would let Chapman play with his gun.(87) One Researcher argues that the Fort Chaffee camp was run by World Vision, a group notorious for involvement in mind control and assassination, and run by John Hinkley Sr., the father of the man who shot Ronald Reagan. World Vision is currently in charge of repopulating Jonestown, Guyana ? the location of another mindcontrol program that ended in the death of innocent people.(88)

In 1976 Chapman reportedly ended his employment with the YMCA and took a job as a security guard on the recommendation of Dana Reeves.(89) Chapman moved to Hawaii in 1977, staying at the YMCA hostel in Honolulu. Sources conflict, but some say he felt suicidal. One source says Chapman checked himself into the Waikiki Mental Health Clinic(90) but most accounts state Chapman checked into Castle Memorial Hospital.(91) After he finished his therapy, he continued to work at the hospital under the supervision of psychologist Leilani Siegfried.(92) Some say Castle Memorial was a site for CIA mind-control experiments.(93) According to more than one source, Hawaii, like Beirut, is home to a US intelligence top-secret assassination training camp.(94)

In 1978, with "a modest loan from the hospital credit union,"(95) Chapman embarked on a six-week world tour including some of the most expensive cities and exotic locations: Tokyo, London, Geneva ? to meet with his old YMCA boss David Moore(96) ? India, Nepal, Bangkok, Hong Kong, Korea, China, Vietnam, Iran, then Atlanta to visit his cop friend Dana Reeves before returning to Honolulu... to marry his travel agent.(97) Chapman's tour would dovetail with John Lennon's own world tour in three places: Tokyo, London and Honolulu.(98)

On October 23rd 1980, Chapman signed out from work as a security guard for the last time ? writing "John Lennon" and then crossing it out. He sent a postcard to an Italian friend, giving Lennon's Dakota Hotel as a return address and mentioning a "mission" in New York.(99) The postcard was undeliverable to the friend in Italy, and was sent ?back' to Lennon's address. The postcard was later altered to be dated 1981 and with the "mission" mention removed.(100) It could have been altered by Lennon and Ono's personal assistant Fred Seaman ? who stole Lennon's diaries for raw material for his and Albert Goldman's character assassination books about him. Seaman's assistant, Robert Rosen, wrote "Dead Lennons = $$$$$" in his own diary.(101)

On October 27th, Chapman bought a gun: a Charter Arms .38-caliber Special. On the 30th he flew to New York, where he first stayed at the Waldorf Astoria, and later at the YMCA, then the Olcott Hotel a half-block from the Lennons' Dakota Hotel apartment. During this time Chapman discovered that he could not buy bullets without a gun permit.(102) The day after Reagan's electoral victory, Chapman flew off to Georgia for another visit with his friend police officer Reeves... to pick up five hollow-point bullets. On November 9th, Chapman took another plane (money was strangely no problem for the unemployed former security guard) to New York to hang around the Dakota for three days before flying back to Hawaii with the gun and the bullets.(103)

Chapman boarded yet another plane on December 2nd ? this time to Chicago, and with the gun and the bullets (airport security, like money, never seemed to be a problem). He arrived in New York on the 5th. His ticket was later altered to look like he flew straight to New York.(104) On the 8th of December, Chapman, according to most accounts, shot John Lennon. "I acted alone, I'm the only one," he said in answer to a question nobody had yet asked.(105) Coincidently, Ronald Reagan was meeting his new Chief of the CIA William Casey that night in New York City.(106)

One researcher, Salvador Astucia, makes an interesting argument that Chapman was standing to the right of Lennon when Lennon was shot, but the bullets seem to all enter from the left according to the autopsy report.(107) The researcher accuses the doorman Jose Jose Perdomo (Bay of Pigs veteran and friend of CIA assassin Frank Sturgis) of shooting Lennon, and Chapman being a mind-controlled patsy brainwashed into thinking he did it. But Astucia then goes on to blame an international Zionist conspiracy for the whole affair.(108) Strangely, this isn't the first time an "international Jewish conspiracy" was used to discredit research into John Lennon's death.(109)

Chapman pled "not guilty" and his court-appointed attorney Jonathan Marks added "by reason of insanity". By law, the defendant decides the plea.(110) The judge went ahead with Mark's attempt to verify Chapman's "insanity", hearing testimony from three psychiatrists: Dr. Milton Kline, Dr. Bernard Diamond, and Dr. Daniel Schwartz. Kline was a CIA consultant who once boasted that he was capable of creating a hypnosis-driven patsy in three months ? a mind controlled assassin in six.(111) Diamond, from the University of California in Berkeley (yet another mind control hotbed), also testified to the insanity of Sirhan Sirhan. And Schwartz also examined David ?Son of Sam' Berkowitz. As in Chapman's case, Schwartz stated that Berkowitz believed he had been commanded by ?demons' to kill.(112) Chapman was found to be sane by the courts.

To recap: He wasn't a fan. He wasn't an attention-seeker because he changed his plea to "guilty" (thus avoiding attention). No motive. No trial. No real investigation by the authorities.(113) In January of 1981, right-wing activist Lyndon LaRouche began collecting signatures supporting clemency and hero status of Chapman, because Lennon almost single-handedly "turned on" the planet to "illicit drugs". (114) Beginning the day after the assassination, there were numerous threats on Yoko Ono's life. Son Sean Lennon told Newsweek in 1996 "I grew up afraid someone was going to shoot my mom or me."(115)

Gimme Some Truth

"God, dammit, if you're gonna kill somebody have some f**king taste. I'll drive you to Kenny Roger's house, alright?"

? Bill Hicks, 1990, on John Lennon's untimely death(116)

John Lennon was more than just a rock star. He was called a revolutionist by Fidel Castro, when he unveiled a statue of Lennon in 2000, the 20th anniversary of his murder. In March 2002, his native city Liverpool honored his memory by renaming their airport "Liverpool John Lennon Airport". In the same year, the British public voted him 8th of the "100 Greatest Britons" poll run by the BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation). BBC History Magazine commented that his "generational influence is immense," and to coincide with Human Rights Day 2005, Amnesty International released four Lennon songs covered by contemporary musicians.(117) According to the Oxford Illustrated History of Britain: "The musical breakthrough effected in the early 1960s by the Beatles, a group of Liverpudlian youths, made Britain the harbinger of the supposedly ?permissive' society, in which drink and drugs were freely available, skirts spectacularly shorter, sexual restraint much less in evidence."(118)

Of course, the FBI tried to downplay Lennon's influence after his death, stating in a press release that John was "too stoned" to be any threat.(119) However, in December of 2005 the FBI announced it would appeal a federal court decision to release the last ten pages of Lennon's FBI file. Obviously, someone at the FBI still thinks the truth about Lennon is a threat, even 25 years after he was killed.(120) The CIA still won't release any of the possibly hundreds of pages in their Lennon file.(121)

The truth is, it was most certainly Lennon's endless legal hassles ? over the baggie of cannabis planted at his house in England ? and his desire to focus on his son Sean (born in 1975) that kept him from being a full-time revolutionary in the 70's.(122) Nobody knows what he would have really done in the 80's, but some argue he was about to begin his next round of activism.( 123) Considering he continued to puff what he called a "gift from Jah", thought legalization would solve many social problems, and advised Canadians to push for legalization, it's fair to say Lennon would have continued pot activism.

I believe Lennon was shot for his pot activism and not his peace, workers-rights, or any other activism. Cannabis prohibition is an enormous industry. Trillions of dollars are spent on synthetic drugs, synthetic fuels, synthetic fibers, synthetic plastics, synthetic foods, the building of prisons, the bloating of police budgets, etcetera... all would be threatened by cannabis re-legalization, and the "powers that be" know it. If you stop a war (like the Vietnam War or Iraq War) you just cut into the establishment's profits. But if you stop the Drug War, you threaten their entire existence.

The CIA and FBI will probably try to keep their documents hidden from public view forever, withholding the truth behind why Lennon was watched ? and perhaps even the truth behind why he was killed. But those files were paid for with public money; they belong to the American people. The release of those CIA and FBI files pose no threat to "National Security", only to the criminals who hounded a great spirit and wonderful musician and would like to continue hounding activists today.

We all owe it to John Lennon to refuse the word of "neurotic psychotic pig-headed politicians" and we owe it to ourselves, and our current and future activists, to do something. Americans should work hard to reform their political system into one in which it is impossible to spy on or assassinate harmless activists.

? This fall, a new documentary The United States vs. John Lennon will be released by Lions Gate Films. The movie, which has the support and cooperation of Yoko Ono and features many of the people quoted in this article, covers 1966 to 1976 and tells the story of John Lennon's transformation from beloved musical artist to anti-war, pro-pot activist and iconic inspiration for peace. It recounts the story of the US Government's efforts to silence him, and shows this was not just an isolated episode in American history ? the issues and struggles of that era remain relevant today. Be sure to see this documentary later this year!


2. Paul Krassner, Confessions of a Raving, Unconfined Nut, New York: Simon & Schuster, 1993, p. 214
4. Herbert Mitgang, Dangerous Dossiers, New York: Donald I. Fine, 1988, pp. 192, 194
7. Dangerous Dossiers, pp. 267-269
8. M.A. Lee & B. Shlain, Acid Dreams, New York: Grove Press, 1985, p. 226
9. Ibid, p. 80
11. Acid Dreams, p. 239
12. ?A Major Yippie Theorist Seized on Drug Charges?, NY Times, July 26, 1971, taken from: Yippie Book Collective, Blacklisted News, New York: Bleecker Publishing, 1983, p. 17. See also:
13. Blacklisted News, pp. 18-24
16. Douglas Valentine,The Strength of the Wolf ? The secret history of America?s War on Drugs, London: Verso, 2004, pp. 225-226 See also Joseph Trento, The Secret History of the CIA, Carroll & Graf, 2005, p. 193 17. Henrik Kruger, The Great Heroin Coup, Montreal: Black Rose, 1980, p.164 18. Alex Constantine, The Covert War Against Rock, Venice, California: Feral House, 2000, p.3
19. Jim Marrs, Crossfire, The Plot That Killed Kennedy, New York: Carroll & Graf, 1989, p. 557
20. See also Johnathan Vankin, Conspiracies, Cover-ups & Crimes, Lilburn, Georgia: Illuminet Press, 1996, pp. 181-184 John Ranelagh, The Agency, London: Cambridge Publishing, 1986, p. 533
21. and Notes/Covert War Against Rock.html
22. Ibid
23. Tony Brown, Hendrix: The Final Days, London: Rogan House, 1997, p. 43
24. Monika Dannemann, The Inner World of Jimi Hendrix, New York: St. Martin?s Press, 1995, pp. 76-78
25. and Notes/Covert War Against Rock.html
26. David Henderson, ?Scuse Me While I Kiss the Sky, New York: Bantam, 1996, pp. 392-393
28. Timothy White, Catch A Fire: The Life of Bob Marley, New York: Henry Holt, 1992, pp. 288-289
29. The Covert War Against Rock, pp. 135-136
31. The Covert War Against Rock, pp. 140-143
32. Ibid, pp. 143-144
33. Ibid, pp. 138-139
34. From the film ?Stepping Razor Red X?, Nicholas Campbell, 1992
35. The Covert War Against Rock, pp. 143-144
36. Globe and Mail, Saturday, February 26, 2005
37. The Covert War Against Rock, pp. 93-98
38. Cited in David Noebel, The Legacy of John Lennon, Nelson, 1982, p. 66
40. Barry Miles, Paul McCartney ? Many Years From Now, New York: Henry Holt, 1997, pp. 185-190 The Beatles, The Beatles Anthology, San Francisco: Chronicle Books, 2000, 158
41. Frederic Seaman, The Last Days of John Lennon, New York: Citadel Press, 1991, p. 201
42. The Beatles Anthology, p. 212
44. Barry Miles, Ginsberg - A biography, New York: Harper Perennial, 1989, p. 397-398
45. Paul McCartney - Many Years From Now, pp. 386-387
45A. Barry Miles, Many years From Now, Extract from Chapter Nine - The Walrus Was Paul pg. 385-395
46. Acid Dreams, p. 239 See Also Playboy magazine, April 1981, interview with John Lennon by David Sheff; Come Together description on p 182 &
48. Phil Strongman & Alan Parker, John Lennon and the
FBI Files, London, Sanctuary Publishing LTD, 2003, p. 102
49. pl?sid=05/12/08/1421215
51. ?Uncut Legends : Lennon? Magazine, 2005, p. 13
53. John Lennon and the FBI Files, pp. 106-107
55. John Lennon and the FBI Files, pp. 84-85
57. Halperin, Berman, Borosage, Marwick, The Lawless State – The Crimes of the US Intelligence Agencies, New York: Penguin, 1976, p. 153
58. Angus Mackenzie, Secrets - The CIA’s War at Home, University of California Press, 1997, p. 49
59. Acid Dreams, p. 224
60. Mark Zepezauer, The CIA’s Greatest Hits, Tucson, Arizona: Odonian Press, 1994, p. 47
62. Secrets - The CIA’s War at Home, pp. 44-45
63. Brussell Articles/Operation Chaos.html
64. Nikolas Schreck, “Charles Manson Superstar”, DVD liner notes, 2002
65. Vincent Bugliosi, Helter Skelter, New York: Bantam, 1974, pp. 196, 635
66. Family/Manson Wants to Make Record.html
69. Secrets - The CIA’s War at Home, p. 63 See also:
70. “Uncut Legends : Lennon” Magazine, 2005, p. 105
71. Jon Wiener, Gimme Some Truth: The John Lennon FBI Files, University of California Press, Berkeley and L.A., CA, 1999, pp. 23-26
73. John Lennon and the FBI Files, pp. 96-98
75. John Lennon and the FBI Files, p. 100
76. Ibid, p. 108
77. Ibid, p. 110
80. John Lennon and the FBI files, p. 138
81. Jim Keith, Mind Control, World Control, Kempton, Illinois: Adventure’s Unlimited, 1997, p. 159
82. John Lennon and the FBI files, p. 163
83. Ibid, p. 124
84. Fenton Bresler, Who Killed John Lennon, New York: St. Martin’s, 1989, pp. 104-105 See also Mind Control, World Control, p. 159 John Lennon and the FBI files, p. 125
85. From the Watson testimony before the House Select Committee on Assassinations in 1977-78
See also
87. Mind Control, World Control, pp. 159-160
88. The Covert War Against Rock, p. 119-120
89. Albert Goldman, The Lives of John Lennon, New York: William Morrow and Co. Inc, 1988, p. 671
90. Mind Control, World Control, p. 160
91. John Lennon and the FBI files, p. 129 The Covert War Against Rock, p. 120 The Lives of John Lennon p. 672
94. John Lennon and the FBI files, p. 129 The Covert War Against Rock, p. 119
95. The Covert War Against Rock, p. 121 Mind Control, World Control, p. 160
97. John Lennon and the FBI files, pp. 129-130
98. The Lives of John Lennon, p. 672
99. The Lives of John Lennon, p. 673
100. “The Betrayal of John Lennon”, David and Victoria Sheff, Playboy, March 1984, p.188
101. The Covert War Against Rock pp. 121-129 Robert Rosen, Nowhere Man, Oakland: Quick American Archives, 2002, p. 4 See also The Lives of John Lennon - sources, and Fred Seaman, The Last Days of John Lennon, New York: Carol Publishing, 1991 - acknowledgments.
102. The Lives of John Lennon, p. 674
103. John Lennon and the FBI files, p. 139
104. Ibid, p. 141
105. Ibid, p. 146
106. Youth International Party Information Service, Blacklisted News, New York: Bleeker Publishing, 1983, p. 195
109. The Covert War Against Rock, pp. 128-129
110. Ibid, p. 117
111. John Marks, The Search for the Manchurian Candidate, New York: Times Books, 1979, pp. 187, 191
112. The Covert War Against Rock, pp. 117-118
113. John Lennon and the FBI files, p. 149
114. Jack Herer, The Emperor Wears No Clothes, Van Nuys, California, AH HA Publishing, 11th edition, 2000, p. 98
115. The Covert War Against Rock, pp. 123-124
See also Bill Hicks’s on-line video on the JFK assassination:
118. The Oxford Illustrated History of Britain, 1984, p. 577
124. John Lennon and the FBI files, pp. 75, 85, 119
125. Ibid, p. 116
126. Ibid, pp. 171-172, See also Mind Control, World Control, p. 159
45A. Barry Miles, Many years From Now, Extract from Chapter Nine - The Walrus Was Paul pg. 385-395

For more about John Lennon and cannabis, check out these shows on Pot TV:

Since we've covered - Operation Chaos  and touched lightly on some of the Manson connections, let's look at some of the aftermath. This also brings us back to the Sequoia Seminar's "Jesus as Teacher"  theme with the rise of the "Jesus Freaks" and other "religous cults" ...
The Summer of Love Breeds a Season of Hate: The Effects of the Manson Murders on Public Perceptions of the Hippie Lifestyle
by Curt Rowlett

At the time of this writing, interesting recent press coverage hearkens back to two of 1969s most notorious events.

The first story concerns the new search for possible Manson family murder victims long rumored to have been buried in the desert near Manson’s old hideout at Barker Ranch in California’s Death Valley. This theory of unknown murder victims stems from a statement attributed to Manson family member Susan Atkins, who allegedly told a fellow inmate she was incarcerated with that there were "three people out in the desert that they done in," referring to other possible victims during the Manson family’s spree of killings during the summer of 1969. As reported by the press, a team of forensic scientists have traveled recently to Barker Ranch and used cadaver dogs, ground penetrating radar and other equipment in an attempt to locate these possible victims. According to the report, the scientists located “three large areas of interest.”

The story second concerns a BBC News report that details the revelation from the FBI’s own files that the Hell’s Angels may have actually tried to assassinate Mick Jagger at his rented home in Long Island, New York in retaliation for Jagger’s comments following the disastrous concert at Altamont in late 1969. The murder attempt supposedly failed after the boat carrying the would-be assassins foundered during a storm, almost drowning them.

That these two stories continue to resonate in modern times in not such a surprise. The article below discusses the detrimental effects that the Manson murders, the ill-fated concert at Altamont, and numerous other crimes that the press of the day dubbed “hippie murders,” had on the hippie image.

--Curt Rowlett

Note: Curt Rowlett is a researcher and writer with a penchant for the mystical, mysterious, and macabre. He is also: a serious student of the paranormal and unexplained, a former merchant marine who has traveled all over the world, an ex-rock musician, and an old-fashioned, southern gentleman.

His work has appeared in the books Popular Paranoia, Labyrinth13: True Tales of the Occult, Crime & Conspiracy, and the magazines Fortean Times, Paranoia Magazine, Steamshovel Press and Strange Magazine.
Labyrinth13: True Tales of the Occult, Crime & Conspiracy is available at: - and at -
Curt’s website can be reached at:

“You play the game of money. As long as you can sell a newspaper, some sensationalism, and you can laugh at someone and joke at someone and look down at someone, you know. You just sell those newspapers for public opinion, just like you are all hung on public opinion, and none of you have any idea what you are doing. You are just doing what you are doing for the money, for a little bit of attention from someone.”

Statement made by Charles Manson, while testifying at the Tate-LaBianca murder trial


“This will be remembered as the first of the acid murders . . . we’re on the brink of a whole new concept of violence . . . perpetrated against society by people who have reached a different plateau of reality through LSD.”

Statement made by Manson family attorney Paul Fitzgerald, while discussing the Tate-LaBianca murders with the press


“Acid is groovy, kill the pigs.”

Words allegedly chanted by hippie thrill killers during the 1970 bludgeoning and stabbing murders of the Jeffrey MacDonald family

In much the same way as the “satanic panic” hit in the 1980’s, a wave of “hippie cult hysteria” flourished in the wake of the 1969 Manson murders. Subsequently, public perceptions of the hippies as a non-violent, peace-loving subculture began to shift dramatically.

Many hippies who were involved in the original “counterculture” during that time period had stories to tell about negative fallout from a public who had begun to associate the hippie lifestyle with a series of horrifyingly violent, drug-induced crimes that occurred across America toward the end of the 1960’s.

As a result, the Manson murders, being only the first to be so publicized, later became linked to a greater cultural fear aided by numerous shocking and widely reported similar crimes. (Along with the Manson case, there were many other grisly and highly publicized murders and other crimes that had either been committed by or linked in the public mind to “hippie” elements or to so-called “drug crazed cultists” living in communal settings).

These events, played for full sensational effect in the media, would occur within such short time frames from each other that for awhile, the public was literally bombarded with a shocking portrait of the hippie community, one that shifted from the old view of hippies as the epitome of passive gentleness into a new, frighteningly savage image.

The fallout was swift and all-encompassing. And in much the same vein, this media-constructed image of the drug-crazed, murderous hippie was no different than the way veterans returning from the Vietnam War would also be stereotyped in the mid-1970’s, both by the press and Hollywood. That exploitation included fostering the image of Vietnam vets as war-traumatized, unstable individuals, likely to snap and go on a violent rampage at any given moment. (I can recall only too well how many television programs and B-movies of that era exploited not only the image of Vietnam vets, but also by catering to public fears about such things as roving bands of \“psychopathic” biker gangs, angry black power “militants” with guns, and of course, exploitation films about sex-crazed, blood-thirsty hippies living in spaced-out drug communes).

In the book Helter Skelter, prosecutor Vincent Bugliosi tells of this backlash against hippie-types in the aftermath of the Manson case where sensational press coverage laid the murders out in all their gory detail. Bugliosi writes:

If the press and TV reports were correct, a majority of young people whom the media had lumped together under the label “hippies” disavowed Manson. Many stated that the things he espoused , such as violence, were directly contrary to their beliefs. And more than a few were bitter about the guilt by association. It was almost impossible to hitchhike anymore; one youth told a New York Times reporter, “If you’re young, have a beard, or even long hair, motorists look at you as if you’re a ‘kill-crazy cultist’ and jam the gas.” (1)

Immediately after the story of Susan Atkins’ confession to the bloody Tate-LaBianca murders was splashed across the front page of the Los Angeles Times, the public perceptions of the flower children began to change. Author Jess Bravin wrote:

The reaction came down hard on hippies. On page one, the San Francisco Chronicle summed it up in a story from Topanga, a place the Family loved: Manson Arrest Reaction: ‘The War On The Longhairs.’ ‘A housewife sees a long-haired hitchhiker, hesitates, and drives by,’ the story began. ‘A bearded man walks into a store and the clerk asks, half in jest, ‘Did you have anything to do with the murders.’

Esquire later devoted an entire issue to what it called the ‘New Evil,’ sending writer Gay Talese to the Spahn Ranch and filling out the magazine with articles on witches in Hollywood, satanic-themed artwork, and musings on the future of California’s latest trend. And Life, describing what it called Manson’s ‘blithe and gory crimes,’ reported that the prime suspect had ‘attuned his concepts of villainy to the childish yearnings of these hippie converts, to their weaknesses and catchwords, their fragmentary sense of religion and enchantment with drugs and idleness, and immersed them in his own ego and idiotic visions of the Apocalypse.’ (2)

The use of LSD, a drug that was firmly rooted in the public consciousness as being one of the prime motivating forces behind the hippie movement, had never been viewed as anything but dangerous. But following the Manson murders, LSD developed an even more ominous association. Bravin recounts the following comment from Manson family attorney Paul Fitzgerald:

“This will be remembered as the first of the acid murders. [W]e’re on the brink of a whole new concept of violence [p]erpetrated against society by people who have reached a different plateau of reality through LSD.” (3)

However, one of the many ironies of the Manson trial was that the prosecution was put into the position of actually having to defend LSD use in order to combat defense assertions that LSD made people crazy and/or could turn ordinary people into killers. ( The defense hoped to be able to show that the Manson defendants’ use of LSD had affected their minds and as such, they were not responsible for their actions). The prosecution was forced to call expert witnesses who testified that people under the influence of LSD were not normally violent. (4)

The Manson trial lasted for ten months and was a virtual media feeding frenzy almost from day one. That the press focused on the fact that the Manson family was comprised of mostly young hippie flower children who had turned to bloody murder fed the public’s general fear of drugged-out hippie “thrill killers” high on LSD. (And as I noted in Chapter 10 of this book, Susan Atkins would later claim that the Manson murders had been committed in order to “instill fear into the establishment.” It can now be argued that their strategy actually succeeded quite well).

The December 12, 1969 issue of Life Magazine (titled “The Love and Terror Cult” and including the sub-headings, “The man who was their leader; the charge of multiple murder; the dark edge of hippie life”) featured a full front cover photo of what was to become the most widely distributed photograph of Manson and his “hypnotic stare.” At the time, Life Magazine had a huge distribution, a fact that ensured that the fear Manson inspired could gain entry into virtually every home in America. (5)

Hippies on their way to the Woodstock music festival in August of 1969 recalled passing newsstands with blaring headlines about the bloody Tate murders that had occurred only days before. Later, when the killers were caught and identified as young hippies, the Woodstock generation faced a more hostile than usual public whose fear had been stoked by lurid stories of violence committed by wild-eyed, drugged-out longhairs. Karlene Faith, author of a book about former Manson follower Leslie Van Houten, would write how:

[T]he Manson murders dominated the California media for over a year. When the accused were found to have come out of a hippie commune, the attention intensified. The media latched on to people’s worst fears about hippies and the antiwar movement. By the end of the trial, Manson’s murders were touted as a singular milestone in the annals of homicide. (6)

Author Katherine Ramsland, commenting about a series of “hippie murders” that occurred during the 1969-1970 time period, noted how:

There was already plenty of tension between ordinary people making a living and those who had “dropped out” to get high and find a more communal type of life by rebelling against established traditions. Each group eyed the other with suspicion. Now, people believed, some of those hippies were showing their stripes, their peace-loving slogans notwithstanding. (7)

On December 6, 1969, a mere four months after the Manson murders, four people lost their lives at the Rolling Stones free concert held at the Altamont Speedway near San Francisco. Two of those people died after they were run over and crushed by vehicles while asleep in their sleeping bags and another person drowned; most shockingly of all, Meredith Hunter, an eighteen year old black man, was brutally beaten and stabbed to death by a group of Hell’s Angels.

The Hell’s Angels, hired by the Rolling Stones to act as concert security in exchange for $500 worth of beer, had also allegedly been given access to multiple tabs of orange sunshine LSD. (As noted in Project Mind Kontrol, Chapter 12 of the book, Labyrinth13: True Tales of the Occult, Crime & Conspiracy, also appearing in Steamshovel #16, many of the Altamont concert attendants said later that this orange sunshine LSD seemed to be “contaminated” and produced a very negative vibe of violence and death).

Medical reports from the show indicate that Altamont was dominated by numerous incidents of violence. Chief among these were altercations between concert goers and the Hell’s Angels that occurred throughout the day. (Marty Balin, Jefferson Airplane’s lead singer, was knocked unconscious by a Hell’s Angel during a scuffle near the stage. Balin had tried to intervene while the Angels were beating a man with pool sticks. When band mate Paul Kantner told the audience what had happened, another Hell’s Angel grabbed the microphone and began threatening him).

Almost immediately after the Rolling Stones took the stage, another fight broke out, perhaps due to some sort of strange energy, as the band began playing their fist song “Sympathy for the Devil.” (The band halted the song when they became aware that some sort of violence was happening and Mick Jagger could be heard saying into the microphone, “Something very funny always happens when we start that number.” It was near the end of the band’s second song that the murder occurred).

In the aftermath, the view held by many was that while the word “Woodstock” stood for all that was positive and good about the hippie subculture, “Altamont” was seen as all that could go wrong. In a very real sense, the event spelled the death knell for the innocence of “flower power,” and for many people, Altamont was seen as a sort of “apocalyptic” ending to all of the 60’s peace and love vibrations.

As noted, the Manson case was not the only blow to the image of hippies as a peace-loving community as other murders, often dubbed by the press as “hippie cult murders,” took place very close to the same time period:

On February 17, 1970 in North Carolina, just six months after the Manson murders, Army officer Jeffrey MacDonald claimed to have been attacked in his home at the Fort Bragg military base by a group of four hippies who were high on LSD. MacDonald would later tell investigators that after being awakened by his wife’s screams to find intruders in his house, he was stabbed and knocked unconscious and that three male members of a hippie cult then viscously murdered his pregnant wife and two young daughters. All of this allegedly occurred while a lone female hippie with long blond hair and carrying a lighted candle, stood by chanting, “Acid is groovy, kill the pigs.” (The case had many striking parallels to the Manson murders, including alleged “crazed hippie” perpetrators; the savage amount of “overkill” inflicted on the victims; the writing of the word “pig” on the walls of the MacDonald home in the victim’s own blood; and the fact that Colette MacDonald, like Manson murder victim Sharon Tate, was pregnant at the time she was murdered). Although years later MacDonald would be tried and convicted for the murders himself, in the mind of the public, these crimes remained linked to “drug-crazed hippie cult killers.” (Cool

On July 13, 1970, a hippie hitchhiker named Stanley Dean Baker was arrested in California for the murder of a Montana man who had stopped to give him a ride. According to police, Baker admitted that he had shot the man to death and then cannibalized the body. (In fact, Baker admitted to cutting out and eating the victim’s heart and also had bones from the man’s fingers in his pocket when apprehended). Baker was branded a “hippie satanist” by the popular press because he had both a recipe for LSD and a copy of The Satanic Bible in his possession when he was arrested. While Baker would later tell both law enforcement officials and fellow inmates that he had participated in a “blood drinking cult” in Wyoming, he later confessed that his crimes were actually the result of his drug use and had nothing to do with any involvement with satanism. (9)

Three months later, on October 19, 1970, firemen in Santa Cruz, California, responding to a fire at an upscale home in the Soquel area of the city, found five bodies floating in the home’s swimming pool, all dead from gunshot wounds to the back of the head. The victims included Dr. Victor Ohta, his wife and two sons, and Dr. Ohta’s secretary.

A note left by the killer on Dr. Ohta’s car threatened death to any “persons who misuses the natural environment or destroys same” by the “People of the Free Universe.” The note ended with a reference to the four knight cards of the tarot deck.

Within days, police investigators began targeting suspects in the Santa Cruz hippie community and a major rift between the hippies and police developed. In a newspaper article, a relative of one of the victims suggested that the murders could only have been committed by a “Manson-type cult.” Soon after that statement, a local hippie hangout received several bomb threats. A reporter for the Santa Cruz Sentinel wrote that:

The Soquel massacre, steeped in mysticism and stamped with a clear warning that other similar attacks might follow, has chilled the marrow of the established community . . . hippie-types, for their part, fear indiscriminate vigilante retaliation against innocent members of their culture. (10)

What may not be as well known is the fact that members of the local hippie community actually led the police to John Linley Frazier, a paranoid hippie loner who used LSD and mescaline and who was apparently obsessed with both ecology and aspects of the occult. Frazier had been kicked out of several Santa Cruz area hippie communes for his bizarre behavior and was living alone in a small cabin near the Ohta home at the time of the murders. (He was tried and convicted of the murders and given the death penalty, a sentence that was later commuted to life in prison after the death penalty was ruled unconstitutional).

Almost simultaneously (beginning on October 13, 1972, in Felton, California), hippie-type Herbert Williams Mullin committed the first of thirteen murders, carried out in the belief that in doing so, he would save California from a cataclysmic earthquake. Mullin was a paranoid schizophrenic who had been in and out of mental hospitals all of his life, but who would later be judged legally sane at his murder trial. His history of mental illness notwithstanding, Mullin was depicted in the press as just another burned-out hippie whose mind had been fried by drug use, as Mullin was a known LSD user. (One hippie later recalled that while in his presence, Mullin had ingested a whopping ten hits of LSD all at once). The District Attorney assigned to prosecuting the case was quoted as saying, “This is the result of people flipping out, and people taking drugs, and people doing their own thing.”

Mullin’s series of murders took place near Santa Cruz where many hippie communes flourished. The aftermath of the murders served to add more paranoia and mistrust towards hippies in the public mind, even though Mullin had actually killed several “hippie types” himself and would later claim to hate hippies. (11)

Other lesser know horror stories about so-called “LSD murders” also began to take their toll on the image of the hippie movement. Tales of alleged LSD-fueled violence were sensationalized in virtually every newspaper and television screen in America, both directly and indirectly blaming psychedelic drugs and the hippie lifestyle for violence: sponsors of a New York state bill to increase the penalties for possession of LSD cited one newspaper story as an example of the LSD-fueled hippie menace.

In this story, it was reported that Stephen Kessler, a thirty-two year old Harvard graduate student and ex-mental patient who had committed a brutal murder, claimed to have been “flying on LSD for three days” and that he could not remember anything about the homicide. Law enforcement officers promptly labeled this case an “LSD murder.” (The newspaper headlines declared Kessler to be a “Mad LSD Slayer” and “LSD Killer”). At Kessler’s trial, psychiatrists testified that he actually suffered from chronic paranoid schizophrenia. He was found not guilty by reason of insanity with the issue of his use of LSD never being raised or corrected in the public mind. (In fact, it was later disclosed that Kessler had not used LSD for a whole month prior to the murder). (12)

Several urban legends have been spawned that further illustrate the fear that the public has of the drug-crazed hippie killer, one of which is the tale of the “Hippie Babysitter.” According to the Snopes Urban Legend Reference Pages, the basic story goes like this:

A couple leaves their infant in the charge of a teenage, hippie-type girl while they go out on the town for the evening. When the mother phones home a few hours later to check up on things, the babysitter informs her that everything is fine and that she has put the turkey in the oven. A few moments later the couple recalls that they left no turkey at home; they rush home and find that the babysitter, high on LSD, has cooked their baby in the oven. (13)  

Other urban legends depicting the alleged sinister motives of hippies and the dangers of LSD use include the tales of “Blue Star Acid,” where paper rub-on “tattoos” featuring cartoon characters laced with LSD were supposedly being handed out to school children by evil hippie drug dealers; (the drug is allegedly absorbed through the skin simply by handling the paper or pressing it onto wet skin). And then there is the infamous tale of two hippie youths who, after ingesting LSD, stare at the sun until they go blind. (The latter story actually appeared as serious reporting in a several national newspapers).

From almost the beginning, Hollywood also got in on the action and produced a number of extremely lurid hippie exploitation films masquerading as cautionary public service announcements, but which were in fact aimed directly at feeding a morbid public appetite while pretending to take a moral stance. Often depicting drug-crazed hippies living and freaking out in “Manson family” style communes, such films as The Hallucination Generation (1967) and Riot on Sunset Strip (1967) depicted “hippie” youths running wild in an orgy of group sex, drugs, crime and even murder.

The Manson murders were also the subject of several ultra-low budget movies that were quickly churned out in the wake of the murders in order to cash in on the “killer hippie cult” hysteria. A short list of those films would include: The Other Side of Madness (also known as The Helter Skelter Murders), a sleazy 1970 film produced in record time, appearing almost immediately after the arrest of the Manson family. The Helter Skelter Murders was a blatant attempt to cash in on all the lurid publicity while claiming to depict the “true story” of the Manson murders. (The movie was shot on several authentic locations and features a dramatization of Manson’s “Helter Skelter” race war. Also includes one of Manson’s own songs, “Mechanical Man” in the score); the 1971 film Snuff (later renamed Slaughter) in which a bearded and very creepy Manson-like cult leader uses hypnosis on young girls in order to orchestrate a series of murders; I Drink Your Blood, a 1971 film about a cult of homicidal, acid-dropping, devil-worshipping hippies whose Manson-esque leader utters the classic line, “Let it be known, sons and daughters, that Satan was an acid head.” (From the press-book accompanying the release of I Drink Your Blood, we find the warning “Did you ever imagine what would happen if your community were invaded by hippies? You can now see what can happen to a town when hippies go wild!” This film has been humorously described by one reviewer as “the quintessential tale of a group of Satan-worshipping hippies who ingest meat pies contaminated by the blood of a rabid dog and go on a murder spree”). Finally, we have The Love Thrill Murders (1971), a soft-core porn film that features actor Troy Donahue as “Moon,” a violence-obsessed, Manson-clone who is the leader of a murderous Jesus freak hippie cult in New York City’s Greenwich Village. High marks for negative public influence would also have to go to both the 1972 documentary film Manson by Laurence Merrick and Robert Hendrickson and the 1976 made-for-television movie, Helter Skelter. While Merrick and Hendrickson’s Manson was less exploitative than its fictional Hollywood counterpart, Helter Skelter, both managed to scare the hell out of the general public. (For a list of other notable hippie exploitation films and/or movies that contain themes directly inspired by the Manson murders, see Labyrinth13: True Tales of the Occult, Crime & Conspiracy, Appendix 6, List of Hippie Exploitation and Manson-Inspired Films).

In addition to the film exploitation of the Manson murders, many magazine articles and books about the case followed quickly on the heels of the actual events and would also fuel the general public fear. Most notable of these was the true crime novel Helter Skelter (first published in 1974) in which the murders were not only graphically detailed, but also where prosecutor Vincent Bugliosi seldom missed a chance to strongly moralize against the hippie lifestyle in general, to a large extent, blaming the excesses of the counter culture for producing the likes of Charles Manson and his family. Bugliosi’s book (and the two television miniseries it would later spawn) would not only exploit the hippie image, but would also commercialize the fear that the Manson murders and similar crimes had spread. But the truth be known, many of the more gruesome “facts” presented by Bugliosi -- much of it drawn from the confessions and testimony of the killers themselves -- would later prove to have been based on embellishments made by Manson family members who wanted to shock the general public as much as possible. (A few examples of this would include the supposed death list of Hollywood celebrities that members of the Manson family claimed they had plans to kill; the false assertion made by family member Steve Grogan that he had cut murder victim Donald “Shorty” Shea into nine pieces or the highly suspect claim made by a prison informer that Susan A tkins said she had actually tasted Sharon Tate’s blood which later proved to be just another example of Atkins’ propensity for braggadocio). Author Karlene Faith noted that:

After successfully prosecuting four of the accused, Los Angeles District Attorney Vincent Bugliosi wrote a mass-market novel-like book (Helter Skelter) about the murders. At the time, its cover made the promise, “No matter how much you think you know about the Manson case, this incredible book will shock you.” It was a best-seller, and is still in print today, replete with inaccuracies due to the defendants’ false testimony in court and their own propagation of sensationalized myths. One reviewer describes this book as “a morality play of the highest order, with the crusading prosecutor battling a demonic Manson on one hand and the bumbling of the Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD) on the other. One of Manson’s messages, like St. Augustine’s, was the he (and everyone) represented the perfect dialectic of God and Devil, life and death, good and evil, sacred and profane. The symbolism was perfectly geared to a Hollywood sensibility. Through the lenses of the prosecutor, a woefully tragic set of murders became mythic owing to their perversely formulaic entertainment value. Bugliosi went on to oversee the 1976 CBS-TV version of his story, and to make $2500 per speech (a large sum at the time) on the lecture circuit. (14)

In part, public hysteria about the hippie movement had as much to do with the explosion of huge numbers of hippie youth communes as did films and books with their garish tales about sex orgies and rampant drug use. Although communal living has a long history in other countries, such living arrangements were a relatively new phenomenon in America and in the mid to late 60’s, were to be found almost exclusively in the hippie subculture.

During that time, the common public perception (again, due to media exploitation) was basically a belief that the hippie communes were all dens of rampant drug use, free love, and general immorality, but history shows a far more diverse picture than what the stereotype suggests. Many communes were founded on a religious basis or with an emphasis on spirituality and very disciplined lifestyles. Others were simply created in the search for a Utopian society.

In 1970, the Manson family’s own communal lifestyle was the subject of a detailed study conducted by Dr. David E. Smith, M.D. and Alan J. Rose of the Haight Asbury Free Clinic; members of the Manson group often visited the clinic in order to receive medical treatment for sexually transmitted diseases. (15)   [ Right The Operation Choas men write a study about their project! ]

In this paper, the authors write that:

[T]hrough the national media, the dominant culture in the United States has been made aware of a new style of commune which has evolved primarily in America’s “hippie subculture.” . . . These “hippie” communes can be categorized into six general types Crash Pad Type, Drug and Non-Drug Family Type, Drug and Non-Drug Marriage Type, and Self-Contained Rural Type . . . The common denominators in this type of commune are polygamous sexual practices involving all members of [the] group and cooperative child rearing. Following the preparation of this manuscript, the central figure in this report, Charles Manson, was arrested in connection with the Sharon Tate murders. However, it would be impudent to comment on the murders until Manson’s trial has been completed. The “group marriage” is not new, of course, and has been practiced by various societies throughout history. Middle class white American youth participating in a group marriage is relatively new, however, particularly in that it represents a direct affront to the dominant culture’s expressed moral code.

The authors also described Manson as “a “father figure” and “a 35-year-old white male with a past history of involvement with the law.” They further noted that:

Manson was thirty-five years of age, and had no college education. He was an extroverted, persuasive individual who served as absolute ruler of the group marriage commune. What he sanctioned was approved by the rest of the group, but what he disapproved was forbidden. (16)  

The media made much out of the fact that a group of hippie youths and flower children, mostly comprised of young women, had allowed themselves to became involved with such a “Mephistophelean guru,” as prosecutor Vincent Bugliosi was to later label Manson, and that those same followers so fiercely defended Manson after his arrest, a fact that seemed to call into question all that everyone knew about the counterculture. A full study of the psychology behind such thinking on both sides of the issue is beyond the scope of this article, but my point is that, in the public mind, the Manson case (and others similar to it) was and still is, touted by detractors of the hippie movement as the ultimate “I told you so” moral to the story for those who had embraced the hippie lifestyle.

However, such a perception is not quite the knockout punch it may appear to be as many residents of the Haight during that time period will tell you that Manson was only one of hundreds of such anti-establishment, LSD and mysticism philosophizers who frequented that scene. Many of these self-styled gurus were a welcomed part of the landscape and for the greater part, never betrayed any of the sometimes naďve trust placed in them by idealistic young hippies, most who thirsted for the same intense spiritual awareness and truth experienced while under the influence of psychedelics. (My research has turned up no other example of hippie “street gurus” from that era whom exploited others in such a horrendous manner and the Manson case appears to be completely unique in that sense).

The fact that Manson turned out to be a person who ultimately involved his followers in violence is the real tragedy. And it is important to note that Manson did not show up on that scene handing out tabs of acid and knives while preaching violence to young hippies; his philosophical rap pretty much matched that of other street gurus at the time and the descent into an Apocalyptic vision of death and war only came along much later on.

Many of the communes formed in the 60’s were often lead by a charismatic leader, a fact that seemed to determine whether or not a particular commune would survive the tests of time. And you might be surprised to learn, as I eventually did, that quite a few communes from the 60’s not only survived, but are still thriving today. And while many (perhaps most) of them did indeed e ventually fall apart -- often due to the drug excesses of their members -- quite a few (numbering in the hundreds) were and still are highly successful, among them the Morningstar Ranch, The Hog Farm, the Twin Oaks Intentional Community, and one group known simply as “The Farm.”

The Farm, one of the most successful of the hippie communes, was started in the rugged wilds of Summertown, Tennessee. Founded in 1971, The Farm went on to become the largest hippie commune in North America, peaking out at around 1500 people in 1980. (As of this writing, its current population stood at about 200 folks). This group pioneered many aspects of the vegetarian diet, techniques for modern midwifery and home birth, and were very active in working towards methods for alternative energy.

However, public perceptions about hippie communes during the 1960’s (and even today) was that of groups of lazy, dirty hippies l ying around smoking marijuana while collecting their welfare checks. I’m in my late 40’s now and when I was a teenager, I spent the summer of 1972 living on a small hippie commune in the mountains of North Carolina and the rule of law there was that if you didn’t work, you didn’t eat.

There were no welfare checks or Manson family-style “garbage runs” in that group, but there was plenty of hard work caring for a large vegetable garden (which naturally, included a substantial crop of marijuana) and splitting loads of firewood to sell. And members of the commune often pitched in to help other “non-hippie” farmers and neighbors when they were short-handed, eventually earning the sometimes-begrudging respect from those people.

But to be completely honest, not all communes lived up to such noble standards and there were actually quite a few groups that were little more than blights on the communities that they inhabited. Or worse yet, communes that were weird beyond belief. A perfect example of the latter case was part of the subject of an article written by R. Stuart for a 2002 Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies newsletter. In an article titled Entheogenic Sects and Psychedelic Religions, Stuart discusses various psychedelic religions founded in the United States, including those that involved communal living arrangements and writes that:

In the late 1960s near Los Angeles, a group had the LSD-inspired belief that all life had equal value. They became fruitarians who ate only fruit that had fallen to the ground. Later, LSD visions revealed that God existed on Earth incarnate in dogs, and that all of humanity’s problems were caused by the mistreatment of “man’s best friend.” Members of the Dog Commune herded dogs, raided animal shelters to liberate their canine deities, and were among the first animal rights groups in the United States to try to stop exploitation of dogs in scientific experiments. (17)

One really needs no additional evidence that not all LSD-inspired visions are as profound as they may at first seem, especially if we assume that the “Dog Commune” was awed by the fact that “god” spelled backward is “dog” when reaching the spiritual conclusions that they did. And while the intentions of a hippie group such as the Dog Commune seems to have been mostly benign and benevolent enough, I can’t help but try to imagine what it would have been like to be the up-tight, straight-laced, average-Joe citizens who were probably living next door to them.

Another controversial hippie group was the “Lyman Family” which operated a successful commune in Boston, Massachusetts known as the Fort Hill community. This group was led by folk musician Mel Lyman, who supposedly, in a Manson-like fashion, had declared himself to be God. (In his book The Autobiography of a World Savior, Lyman claimed that he came from another planet and had been sent to Earth to restore humanity to its original balance). (18)

In 1971, the Lyman Family would come under attack by one of the counter culture’s very own voices: the fledgling music magazine Rolling Stone, usually a staid bastion of support for all things relating to hippie culture. Rolling Stone printed a scathing and highly critical two-part cover story written by David Felton about the Lyman Family commune. In that article, Felton charged that Mel Lyman was a Charles Manson-like leader who controlled his followers though psychedelic drugs, mind control and fear. (It has been observed that LSD can make the person under its influence vulnerable to the influence of a second party. In Felton’s story -- and later in a full-length book -- he used the expression “acid fascism” to describe how psychedelic users were often so open to suggestion that they could be exploited by unprincipled persons, the Charles Manson case being the most classic example of this). (19)

Another article about the Lyman Family that appeared in the Boston Phoenix newspaper also raised the specter of the Manson family, noting that:

Despite the obvious material gains of the communards -- or perhaps because of them -- they came under increasing attack. Only a couple of years earlier, the nation had been horrified by the ritual murders committed on the West Coast by communal disciples of Charles Manson. By 1971, a grim skepticism about alternative lifestyles had permeated America. Critics of Fort Hill life began to suggest that Lyman was the Manson-like center of a dangerous personality cult. (20)  

Members of the Lyman commune, like the Process Church before them, did little at the time to quash the sordid speculation: it was reported by several people that the group paid homage to Charles Manson by keeping a poster of him hung on the wall under which they placed a vase full of fresh flowers daily. And according to another source, Manson family member Lynnette “Squeaky” Fromme used to visit and occasionally stay with Lyman in a home he owned in Los Angeles and that Manson and Lyman corresponded with each other for a brief period. Jim Kweskin, a member of the Lyman family, who, upon learning that his group had been compared to Manson’s, jokingly quipped that:

“The Manson family preached peace and love and went around killing people. We don’t preach peace and love.” (21)  

And while most of the charges leveled at the Lyman Family would eventually prove to have been just so much hype -- even Rolling Stone would later admit later that Felton’s story had been mostly an exaggeration -- the negative association with the Manson family would continue to haunt them for many years.

As of 1997, the Lyman group was still together, having amassed quite a sizeable fortune through real estate holdings and a home remodeling business. (Mel Lyman died in 1978 under circumstances that still remain a mystery). (22)

Another hippie phenomenon that arose out of the counterculture and which would also suffer from associations to “drug crazed cultists” was the so-called “Jesus freak” movement of the late 1960’s and early 1970’s. (The Jesus freak phenomenon was a cultural happening that I was able to observe up close and personal as I watched several of my own relatives and siblings, former hippies all, get sucked into the whole “hippies turned-on to Jesus” movement. The Jesus freak trend was at the forefront of what would later blossom into yet a nother major cultural icon of fear, that being the phalanx of insidious “brainwashing religious cults” that flourished from their beginnings in the early 1970’s all the way into present times. Many hippies and other idealistic young people seeking a new spirituality were lured into these groups, many of which were -- or later became -- genuinely dangerous).

Known originally as “The Jesus Movement” or “The Jesus People,” Jesus freaks described themselves as a “counter-counter-cultural movement.” Jesus freaks were primarily hippies who had become disenchanted with certain aspects of the hippie value system and who sought to combine the peace and love of the hippie movement with old-time Christian evangelism. (While the name “Jesus freak” was originally coined as a derogatory label by other hippies -- the term “freak” being a common hippie description of anyone obsessed with a certain type of mind trip -- the moniker was soon proudly adopted by the Jesus People themselves). (23)

Like a great many things related to the hippies, the roots of the Jesus freak movement had its genesis in San Francisco’s Haight Ashbury district where in 1967 Christian evangelical missions such as “The Living Room” were opened in small storefronts in the hippie business districts. Many of these “psychedelic evangelical” groups served as temporary shelters for the multitude of young hippies who had come to San Francisco and other major cities to join in the flower power vibe, only to find themselves homeless and living on the streets. (24)

As noted, the Jesus freaks kept the same style, dress, and language of the hippies, but changed such hippie ideas as “free love” to “free love of God” and brotherly love of other people. (A famous Jesus freak motto was “One Way,” a term that sought to remove focus away from the individual, as the original hippie movement tended to focus on, and instead shifted one’s consciousness towards a love of Jesus). (25)

Additionally, the birth of so-called “Christian rock,” the combination of rock music and Christian gospel, was an original product of the Jesus freak movement. Major examples of this were those films and Broadway plays that featured Jesus freak soundtracks and themes, such as Jesus Christ Superstar and Godspell. (The music created within the Jesus freak movement has now morphed into what is the contemporary Christian music of today). (26)

Many hippies who became Jesus freaks had sought out the Jesus movement after experiencing either bad drug freak-outs or in some cases, because they were seeking the same sort of positive mystical and religious experience that they had encountered under the influence of psychedelic drugs, such as LSD. In many cases, what they sought was to substitute their personal drug experiences for “getting high on Jesus.” (It should be noted that while most of the Jesus freak groups chose to eschew the use of drugs, many did not and/or its members just continued to use drugs on the sly. Hippies who gravitated toward the Jesus freak movement also tended to remain somewhat anti-establishment to some degree).

The Jesus freak phenomenon began to receive major publicity in America beginning around 1970 with the press reporting such events as hippies being baptized in rivers or in the ocean, Jesus freaks acting as tuned-in counterculture street preachers, and the publishing of hippie Christian newsletters. (Those newsletters were laid out in the style of the counterculture’s own “underground” newspapers, complete with psychedelic graphics and language. The use of elements of psychedelia to attract hippie followers and converts became a popular tactic practiced by many of the so-called “cults” that sprang up in the late 60’s and early 70’s, most notably, by the Hare Krishnas and to a lesser extent, Sun Myung Moon’s Unification Church). (27)

But the Jesus freak movement was not without controversy. Many of these groups would later become identified with Manson-like beliefs about a coming Apocalyptic doomsday, with a few of these groups espousing concepts that even rivaled the Process’ belief in a “Final Judgment” and Manson’s “Helter Skelter” for out-and-out unadulterated weirdness.

One major strange influence on both the Jesus freak movement and fundamentalist Christianity was author Hal Lindsey’s series of books about a coming Apocalypse and the rise of the Antichrist as prophesized in the Christian Bible. This series began with the 1970 book The Late Great Planet Earth, a tale that sought to meld “end of the world” Biblical prophecy with world political events current at the time the book was written.

Lindsey, a conservative Christian fundamentalist, published The Late Great Planet Earth at the height of the Cold War, warning that Biblical prophecy pointed toward an invasion of Israel by the former Soviet Union, an act that he believed would trigger the Battle of Armageddon in the form of World War III, the last war on the face of the earth.

The Late Great Planet Earth, written in a style that used common language and which read almost like an action novel, became the best selling book of the decade, with over 15 million copies sold. It also launched an intense modern interest and belief among both Jesus freaks and fundamentalist Christians about a violent Apocalyptic end to the world, an event that Lindsey’s book suggested was actually quite imminent. (In the book, Lindsey prophesizes that there will be a period of great tribulation with plagues, wars, and famines and that Jesus Christ will then appear for the promised “Rapture,” lifting up to heaven all those who believe in him, leaving the rest of humanity to suffer through seven more years of tribulation under the rule of the Antichrist). (28)

Lindsey next published Satan Is Alive and Well on Planet Earth, a book that warned against “occult influences” present in the world. Lindsey (much like Ed Sanders before him) alleges that there were active satanic hippie communes afoot practicing such things as the ritual sacrifice of animals where the blood was drained and mixed with LSD in a cauldron to be used as a drink during occult rituals that involved “sexual deviation, pagan ceremonies, and rites which defy imagination.” Lindsey also hinted that the practices of these alleged satanic hippie cults might have also crossed into the realm of human sacrifice by trotting out the cases of Stanley Dean Baker and the Manson Family. That book also strongly implied that the Antichrist might be living among us now and that the triggering of Armageddon (perhaps in the form of a thermonuclear war with the former Soviet Union) was only awaiting the right series of events to be set into motion. (29)

Lindsey found the basis for most of the information for his prophecies in the Christian Bible’s book of Matthew and the book of Revelation. (And yes, if you are noticing the similarities between all of this and the philosophies espoused in both the Process Church’s belief in a “Final Judgment” and the Manson family’s assertion that Helter Skelter was only awaiting the right spark to ignite a final, bloody war, you are definitely paying attention).

The subsequent formation of Jesus freak communes in some rural communities, many of them who embraced Apocalyptic beliefs similar to Hal Lindsey’s, were not always as well received as one might imagine a group of young Christians might have been! The negative fallout from media images and stories of a bible-obsessed Manson family and a scripture-quoting “satanist” Process Church had led to much public mistrust and fear. And that fear was in turn transferred straight to the Jesus freak communes by way of a generalized suspicion and mistrust of those in the Jesus freak movement who were, for the most part, very sincere in their Christian beliefs, but who also had the same outward appearances as any of the other “long haired drug cultists” that were being reported in the press. (30)

Adding fuel to this general fear and suspicion were such notorious Jesus freak groups as The Children of God, a weird group of hippie Christians who very closely fit the stereotyped image of a brainwashing cult (and who were also at times mistakenly believed to be comprised of remnants of the original Manson family, both by other hippies and by the general public).

Formed in 1968 and led by a charismatic leader named David Berg (a.k.a. “Moses”) the Children of God -- sometimes known as “The Family of Love” or simply as “The Family”-- in many ways epitomized the stereotypical image of hippie Jesus freaks, espousing a combination of Christian evangelism, the counterculture revolutionary ideal and sexual freedom. They also preached a doom-and-gloom Apocalyptic theology that included the belief that California would be devastated by a major earthquake, with the entire state sliding into the sea and later, that all of the United States would be destroyed by the comet Kohoutek in 1974.

The Children of God were often to be encountered during the early 1970’s -- even by this author as a young hippie teenager -- encamped by their psychedelic school buses at outdoor rock concerts where they would hand out free food while seeking to recruit new members. Their reputation for being a “cult” was well established, even in the hippie communities I was associated with. (And I can recall quite vividly how I was strenuously warned by several hippie “elders” to stay away from them as they were considered to be a “Manson-type” group).

By 1974, the Children of God were in trouble with the law and faced charges that included tax evasion, kidnapping and assault. They were also eventually embroiled in even more scandal when female members were accused of using sex to entice men who were not part of the movement in order to convert them into cult members (a form of religious recruitment that Berg called “flirty fishing”). (31)

But this general attitude of mistrust by rural locals was by no means exclusive to hippie Jesus freak communes, but rather was extended to all communes in general, which in many cases, the local populace had been led to believe were nothing less than dens of iniquity and general wickedness, populated by dirty, crazy hippies on drugs.

In the introduction to his book on the hippie communes of the 1960’s, author Timothy Miller comments on the “out-of-this-world” publicity that seemed to dominate most of the media attention given to communal living in general during the 60’s, writing that:

Both scholars and reporters embodied in their work a great range of points of view, from favorable to severely hostile, with a great many somewhere in the bemused middle (“I can’t quite believe all this!”). A good many of these works were sensationalistic, often focusing breathlessly on the casual nudity that frequently prevailed at the counter-cultural communities or on the use of psychedelics and other controlled substances that was so popular among communal and non-communal hippies alike. (32)

And regarding the effects of the media hype on public perceptions of what actually went on inside a typical hippie commune, Miller also states that:

Sensationalism, then as now, was the order of the day for any self-respecting news outlet; so much of the coverage focused on nudity and drug use, real or rumored, and thus helped to feed the local hostility toward communes that broke out so often. (33)

It is important to understand that the true spirit that drove the counterculture to break free from the establishment’s old ideas of how to live was based firmly in the desire among hippies to form their own societies with their own standards of living that more closely reflected the hippie value system. Communes were the most logical next step toward breaking free of an establishment that was viewed by many as having proved that it was corrupt, broken-down, and past its prime.

And it is not surprising that to most of middle class, homogenized America of that period, the idea of hippies participating in such “exotic” experiments as communal living and group marriage was very much seen as a direct threat to their way of life, and as noted in the Haight Ashbury Free Clinic study cited earlier, this was primarily because such activity represented (and to a large degree, still represents) a form of “deviancy” that directly threatens middle class notions of “normalcy” and “morality.” That certain aspects of the hippie lifestyle were so misunderstood and that the media sought to engage in such blatant fear-mongering at the hippies’ expense can, to some degree, be seen almost as a normal reaction on the part of “straight” society.

Author Rosemary Baer, whose husband was a juror during the Manson murder trial, would later write that:

The Tate-LaBianca case, it has been said, is not so much a trial of four defendants accused of seven and a half murders, as [much as it is] a trial of the long-haired, loose-living, group-sex, drug-oriented, hippie subculture by the established culture of our society. (34)  

And to further illustrate just how much the image of the “crazed hippie cultist” had colored the minds of “normal” society, consider the following from a 1996 interview with a former communard at Black Bear Ranch:

Simple rumors and stereotypes greeted the communal pioneers in a great many places. At Black Bear Ranch the original settlers had little contact with the scattered local residents, but years later, when tensions had eased, an early communard asked a neighbor, “What did people think about us when we first came up there?” The two-word answer: “Charles Manson.” (35)  

To be sure, the neighbors living near many of America’s hippie communes were (at first) often less than happy to have them there, an attitude that stemmed from the obvious lifestyle differences as much as anything. And for the greater part, the hostility encountered by longhaired communards came in the form of dirty looks, unkind words, and police harassment with some businesses actually posting “Hippies Not Welcome” signs. But occasionally, situations did erupt into outright violence.

One of the worst examples of this sort of aggression happened to various inhabitants of the many hippie communes established in Taos, New Mexico (the place where Manson girl Linda Kasabian would flee to three days after the murders occurred). Beginning in the late 1960’s, a huge hippie invasion of Taos had begun, much to the resentment of the entrenched locals. Author Timothy Miller writes:

The following are just a few of the many instances of violence that occurred over a short span of time in 1969 and 1970: The Volkswagen van of a commune was dynamited by night; later a building on the property was burned to the ground. Hippies were brutally beaten up on the street on many occasions. A hitchhiking longhair was sentenced to jail for possession of a “concealed weapon” -- a tiny pocketknife. Vehicles were shot up in various situations. Anonymous phone calls threatened arson and murder. A hippie woman was gang-raped. A macrobiotic restaurant was destroyed. A sign appeared on a Taos building: “The only good hippie is a dead hippie. Kill.” . . . The nadir of the conflict was the murder of Michael Press, a hip resident of the Kingdom of Heaven commune at Guadalupita, New Mexico on August 5, 1970, and, on that day and the next, the beating of three other members and [the] triple rape of yet another. (36)  

In the case of the murder noted above, the killers were only given light sentences on a reduced charge, further illustrating just how deep the negative emotions against the hippies living there ran.

But the backlash against hippies in the wake of the Manson murders and the similar crimes and incidents noted above was by no means confined to such hippie bastions as California and New Mexico. Media sensationalism injected the new image of hippies as drugged-out murderers into the public consciousness with a powerful intensity. And the use of that image as a propaganda tool seemed to be in full force and effect all across America. Author Karlene Faith writes:

[R]everbarations from the Manson murders affected the lives of counterculture people throughout California and beyond. Since Manson and his followers were reasonably perceived to be hippies, all hippies became suspect and ready targets for disdain and harassment. After the crime, anyone with long hair driving a Volkswagen bus, the hippie vehicle of choice, stood a good chance of being pulled over by the police . . . The “dirty hippie” stigma was radically intensified, as was adult contempt for youthful idealism . . . The fear and harassment of hippies that occurred after the crimes was as destructive to healthy communes as it was to those already dysfunctional. It was as if the dominant culture, in cahoots with the media, had been waiting for the Manson “family” to happen so that they would have “proof” that the hippie movement was no good. The antagonism between hippies and “straight” society was based on their antithetical values. In the context of social disruptions the Manson murders were a convenient excuse for a backlash. Parents were warning their hippie kids, “See what could happen to you?” (37)  

In a 1969 Time Magazine article about the Manson murders, a Dr. Lewis Yablonsky was quoted as saying that he “believes that there has been far more violence among the hippies than most people realize,” stating further that:

There has always been a potential for murder . . . [M]any hippies are socially almost dead inside. Some require massive emotions to feel anything at all. They need bizarre, intensive acts to feel alive -- sexual acts, acts of violence, nudity, every kind of Dionysian thrill. (38)  

The hippie movement today has mostly recovered from the liability left behind by groups like the Manson family and from once having been associated with such drug violence and other negative stereotypes. And the repeat of a similar “hippie” crime like the Manson murders, occurring during such a pivotal point in “hippie history,” seems an unlikely event.

But you can be assured that there are probably still a few people around who simply refuse to let go of the idea that experimenting with strange drugs, practicing free love and living freaky lifestyles were somehow to blame for such horrors. Hopefully, similar hysteria will be recognized for what it is the next time around.


(1) Helter Skelter: The True Story of the Manson Murders by Vincent Bugliosi with Curt Gentry, Bantam Books, first edition, 1974, page 297.

(2) Squeaky: The Life and Times of Lynette Alice Fromme by Jess Bravin, St. Martin’s Press; (June 1997), page 107.

(3) Squeaky: The Life and Times of Lynette Alice Fromme by Jess Bravin, St. Martin’s Press; (June 1997), page 112.

(4) Helter Skelter: The True Story of the Manson Murders by Vincent Bugliosi with Curt Gentry, Bantam Books, first edition, 1974, pp. 591-597.

(5) See Life Magazine, December 12, 1969; The Love and Terror Cult.

(6) The Long Prison Journey of Leslie Van Houten: Life Beyond the Cult, by Karlene Faith; Northeastern University Press; Chapter One; Getting Acquainted, p. 9.; see also My Acid Trip with Groucho, by Paul Krassner, High Times magazine, Feb 1981.

(7) See John Linley Frazier, the Killer Prophet and Hippie Murderer, Chapter 1, The Year of the Hippie Murders, by Katherine Ramsland archived at

(Cool See Fatal Vision, by Joe McGinniss, New American Library; Reissue edition (March 1999). See also, Fatal Justice: Reinvestigating the MacDonald Murders, by Jerry Allen Potter and Fred Bost, W.W. Norton & Company; Reprint edition (April 1997) in which the authors, after conducting a nine year investigation into MacDonald’s claims of a hippie cult being responsible for the murders of his family, come to the conclusion that vital findings supporting MacDonald’s version of events were never presented at his trial and that his story about a group of hippie murderers may have in fact, been true.

(9) See Crimes and Punishment: The Illustrated Crime Encyclopedia; H S Stuttman Co; September 1994; see also Cannibalism: The Last Taboo by Brian Marriner; Arrow Books 1992; see also Minority Religions, Social Change, and Freedom of Conscience; The Satanic Bible: Quasi-Scripture/Counter-Scripture; James R. Lewis (Department of Philosophy, University of Wisconsin at Stevens Point); from the 2002 CESNUR International Conference; Salt Lake City and Provo (Utah), June 20-23, 2002.

(10) See Santa Cruz Sentinel article titled, The1970s; “Murder Capital of the World.”

(11) The Die Song: A Journey into the Mind of a Mass Murderer by Donald T. Lunde, Jefferson Morgan, W.W. Norton & Company; March 1980.

(12) The Consumers Union Report on Licit and Illicit Drugs, by Edward M. Brecher and the editors of Consumer Reports magazine, 1972.

(13) See Snopes Urban Legend Reference Pages at While doing research for this article, I discovered that there are a great many other myths associated with taking LSD, among them the belief that taking LSD seven times makes you legally insane (the estimated number of times varied depended on who was telling the tale, but it is usually some figure under ten; another variant on this same myth is that if you take LSD a certain number of times, you can’t testify in court. Those particular rumors seem to have begun somewhere between 1967 and 1975). In the book Storming Heaven, author Jay Stevens noted several LSD rumors that fed the general hysteria that began to crop up in the mid-60’s, noting that: “Police departments around the country opened their own files to reporters eager to get a local angle on a breaking national story [regarding the abuse of LSD] . . . [T]here was the heavy user who, believing LSD had trans-mutated him into an orange, refused all human contact for fear of being turned into orange juice [Author’s note: possible urban legend] . . . [There were many reports of LSD use] which verged on the weird rather than the horrible . . . like the time the LAPD found two guys sitting on a suburban lawn eating the grass and nibbling on tree bark. Or the time they received a complaint that a young man was standing beside the Coast Highway making obscene gestures at the traffic. When the police arrived, the guy dashed into the ocean, fell to his knees and began to pray, all the while yelling “I love you! I love you!” Then there was the time someone reported scre

One of the original questions (first post) was what was Willis Harman so excited about at the Sequoia Seminars in 1954? What was Stolaroff so excited about?  Well it turns out that they were excited about Gerald Heard.
1954 Gerald Heard gives a lecture to the Sequoia Seminar about mind expansion and describes the effects of certain mind-altering drugs - Myron Stolaroff and Willis Harman attending

Then in 1956 that Heard tells Stolaroff about LSD and directs him to Al Hubbard for a visit to Hollywood Hospital in Vancouver...

So now we devote the rest of the post to Gerald Heard... who has connections to  H. G. Wells, Julian Huxley, and Aldous Huxley. This also gets us back to the Society for Psychical Research.

Gerald Heard,  Christopher Isherwood, Sir Julian Huxley
Auldous Huxley and Linus Pauling L.A. 1960

With Henry Luce and Claire Booth Luce

Gerald Heard, born in London on October 6, 1889, of Irish ancestry, was educated in England, taking honors in history and studying theology at the University of Cambridge. Following Cambridge, he worked for Lord Robson of Jesmond and later for Sir Horace Plunkett, founder of the Irish Agriculture Cooperative movement. Heard began lecturing from 1926 to 1929 at Oxford University's Board of Extra Mural Studies.

In 1927 he began lecturing for South Place Ethical Society.
From 1929 to 1930 he edited "The Realist"; a monthly journal of scientific humanism whose sponsors included H. G. Wells, Julian Huxley, and Aldous Huxley.

In 1929 he published The Ascent of Humanity, an essay on the philosophy of history that received the prestigious Hertz Prize by the British Academy.

From 1930 to 1934 he served as the BBC's first science commentator, and from 1932 to 1942 he was a council member of the Society for Psychical Research.

In 1937 Gerald Heard came to the United States, accompanied by Aldous Huxley, after having been offered the chair of historical anthropology at Duke University. After delivering some lectures at Duke, Heard gave up the post and soon settled in California where from 1941 to 1942 he founded and oversaw the building of Trabuco College, a large facility where comparative-religion studies and practices flourished under Heard's visionary direction. Trabuco College, 30 years ahead of its time, was discontinued in 1947, and the vast properties were subsequently donated to the Vedanta Society of Southern California.

During the 1950s, Heard's main activities were writing and lecturing, along with an occasional television and radio
appearance. His broad philosophical themes and scintillating oratorical style  influenced many people and attracted a legion of interested persons. But chiefly  he maintained a regular discipline of meditation for many years, as the core of
his mature beliefs centered around the intentional evolution of consciousness.

Following five years of illness, Gerald Heard peacefully passed away at  his home in Santa Monica, California, on August 14, 1971.

Gerald was a genius and far more artistically uninhibited in his creative imaginative than was Huxley, etc. He believed that the psychedelics potentially could be employed as sacramental "medicaments" to could be used in traversing all the major life-cycle transitions. He envisioned them as catalystic agents in a life-long theraphy of growth through the major life-stages, not only as a tool for liberation from the fear of death, etc.

Gerald and Aldous were close collaborators in exploring the human and transpersonal potentials of the psychedelics, and of course, Aldous knew of Gerald's recording of 'Rebirth', so it is likely that Aldous's decision to take LSD as a sacrament in his last hours of dying of cancer (while his wife, Laura, intoned parts of the Tibetan Book of the Dead) was directly inspired from Gerald's extensive research into proper psychophysical rituals to enhance such life-cycle transitions."


Henry Fitzgerald Heard commonly called Gerald Heard (October 6, 1889 - August 14, 1971) was a historian, science writer, educator, and philosopher. He wrote many articles and over 35 books.

Heard was a guide and mentor to numerous well-known Americans, including Clare Boothe Luce and Bill Wilson, co-founder of Alcoholics Anonymous, in the 1950s and 1960s. His work was a forerunner of, and influence on, the consciousness development movement that has spread in the Western world since the 1960s.
In the 1950s, Heard tried LSD and felt that, used properly, it had strong potential to 'enlarge Man's mind' by allowing a person to see beyond his ego.

In late August 1956, Alcoholics Anonymous founder Bill Wilson first took LSD — under Heard's guidance and with the officiating presence of Dr. Sidney Cohen, a psychiatrist then with the California Veterans Administration Hospital. According to Wilson, the session allowed him to re-experience a spontaneous spiritual experience he had had years before, which had enabled him to overcome his own alcoholism.

[Interesting since it seems "Bill Wilson" also went to the Sequoia Seminar LSD sessions in 1956...]

Heard is also responsible for introducing the then unknown Huston Smith to Huxley. Smith became one of the preeminent religious studies scholars in the United States. His book The World's Religions is a classic in the field, sold over two million copies and is considered a particularly useful introduction to comparative religion. The meeting with Huxley led eventually to Smith's connection to Timothy Leary.

In 1963, what some consider to be Heard's magnum opus, a book titled The Five Ages of Man, was published. According to Heard, the prevalent developmental stage among humans in today’s well-industrialized societies (especially in the West) should be regarded as the fourth: the "humanic stage" of the “total individual,” who is mentally dominated, feeling him- or herself to be autonomous, separate from other persons. Heard writes (p. 226) this stage is characterized by "the basic humanic concept of a mankind that is completely self-seeking because it is completely individualized into separate physiques that can have direct knowledge of only their own private pain and pleasure, inferring but faintly the feelings of others. Such a race of ingenious animals, each able to see and to seek his own advantage, must be kept in combination with each other by appealing to their separate interests."

In modern industrial societies, a person, especially if educated, has the opportunity to begin entering the “first maturity” of the humanic “total individual” in his or her mid teens. However, according to Heard — based on his decades of studies, his intuition, and his many years of reflection — a fifth stage is in the process of emerging: a post-individual psychological phase of persons and therefore of culture. According to Heard, the second maturity can be one that lies beyond "personal success, economic mastery, and the psychophysical capacity to enjoy life" (p. 240)

Heard termed this phase 'Leptoid Man' (from the Greek word lepsis: "to leap") because humans increasingly face the opportunity to 'take a leap' into a considerably expanded consciousness, in which the various aspects of the psyche will be integrated, without any aspects being repressed or seeming foreign. A society that recognizes this stage of development will honor and support individuals in a "second maturity" who wish to resolve their inner conflicts and dissolve their inner blockages and become the sages of the modern world.

Further, instead of simply enjoying biological and psychological health, as Freud and other important psychiatric or psychological philosophers of the “total-individual” phase conceived, Leptoid man will not only have entered a meaningful “second maturity” recognized by his or her society, but can then become a human of developed spirituality, similar to the mystics of the past; and a person of wisdom. [1]

But collectively and culturally we are still in the transitional phase, not really recognizing an identity beyond the super-individualistic fourth, "humanic" phase. Heard's views were cautionary about developments in society that were not balanced, about inappropriate aims of our use of technological power. He wrote: "we are aware of our precarious imbalance: of our persistent and ever-increasing production of power and our inadequacy of purpose; of our critical analytic ability and our creative paucity; of our triumphantly efficient technical education and our ineffective, irrelevant education for values, for meaning, for the training of the will, the lifting of the heart, and the illumination of the mind." [2]

Heard died on 14 August 1971 at his home in Santa Monica, California of the effects of several earlier strokes he had, beginning in 1966.

The closing "Re-birth" part of this spoken word 3-LP box set is a bit of a revelation, as the legendary Mr Heard (read "Storming heaven" for clues) invokes the Tibetan Book of the Dead and goes into a full trip-death-rebirth guide mode, preceding the Leary/Alpert/Metzner project by a full 3 years. Psychedelic history must be rewritten!

The occasional music consists of crudely recorded church organ chords upon which classically trained vocalists spell out advise to the "nobly born" limbo traveller. Heard doesn't explicitly mention psychedelic drugs on the LP, but the unexpected psychout in the third part only makes sense if the listener would drop acid between LP #2 & 3. Those who weren't in on this secret must have thought it one weird LP back then. "Re-birth" was the last recording he ever made, written during 3 months in Hawaii.

The first two discs - Survival & Growth - are more lecture-oriented and fairly entertaining, with Heard's voice sounding like an uptight professor, but the contents and purpose of his lectures are pretty far out. Like any acidhead he enjoys wordplay and long etymological parables that show how wrongheaded modern society is. Some of it is obviously influenced by the Bomb and the cold war. There is also a preoccupation with the process of ageing and the fate of senior citizens. Great testament to a brilliant man - they don't make'em like that anymore.

I've received some commentary from Heard scholar John V Cody. Apart from the general interest of Cody's comments, the status of the "Re-birth" LP as one of the very first psychedelic LPs is made clear.

"Gerald was a genius and far more artistically uninhibited in his creative imaginative than was Huxley, etc. He believed that the psychedelics potentially could be employed as sacramental "medicaments" to could be used in traversing all the major life-cycle transitions.  He envisioned them as catalystic agents in a life-long theraphy of growth through the major life-stages, not only as a tool for liberation from the fear of death, etc. Gerald and Aldous were close collaborators in exploring the human and transpersonal potentials of the psychedelics, and of course, Aldous knew of Gerald's recording of 'Rebirth', so it is likely that Aldous's decision to take LSD as a sacrament in his last hours of dying of cancer (while his wife, Laura, intoned parts of the Tibetan Book of the Dead) was directly inspired from Gerald's extensive research into proper psychophysical rituals to enhance such life-cycle transitions."

The 'Re-Birth' LP:

"Gerald's brilliantly creative imagination envisioned a wonderfully theatrical high-tech ritual (complex lighting, sound effects, music, choral performance, etc.) to form a soul-stirring liturgy for those making an "intentional" conscious, aware transition to the next dimension of Reality."

Regarding the connection to the similar Leary-Alpert-Metzner project, Cody points out that Gerald Heard did in fact review their 1964 "Psychedelic Experience" book, which is based on the very same ideas as his 1961 album. The review can be found in the Psychedelic Review, issue #5, pp 110-118. Heard uses "Re-Birth" in the heading for this review, probably a deliberate pointer to his own, earlier work.

"Re-birth' was later published and distributed as a cassette recording around 1976. The World-Pacific record producer and jazz aficionados who produced about 6 of Gerald's various 33 rpm recordings at WP are part of this story. There is an important LSD connection here since one of the record producers was initiated into LSD through Gerald Heard, who personally "invigilated" (watched over) this producer during his first session."

An excellent introduction to Gerald Heard, written by John Cody, can be found in Gnosis magazine, Winter 1993 issue.

The Ramakrishna Monastery in Trabuco Canyon had its beginning in 1942 when Gerald Heard < >, a British writer and a disciple of Swami Prabhavananda, founded the Trabuco College of Prayer on 300 acres in what was then a remote area of the Santa Ana mountains, about sixty miles south of Los Angeles. The property was rugged, consisting mainly of rolling hills and ravines covered with native grasses, chaparral and live oak trees.

Assisting him in the planning were Aldous Huxley and Eugene Exman, religious editor of Harper & Brothers, along with others of his friends and students. Heard had the buildings beautifully designed in the style of an Italian monastery, complete with oversized bricks for the walls, tile roofs, bell tower and heavy beams. The purpose of the college was to provide a place for prayer and the study of Eastern and Western mysticism.

When Gerald realized, however, that his experiment was impractical, he persuaded the college board members to deed the property over to the Vedanta Society. [Money means nothing]

The Trabuco College of Prayer was thus formally rededicated as the Ramakrishna Monastery in 1949. A number of young postulants were assigned by Swami Prabhavananda <../prabhavananda.html> to reside at the new monastery. Swami Aseshananda, who had come to assist Swami Prabhavananda, also lived there most of the time. Besides doing the daily chores of the monastery, the young monks also conducted a noon ritualistic worship and an evening arati service in the chapel.,%20Sex%20&%20Time-Reviews.htm
Reviews for Pain, Sex and Time: A New Outlook on Evolution and the Future of Man
From Traditional Yoga Studies Interactive

Heard's technique was that of the old-fashioned evangelist. His catalogue of mankind's narrow escapes, from prehistory to the present day, was meant to scare you our of your wits. Doomsday was at hand, and then at the last moment you'd be offered the alternative—salvation through meditation, the practice of the presence, prayer. The juxtaposition of fear and hope was startling and compelling then, and it remains so today.

Pain, Sex and Time was originally published in 1939. It was an important book at the time. The cover of the 2005 rerelease notes that this was actor James Dean’s favorite book. And the Foreword by religion scholar Huston Smith reveals that it was this book that set Smith on his path of studying the world’s mystics.

Gerald Heard (1889-1971) was a well-known social commentator in Great Britain in the first half of the 20th Century. He was a BBC announcer with a marvelous voice who captivated many, including, notably, H.G.Wells, with his reports on science. He was author of 38 books. He came to America in 1937 with his friend Aldous Huxley; he taught briefly at Duke University then moved to Los Angeles. Always interested in religion, he there met Swami Prabhavananda, founder of the Vedanta Society of Southern California. It was he who brought Huxley, Christopher Isherwood, John Van Druten and others to the Vedanta Circle.

In the early 40s, he created Trabuco College, a kind of experiment in modern monasticism and academia, a college of comparative religion and research into meditation techniques. He was an openly gay man, though in the modulated style of pre-liberation days, and wrote about homosexuality as an evolutionary, spiritual phenomenon.

Pain, Sex and Time was one of his cardinal books. In it, he argues that evolution in human beings has ceased to be physical and become psychological and partly voluntary. Human beings can intentionally expand their consciousness by use of meditative, ascetical, and intellectual techniques. Heard used the term “consciousness-dilation.” (It was Heard who introduced Aldous Huxley to mescaline.)

Gerald Heard is then one of the central figures in the development of contemporary ideas about the evolution of consciousness and about the nature of gay spirituality. His writings are certainly of interest to historians of ideas. Though now largely forgotten, he was one of those pivotal homosexuals who changed the world by his presence and by the force of his mind and personality.

Pain, Sex and Time is an interesting book. It’s quite instructive to discover that ideas about the nature of the mind and spirituality and religion that seem so very modern in fact were current in the 1930s. It’s also—unfortunately, but maybe not surprisingly—a difficult book to read. And this in itself is quite instructive. The style comes across as dated and a little quaint; there are too many references to current events and themes of intellectual scholarship that are just incomprehensible today; the sentence structure is too complex; and the tone of voice wordy and old-fashioned. There’s a reminder here to contemporary writers to avoid dating their material by transitory references and trendy styles (though, perhaps the lesson is also that such datedness is unavoidable).

Most of the book is an explication of history and religion, showing how the goals, especially of a secret order of initiates, has always been the dilation of consciousness in the service of all humankind. The discussions of Egyptian, Essene, Yogic, Fakiristic, Sufi, and Gnostic traditions are interesting and insightful. Heard was especially concerned with how intentional techniques, like meditation, asceticism and even tantric sex (mentioned tangentially) work to heighten consciousness. In this, he saw the practical direction that religion and spirituality should be taking to further evolution of mind.

Heard hypothesized the evolutionary development of a type of person he calls the Neo-Brahmin, “the new prophetic type and forerunner of the succeeding world order,” who is characterized by 1) height of integrity, 2) clear understanding of the meaning of life and the direction of evolution (toward greater consciousness), and 3) a power of appeal and charisma. Though Heard does not seem to say so explicitly, the descriptions sound like the ideal of our contemporary gay spirituality movement. (I wonder if I failed to recognize semi-veiled clues in the text to homosexuality.)

This book is a little bit of a challenge, the tone occasionally annoying or just befuddling. But its scope and brilliance is also entrancing, and its argument appealing. Especially for fans of Isherwood, Auden, Huxley, and that influential circle of 20th century thinkers, this book is a must-read. And, even if you can’t devote the time and concentration to a thorough reading, just picking it up and reading a page at random is a delightful and mind-dilating experience. I invite you to join in the enjoyment. Actually studying the book is an exercise in the consciousness-expansion that is its subject matter.

[1]. Ed. note: The introductory piece to Pain, Sex and Time states that Heard, “was celibate by choice for the latter decades of his life.”

[2]. Ed. note: According to Aldous Huxley: A Biography by Sybille Bedford (1974), it was Huxley who first took mescaline in May 1953 (p. 527) through Dr. Humphrey Osmond, not Heard. Heard did not take the drug until November 1953 (p. 562).

Looking at the material so far in total, some basic facts are exposed.

This was composed of multiple projects (purposes) directed by multiple groups: Tavistock SRI RAND CIA FBI NSA Army Navy and other groups in multiple countries (USA - multiple states/Canada/U.K./Australia/New Zealand).
Projects were conducted over multiple decades.
Purposes were the whole spectrum of uses (anything they could think of): individual, groups, societal, political, Global

Did this backfire and blowup in their face?

Absolutely not. By the time they started flooding in Cocaine, the societal makeup of the U.S. had been changed to the point of being controllable. The assassinations were used to maximum advantage to demoralize the country and make it more controllable. Order out of Chaos.  

We can honestly say that the U.S. is more fair to a majority of citizens today then before 1960, but there was a great price to pay and today we are also much LESS free in many ways.  

One primarily not discussed much in this thread is thought control. 
What thoughts do you NOT have?
What thoughts do you NEVER NOT have?

These programs are not over!

for reference See: Yuri Bezmenov (ex-KGB, tells all)

Notice that the "kgb - soviets" can get the "blame" - but that's not the real source of the problem

Quote from: lostdog2323 on February 08, 2010, 05:55:54 PM
The Making of the Counterculture
There is a good deal of confusion about several quite different types of youth behavior. Just because conduct is revolting, that doesn’t mean it is revolt. There is no more relationship between the wild boys of the road — motorcycle clubs like Hell’s Angels or some of the more violent Rocker types — and poets like Gary Snyder or singers like Bob Dylan or Joan Baez, than there is between an Establishment writer like John Osborne and people who hunt foxes. A good part of what goes on amongst people under thirty is simply the perennial youth culture we have always had, which has always disturbed the old, from Babylon to Benny Goodman. Today the opportunities for mischief offered by affluent society simply make it all that more conspicuous.

When the Hell’s Angels announced they were going to disrupt the Vietnam protest march in Berkeley, Ken Kesey and Allen Ginsberg invited the leaders down to Kesey’s mountain home and turned them on with LSD and the next day they were as meek as lambs, loved all sentient creatures, and rode in the march on Kesey’s Op-Art truck. That’s the connection.
Kenneth Rexroth

Kenneth Charles Marion Rexroth was born December 22, 1905 in South Bend, Indiana. Orphaned at fourteen, Rexroth moved to live with his aunt in Chicago, where he was expelled from high school. He began publishing in magazines at the age of fifteen. As a youth, he supported himself with odd jobs--as a soda jerk, clerk, wrestler, and reporter. He hitchhiked around the country, visited Europe, and backpacked in the wilderness, reading and frequenting literary salons and lecture halls, and teaching himself several languages.

Rexroth and his first wife, the painter Andrée Shafer, moved to San Francisco in 1927. There he published his first poems in a variety of small magazines, while also pursuing an interest in eastern mysticism and leftist politics. He kept company with like-minded left-wing poets such as George Oppen and Louis Zukovsky, and with them aimed to rescue poetry from its supposed downslide into formalist sentimentality. They organized clubs to support struggling writers and artists.

By the early 1930s, through a correspondence with Ezra Pound, Rexroth was introduced to James Laughlin of New Directions press, who included Rexroth’s poems of in the second volume of Laughlin’s pivotal annual, New Directions in Poetry and Prose in 1937. Rexroth’s first collection, In What Hour, which articulated the poet’s ecological sensitivities along with his political convictions, was published by Macmillan in 1940. In 1944 another collection, The Phoenix and the Tortoise, continued his exploration of the natural and the erotic, presented his pacifist stance on World War II, incorporated references to the work of classical poets from the East and the West, and expanded his tonal range with poems touching on world religions and the history of philosophy. A consummate activist, during the war Rexroth aided Japanese-Americans in escaping West Coast internment camps.

By the late 1940s, Rexroth was laying the groundwork for what would become the San Francisco Renaissance. He promoted the poetry of Lawrence Ferlinghetti, Philip Whalen, Denise Levertov, William Everson, LeRoi Jones (Amiri Baraka), and many others on the radio station KPFA. He organized a weekly salon and invited friends and other poets to come and share their philosophical and poetic theories. Among those in attendance were Robert Duncan, Richard Eberhart, and, eventually, Allen Ginsberg, Gary Snyder, and other Beat poets.

Rexroth organized and emceed the legendary Six Gallery reading on October 7, 1955, at which Ginsberg introduced the world to "Howl." Rexroth’s work was composed with attention to musical traditions and he performed his poems with jazz musicians. Nonetheless, Rexroth was not wholly supportive of the dramatic rise in popularity of the so-called "Beat Generation," and he was distinctly displeased when he became known as the father of the Beats. By 1955, his marriage to his third wife, Marthe Larsen, the mother of his two daughters, was coming to an end.

By the 1960s, Rexroth’s appeal reached far beyond San Francisco. He was devoted to world literature and brought public attention to poetry in translation through his "Classics Revisited" column in the Saturday Review and through his anthologies, One Hundred Poems from the Japanese and One Hundred Poems from the Chinese. In 1964 he was given an award from the National Institute of Arts and Letters. He went on to publish collections of his shorter poems and longer poems in 1967 and 1968, respectively.
Kenneth Rexroth died in 1982 and is buried in Santa Barbara on a cliff above the sea
How the US Government Created the 'Drug Problem' in the USA
by Michael E. Kreca

Michael E. Kreca lived in San Diego and had been a financial reporter for Knight-Ridder, Business Week and the Financial Times of London. On February 11, 2006, he was shot to death by a San Diego cop.

Copyright © 2001 by Permission to reprint in whole or in part is gladly granted, provided full credit is given.

"The bottom line on this whole business has not yet been written."  Dr. Sidney Gottlieb
CIA Technical Services Staff director for the MK-ULTRA program

Eighteenth-century German philosopher Georg Friedrich Hegel long ago developed, among other things, what he called the principle of "thesis, antithesis, synthesis" to explain the process of deliberately enacted social disorder and change as a road to power.

To achieve a desired result, one deliberately creates a situation ("thesis"), devises a "solution," to solve the "problems" created by that situation ("antithesis"), with the final result being the ultimate goal of more power and control ("synthesis").

It is unsurprising Karl Marx and his disciples like Lenin and Trotsky, as well as the US government in its so-called War On Drugs, made this process a keystone of their drive for total control of all individual actions that, in their views, were not, in Mussolini's terms, "inside the state" and thus controllable by the same.

In September 1942, OSS director and Army Maj. Gen. William "Wild Bill" Donovan began his search for an effective "truth serum" to be used on POWs and captured spies. Beginning with a budget of $5,000 and the blessing of President Franklin Roosevelt, he enlisted the aid of a few prominent physicians and psychiatrists like George Estabrooks and Harry Murray as well as former Prohibition agent and notorious Federal Bureau of Narcotics (FBN) director Harry Anslinger.

The OSS/FBN team first tested a potent marijuana extract, tetrahydrocannabinol acetate (THCA), a colorless, odorless substance, lacing cigarettes or food items with it, and administering them to volunteer US Army and OSS personnel, all who eventually acquired the nickname "Donovan’s Dreamers." Testing was also conducted under the guise of treatment for shell shock.  [Tavistock]

Donovan’s team found that THCA, which they termed "TD," for "truth drug," induced "a great loquacity and hilarity," and even, in cases where the subject didn’t feel physically threatened, some useable "reefer madness." Peyote, morphine and scopolamine were judged too powerful to be used in effective interrogation. In light of all this, Donovan concluded, "The drug defies all but the most expert and search analysis, and for all practical purposes can be considered beyond analysis." The OSS did not, however, end the program. By that time, faced with the terrifying ship losses the USA was suffering from German U-boats, Donovan pressed on, hoping to find some effective chemical means to help interrogate captured U-boat sailors.
In May 1943, George Hunter White, an Army captain, OSS officer and former FBN agent, gave standard cigarettes laced with THCA to an unwitting August "Augie Dallas" Del Grazio, an influential New York City gangster. Del Grazio, who had by then had done prison stretches for assault and murder, had been one of the Mafia’s most notorious enforcers and narcotics smugglers. He operated an opium alkaloid factory in Turkey and was a key participant in the long-running Istanbul/Marseilles/NYC heroin pipeline commonly known as the "French Connection." Influenced by the THC, Del Grazio (who was also helping to smuggle spies and Mafiosi into German-occupied Italy) revealed volumes of vital information about underworld operations, including the names of several high-ranking city and state officials who took bribes from the Mob. Donovan was encouraged by the results of White’s tests when he wrote, "Cigarette experiments indicated that we had a mechanism offering promise in relaxing prisoners to be interrogated."

Unsurprisingly, the extensive wartime German experiments with various hallucinogenic drugs at the Dachau concentration camp, directed by one Dr. Hubertus Strughold, later honored as "the father of aviation medicine," aroused great interest in the USA especially after an October 1945 Navy technical mission to Dachau reported in detail on Strughold’s work. So great, in fact, that when the OSS and its successor, the CIA, imported 800 German scientists of various specialties under the auspices of the infamous "Project Paperclip" during 1945–55, it made sure to include Dr. Strughold.

Dr. Strughold’s barbaric "medical experiments," for which his subordinates were tried and convicted as war criminals at Nuremburg, were nothing more than a series of bizarre and unspeakably brutal tortures. Even so, he learned a lot about human behavior and mescaline, a natural alkaloid present in the peyote cactus. Mescaline, long central to many Native American religious rituals and first chemically isolated in 1896, is a phenethylamine whose ergoline skeleton is also contained in lysergic acid (a tryptamine).

Sandoz Labs chemist Dr. Albert Hofmann also discovered a lysergic acid derivative called ergonovine, a medication used to retard excessive postpartum uterine bleeding. Based on his work with ergonovine, Dr. Hofmann first derived d-lysergic acid diethylamide tartrate-25 (LSD, a refined alkaloidal liquid byproduct of a rye fungus, ergot) in a series of experiments in Zurich in 1938. He used the naturally occurring lysergic acid radical, the common item in all ergot alkaloids, as the major component of the substance. Further experiments in this vein yielded psilocybin, derived from the Mexican Psilocybe cubensis mushroom, hydergine, essential today in the improvement of cerebral circulation in geriatric patients, and dihydroergotamine, an important ingredient in blood pressure medication.
The well-read and broadly educated Dr. Hofmann knew ergot had a long natural and cultural history as both medicine and poison. Ancient Greek midwives used to give an ergot-based, gruel-like drink, called kykeon, to their patients about to give birth. Kykeon was also consumed during the autumn Eleusinia, the ancient Greek agricultural festival celebrated in honor of the goddess of agriculture, Demeter. Across the Atlantic, sacramental Maya morning glories, beautifully depicted at the ancient Mayan temple-palace complex at Teotihuacán, Mexico, dating to about 1450, also contain ergot-based alkaloids.

However, the mindset the CIA had in its drug research work was far different from that of Dr. Hofmann’s. To our Cold War spymasters, ex-Nazis like Dr. Strughold were definitely evil, but they were definitely useful as well. This pervasive amoral pragmatism led, of course, to the extensive and notorious MK-ULTRA experiments in which, for nearly 25 years, thousands of everyday Americans, both military and civilian, were heavily dosed with numerous very potent artificial psychoactive drugs, often without their knowledge or consent.

This phenomenon of the obsessive "interests of national security" expediency combined with our celebrity-obsessed pop culture that gleefully raises and shamelessly promotes snake oil hustlers as well as the pharmaceutical industry’s pricey "pill for every ill" philosophy, was a form of incompetence and arrogance far more hazardous than any synthetic alkaloid ever developed and came as no surprise to those like Dr. Hofmann. LSD, invaluable in psychiatric treatment – actor Cary Grant was cured of alcoholism by carefully administered doses of the drug under close medical supervision – is thousands of times more potent than the traditional herbal mixtures. In fact, it is thousands of times more potent than the milder of the entheogenic alkaloids. It is effective at doses of as little as a ten-millionth of a gram, which makes it 5,000 times more potent than mescaline. It should not be taken without training or supervision.

The Navy tested mescaline as part of its 1947–53 Project CHATTER. MK-ULTRA was first organized in 1949 by Richard Helms under the direction of Allen Dulles as Project BLUEBIRD. Two years later, it was renamed ARTICHOKE (after one of Dulles’s favorite foods) then termed MK-ULTRA in 1953, finally becoming MK-SEARCH in 1965 until the program's "official termination" eight years later. MK-ULTRA was directly responsible for the wide underground availability of LSD, phencyclidine (PCP – also called "angel dust"), dimethyltryptamine (DMT), 2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine (STP) and other powerful synthetic psychoactive drugs in the 1960s.

In the early 1950s, the CIA and the Army had contacted Sandoz requesting several kilograms of LSD for use in the test program. Dr. Hofmann and Sandoz refused this request, so Director Dulles persuaded the Indianapolis-based pharmaceutical luminary Eli Lilly (later the pioneers of and chief cheerleaders for the widely prescribed antidepressant Prozac) to synthesize the drug contrary to existing international patent accords – making the US government and Lilly the first illegal domestic manufacturers and distributors of LSD.

These were distributed via the agency’s sometime allies in organized crime and through the FBI’s counterintelligence programs (COINTELPROs) directed against various activist groups of the period. The actual definition of the term MK-ULTRA remains unclear but a former Army Special Forces captain, John McCarthy, who ran the CIA’s Saigon-based Operation Cherry which targeted the Cambodian ruler Prince Sihanouk for assassination, claimed that MK-ULTRA stood for "Manufacturing Killers Utilizing Lethal Tradecraft Requiring Assassination."
On April 10, 1953, in a speech at Princeton University, CIA director Allen Dulles (further feeding the already widespread but misguided fear about the high effectiveness of the alleged Chinese "brainwashing" of US POWs in the Korean conflict) warned that the human mind was a "malleable tool," and that the "brain perversion techniques" of the Reds were "so subtle and so abhorrent" that "the brain becomes a phonograph playing a disc put on its spindle by an outside genius over which it has no control."

Propaganda, in its simplest form, is condemning one’s opponent publicly for doing what one is already doing privately. Dulles, of course, was that very "outside genius." Three days after warning assembled Princetonians of the disturbing ramifications of these techniques, he had directed MK-ULTRA researchers to perfect them. Dr. Sidney Gottlieb, the CIA’s expert on lethal poisons, (who reputedly was the inspiration for director Stanley Kubrick’s bizarre Dr. Strangelove character played by Peter Sellers in the 1964 film of the same title) headed up the operation as director of the Chemical Division of the Technical Services Staff and, via a front organization called "The Society For Human Ecology," distributed $25 million in drug research grants to Harvard, Stanford, UC Berkeley and other institutions.

Meanwhile, George Hunter White, of THCA-laced "Lucky Strikes" fame, had returned to the FBN (now the DEA) at war’s end and continued to research behavior modifying drugs. In 1955, when MK-ULTRA was running full throttle, he was a high-ranking FBN administrator who helped the Agency develop and implement a similar operation called Midnight Climax. In this infamous scheme, "safehouses" staffed with prostitutes were established in San Francisco. The hookers lured men from local taverns back to these safehouses after their drinks had been previously spiked with LSD. White’s team secretly filmed the subsequent events in each house. The purpose of these so-called "national security brothels" was to enable the CIA to experiment with the use of sex and mind altering drugs to extract information from test subjects, and it was planned, from spies, POWs, defectors and saboteurs.

Midnight Climax was terminated after eight years when CIA Inspector General John Earman charged that "the concepts involved in manipulating human behavior are found by many people within and outside the Agency to be distasteful and unethical." He stated that "the rights and interest of U.S. citizens were placed in jeopardy." Earman further noted LSD "had been tested on individuals at all social levels, high and low, native American and foreign."

Richard Helms, MK-ULTRA’s bureaucratic godfather, summarily rebuffed Earman’s charges, claiming that "positive operational capacity to use drugs is diminishing owing to a lack of realistic testing. Tests," Helms continued, "were necessary to keep up with the Soviets." However, Helms reversed himself a year later when testifying before the Warren Commission investigating the JFK assassination, claiming that "Soviet research has consistently lagged five years behind Western research."

Upon retirement from civil service in 1966, White wrote a startling farewell letter to Dr. Gottlieb. He reminisced about his Midnight Climax work. His comments were frightening:

"I was a very minor missionary, actually a heretic, but I toiled wholeheartedly in the vineyards because it was fun, fun, fun. Where else could a red-blooded American boy lie, kill, cheat, steal, rape and pillage with the sanction and blessing of the all-highest?"

Where else indeed, but as a member of what would later become the hypocritical War on (Some) Drugs?
By the end of the 1950s the CIA was funding just about every qualified LSD researcher and psychologist it could find, through such contractors as the Society for the Study of Human Ecology, the Josiah Macy, Jr. Foundation, and the Geschichter Fund for Medical Research.

Author John Marks, in his 1975 book, The Search for the Manchurian Candidate, identified the CIA’s LSD research pioneers as:

Dr. Robert Hyde at Boston Psychopathic Hospital
Dr. Harold Abramson at Mt. Sinai Hospital and Columbia University in New York City
Dr. Carl Pfeiffer at the University of Illinois Medical School, Champaign-Urbana
Dr. Harris Isbell of the NIMH-sponsored Addiction Research Center in Lexington, Ky.
Dr. Louis Jolyon West at the University of Oklahoma, Stillwater
Dr. Harold Hodge at the University of Rochester (N.Y.)

However, there were prominent critics of the US government’s activities, the earliest among them being Aldous Huxley, the famed author of the chillingly prescient 1932 novel Brave New World (which described a totalitarian society whose population was completely controlled by forcible administration of a government-mandated "happiness drug" called "soma.") While taking mescaline supplied by famed English surgeon Dr. Humphrey Osmond (who discovered the close similarities between the molecular structures of adrenaline and mescaline), Huxley completed another work entitled The Doors of Perception in 1954. In that book, the novelist described his intensely personal vision of the world around him:

"I continued to look at the flowers, and in their living light I seemed to detect the qualitative equivalent of breathing – but of a breathing without returns to a starting point, with no recurrent ebbs but only a repeated flow from beauty to heightened beauty, from deeper to ever deeper meaning. Words like ‘grace’ and ‘transfiguration’ came to my mind&Those idiots (MK-ULTRAns) want to be Pavlovians; Pavlov never saw an animal in its natural state, only under duress. The ‘scientific’ LSD boys do the same with their subjects. No wonder they report psychotics."

Obviously, this isn’t a typical CIA spook writing, and, given Huxley’s incredible mind, creative vision and compassion, we’re not talking about a moron or a mental case either. Which means that giving someone mescaline while they’re being tortured or lobotomized or electrocuted at Dachau will only tell you a lot about torture, lobotomies and electrocution, not about mescaline.

As author Marks noted:

"It would become supreme irony that the CIA’s enormous search for weapons among drugs – fueled by the hope that spies could control life with genius and machines – would wind up helping to create the wandering, uncontrollable minds of the counterculture."
Admiral’s son and musician Jim Morrison led The Doors, [of Perception] a quartet of Liverpudlians sang of "Lucy In the Sky With Diamonds," while the Rolling Stones dropped transparent hints about "Mother’s Little Helper." To take a lesson from Orwell, what is more important about the 1960s, indeed, about any period in history, is not so much what really happened as how that period is remembered publicly decades later.

The public memories of that particular era were carefully manipulated in great part by the deliberate creation and promotion (via television and the recording industry) of the phony and in reality quite small "drug/rock/hippie subculture."

The first underground LSD labs were actually set up by the FBI in 1963 in both New York City and San Francisco. Many began to incorrectly confuse the ancient medical art of herbalism with the shenanigans of amateur basement "flower-power" and "biker" chemists. Overenthusiastic pitchmen like social psychologist Dr. Timothy Leary and Beat poet Allen Ginsberg sadly failed to sufficiently stress that key difference, although the technically competent Leary clearly understood the artificially high potency of LSD.

Leary (and his longtime associate, psychologist Richard Alpert) matured professionally in a CIA-funded research world. In 1948, Leary, then a UC Berkeley graduate student, attended the yearly convention of the left-wing American Veterans’ Council in Milwaukee. There he met CIA officer Cord Meyer. Meyer’s professional specialty was infiltrating and discrediting various organizations deemed "un-American" or "disloyal." Meyer persuaded Leary to help him. Leary acknowledged Meyer’s influence, crediting him with "helping me understand my political-cultural role more clearly."

During 1954–59 Leary was the director of clinical research and psychology at the Kaiser Foundation Hospital in Oakland, Calif. The personality test that made him famous, "The Leary," was actually used by the CIA to test prospective employees. A grad school classmate of Leary’s, CIA contractor Frank Barron, worked with the Berkeley Institute for Personality Assessment and Research, which was funded and staffed by CIA psychologists. In 1960 Barron, with government funding, founded the Harvard Psychedelic Drug Research Center. Leary followed Barron to Harvard, becoming a lecturer in psychology where he remained for three years.

Leary’s Harvard associates included former chief OSS psychologist Harry Murray, who had monitored the early OSS "truth serum" experiments, and numerous other knowing CIA contractors.

One of Dr. Murray’s many test subjects was a Harvard undergraduate math major named Theodore Kaczynski.

In the spring of 1963, Leary and Alpert left Harvard and founded the International Foundation for Internal Freedom (IFIF) – later renamed the Castalia Foundation – on a 2,500-acre estate in the small upstate New York community of Millbrook. There, the pair of psychologists continued their hallucinogenic drug research and soon became the chief investigative target of an ambitious Dutchess County district attorney named G. Gordon Liddy. Multimillionaire William Mellon Hitchcock generously bankrolled the founding and operation of IFIF/Castalia and later financed a huge black-market LSD manufacturing operation.

Even so, Leary carefully stressed proper mindset, setting and dosages in a book he coauthored with Alpert and Ralph Metzner, The Psychedelic Experience. It was based on an ancient Tibetan shamanic manual, The Book of the Dead. The latter work referred to an herbal tea similar in content to but far less powerful than LSD, and insisted on mental discipline as an inherent part of the process. The Incans of Andean South America, for instance, were an invaluable source of medical knowledge, and used whole herbs like ayahuasca and the coca leaf, not their artificially refined alkaloids, and spiritual technique was also taught as a key part of the process.
However, much like the crusading "drys" before and during Prohibition, the MK-ULTRA inquisitors with their police state mentality in concert with misinformed and emotionally distressed LSD users, had found their "devil drug," (the term used by the Harrison Tax Act advocates in the 1910s and Marijuana Tax Act backers in the 1930s) replete with tragic tales of already emotionally distressed and lonely young people quite unprepared for such an artificially powerful entheogen.

It was also well within CIA policy to randomly distribute LSD laced with the lethal poison strychnine so as to create "horror stories" useful as propaganda. Dr. Hofmann himself chemically confirmed the presence of pure strychnine in several random street samples of LSD.

Consistent with its policy of deliberately confusing the beneficial ancient herbs with extremely dangerous synthetic alkaloid derivatives, the CIA surreptitiously distributed of these synthetic compounds, termed "psychedelics," to the public. One of them was STP, originally developed as an incapacitating agent for the Army in 1964 at Dow Chemical. Dow even made the STP formula public information three years later.

This potent synthetic put many unsuspecting people on a three-day trip, and sent many, hysterical with anxiety, to the emergency room. That, of course, was the purpose of its distribution.

During 1955–75, the Army tested LSD (termed EA-1729) and PCP on several of its enlisted men at what was then the headquarters of its Chemical Corps, Edgewood Arsenal in Maryland, something described in detail by Bill Kurtis in a televised 1995 A&E Investigative Reports segment titled "Bad Trip to Edgewood."

The CIA also tested PCP (in conjunction with electroshock "therapy" and sleep deprivation) at Allain Memorial Institute in Montreal under the direction of the notorious Canadian psychiatrist Dr. Ewen Cameron.

The Chemical Corps (whose commander in the 1950s, Lt. General William Creasy, advocated a new military strategy of LSD-based "nonkill warfare") then stockpiled PCP for use as a "nonlethal incapacitant." Excess doses of PCP, reported the CIA, could "lead to convulsions and death." Soon, PCP was flooding the streets.

Edgewood also received an average of 400 product "rejects" a month from major US pharmaceutical firms. These "rejects" were actually drugs found to be commercially useless because of their demonstrated hazards and numerous undesirable side effects.

In 1958, Edgewood obtained its first sample of a "reject" called phenylbenzeneacetic acid (BZ) developed by pharmaceutical giant Hoffmann-LaRoche, later known by its street nickname as "brown acid."

| -----
" is probably safe to say that Frank’s dad...had little regard for the youth culture of the 1960s, given that Francis Zappa was...a chemical warfare specialist assigned to – where else? – the Edgewood Arsenal. Edgewood is, of course, the longtime home of America’s chemical warfare program, as well as a facility frequently cited as being deeply enmeshed in MK-ULTRA operations.

"...Frank Zappa literally grew up at the Edgewood Arsenal, having lived the first seven years of his life in military housing on the grounds of the facility. The family later moved to Lancaster, California, near Edwards Air Force Base, where Francis Zappa continued to busy himself with doing classified work for the military/intelligence complex.

Frank Zappa with his parents (his dad Francis Zappa


| -----
[ A Woodstock acid trip wasn't always voluntary. "Outside (the tent), they were giving out electric Kool-Aid laced with whatever," Nurse Sanderson said. "They said, ?Don't take the brown acid.' They put it in watermelon. Now, when kids take a tab of acid, they know what they're getting into. When you drink something that's cold because you're thirsty, that's different. A lot of the kids hurt with this stuff were just thirsty. They didn't have any choice. " ]
BZ (some 10,000 times as powerful as LSD) inhibits the production of hormones which aid the brain’s transfer of messages and instructions across nerve endings (synapses), thereby severely disrupting normal human perceptual, behavioral and sensory patterns. Its effects generally last about three days, although symptoms–migraine headaches, giddiness, disorientation, auditory and visual hallucinations, and erratic if not maniacal behavior – could persist for as long as six weeks. "During the period of acute effects," noted an Army physician, "the person is completely out of touch with his environment." The Army also developed artillery shells and rockets with warheads able to deliver large dosages of BZ to selected targets.

In the summer of 1964, Beat novelist Ken Kesey (the author of One Flew Over The Cuckoo’s Nest and who had been an MK-ULTRA test subject at Stanford along with Allen Ginsberg and Grateful Dead musician Bob Hunter) launched a yearlong cross-country trip in a Day-Glo painted school bus filled with friends called "Merry Pranksters."

The Merry Pranksters distributed thousands of doses of LSD along the way (a phenomenon colorfully described in author Tom Wolfe’s 1968 book, The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test) supplied by one Ronald Hadley Stark. Stark (who died in 1984) was a CIA operative fluent in five languages with access to unlimited public funds and numerous high-level contacts in business and government throughout the world.

For instance, when the underground manufacture and distribution of LSD was suddenly derailed in 1969 due to the scarcity of its key ingredient, ergotamine tartrate, and increasing federal law enforcement pressure, Stark, via the Laguna Beach, Calif.-based Brotherhood of Eternal Love, a small group of local surfers led by chemist Nicholas Sand, got it quickly back on track. For five years, Stark, aided by the Castle Bank of the Bahamas (which pioneered the art of money laundering for the Mob) and his contacts in a French pharmaceutical firm, facilitated the mass production and distribution (via the Brotherhood and other groups) of an even more powerful strain of LSD nicknamed "orange sunshine." This firm also manufactured BZ. Stark (who operated LSD labs in Brussels and Paris as well) claimed he was going to supply orange sunshine as an offensive weapon to CIA-backed Tibetan rebels fighting the Chinese occupation.

Stark also was a close friend of the Los Angeles founders of a small breakaway Scientology sect called "The Process Church of the Final Judgement," English expatriates Robert DeGrimston Moore and Mary Ann McClean.

Regular attendees of the Process Church included members of the Beach Boys, the Rolling Stones and other prominent pop performers as well as an ex-convict and wannabe rock musician named Charles Manson. Manson and his followers became heavy users of orange sunshine – the trademark "bad acid" of the day – which they were all on when, on Manson’s orders, they carried out the brutal August 1969 Tate-LaBianca murders.

When Stark (who is believed to have distributed an estimated 50 million doses of LSD during his Agency career) was arrested for drug trafficking in Bologna in 1975, Italian magistrate Giorgio Floridia ordered his release on the grounds that he had been a CIA agent since 1960. Judge Floridia documented and justified this using a list of Stark’s numerous intelligence contacts.

These were and are all classic government COINTELPRO-style tricks – this is how natural herbs and their mild, pharmaceutical-grade derivatives were quickly and easily made lethal and consequently demonized. How was this done? First, foolish claims were made that there was no difference between safe whole herbs and their potentially deadly ultra-refined alkaloids; next, the best of the traditional herbs and the milder of the pharmaceutical-grade alkaloid derivatives were made unavailable, and finally, the streets were flooded with potentially deadly synthetics. Deliberate perversions of science like angel dust continue to be a great propaganda tool for our diehard drug warriors, and the worn catchall excuse of "the interest of national security" is used to justify appalling covert drug capers ranging from CIA-sponsored heroin production and trafficking in Southeast Asia in the 1960s to the Bush/Clinton/Mena/Nicaragua cocaine-for-arms smuggling schemes in the 1980s.
These Constitution-shredding police state methods were adapted from the Nazis and the Soviets by and large and were applied by the CIA, NSA, DEA, BATF, IRS and FBI against us. Scores of groups, ranging from the American Indian Movement and Black Panthers to militias and religious organizations like the Branch Davidians in Waco, Texas (which the government first falsely charged as illegal methamphetamine dealers in order to get a Posse Comitatus Act waiver to use military force against them) were either disrupted by agents provocateur-style riots, bombings and armed standoffs, smeared in the mainstream news media through the "Reichstag Fire" approach, or, in the case of the Davidians, physically exterminated. The War on Some Drugs is merely a horrible extension and intensification of these tried-and-true Hegelian methods, a "war" in which we all lose.

Short Bibliography
Bowart, Walter; Operation Mind Control, Dell Publishing, 1978.
Delgado, Jose, Physical Control of the Mind, Harper, NYC, 1969.
Huxley, Aldous, The Doors of Perception, Harper, NYC, 1954.
Lee, Martin; Shalin, Bruce, Acid Dreams, 1986.
Marchetti, Victor, The CIA and the Cult of Intelligence, New York, 1974.
Marks, John, The Search for the Manchurian Candidate, New York, 1975.
Masters, Robert & Houston, Jean, The Varieties of Psychedelic Experience: The Classic Guide to the Effects of LSD on the Human Psyche, 2000.
McCoy, Alfred, The Politics of Heroin: CIA Complicity in the Global Drug Trade, Lawrence Hill, 1972, rev. 1991.
Meerloo, Joost, The Rape of the Mind, Crowell, NYC, 1956.
Skinner, B.F., Beyond Freedom and Dignity," Knopf, NYC, 1971
Smith, Harris R. OSS: The Secret History of America’s First Central Intelligence Agency, Berkeley, 1972.
Stevens, Jay, Storming Heaven – LSD and the American Dream, 1998.
Major General William M. Creasy

Major General William M. Creasy was born in North Carolina on April 26, 1905 and graduated from the
United States Military Academy in 1926. His sustained outstanding performance during a 32-year military
career reflects total devotion toward increasing the effectiveness of the U.S. Army and improving national

Through his forceful and motivating leadership, the Chemical Corps accomplished new objectives in
the fields of chemical, biological, and radiological (CBR) protection

He initiated an extensive CBR research and development program which, coupled with procedures successfully adapted from various civilian scientific agencies, resulted in providing modern protection for the American soldiers on a CBR battlefield. As Chief Chemical Officer of the US Army, his personal contributions and leadership had an impact upon the entire world.

Under  his guidance, innovations in the field of psychochemical agents and radiological defense, as well as various humanitarian benefits in medical research, were realized. He also worked closely with national and international groups and the other Armed Services to provide improved chemical offensive capabilities. His able presentations to organizations heightened the awareness of the American public concerning the realities of CBR warfare. His keen foresight and technical skills enabled him to establish the managerial and organizational elements to develop a deterrent biological warfare capability for the U.S. Army. General Creasy retired in 1958 and died on March 22, 1987.

Top 10 Greatest LSD Quotes
#10 - JERRY GARCIA [1942-95]

“Nobody stopped thinking about those psychedelic experiences. Once you’ve been to some of those places, you think, ‘How can I get back there again but make it a little easier on myself?’”
—Quoted in Rolling Stone, November 30, 1989

#09 - TERENCE MCKENNA [1946-2000]

"LSD burst over the dreary domain of the constipated bourgeoisie like the angelic herald of a new psychedelic millennium. We have never been the same since, nor will we ever be, for LSD demonstrated, even to skeptics, that the mansions of heaven and gardens of paradise lie within each and all of us."

#08 - STEVEN WRIGHT [1955- ]

"If God dropped acid, would He see people?"

#07 - BILL HICKS [1961-94]

"Always that same LSD story, you've all seen it. 'Young man on acid, thought he could fly, jumped out of a building. What a tragedy.' What a dick! f**k him, he’s an idiot. If he thought he could fly, why didn’t he take off on the ground first? Check it out. You don’t see ducks lined up to catch elevators to fly south—they fly from the ground, ya moron, quit ruining it for everybody. He’s a moron, he’s dead—good, we lost a moron, f**kin’ celebrate. Wow, I just felt the world get lighter. We lost a moron! I don’t mean to sound cold, or cruel, or vicious, but I am, so that’s the way it comes out. Professional help is being sought. How about a positive LSD story? Wouldn't that be news-worthy, just the once? To base your decision on information rather than scare tactics and superstition and lies? I think it would be news-worthy. 'Today, a young man on acid realized that all matter is merely energy condensed to a slow vibration. That we are all one consciousness experiencing itself subjectively. There is no such thing as death, life is only a dream and we're the imagination of ourselves' . . . 'Here's Tom with the weather.'"

#06 - JIM MORRISON [1943-71]

"In the beginning we were creating our music, ourselves, every night . . . starting with a few outlines, maybe a few words for a song. Sometimes we worked out in Venice, looking at the surf. We were together a lot and it was good times for all of us. Acid, sun, friends, the ocean, and poetry and music."

#05 - KEN KESEY [1935-2001]

"I believe that with the advent of acid, we discovered a new way to think, and it has to do with piecing together new thoughts in your mind. Why is it that people think it's so evil? What is it about it that scares people so deeply, even the guy that invented it, what is it? Because they're afraid that there's more to reality than they have confronted. That there are doors that they're afraid to go in, and they don't want us to go in there either, because if we go in we might learn something that they don't know. And that makes us a little out of their control."
—Quoted in the BBC documentary, "The Beyond Within: The Rise and Fall of LSD," 1987

#04 - TOM WOLFE [1931- ]

“The Pranksters had what looked like about a million doses of the Angels’ favorite drug—beer—and LSD for all who wanted to try it. The beer made the Angels very happy and the LSD made them strangely peaceful and sometimes catatonic, in contrast to the Pranksters and other intellectuals around, who soared on the stuff . . . The Angels were adding LSD to the already elaborate list of highs and lows they liked, beer, wine, marijuana, Benzedrine, Seconal, Amytal, Nembutal, Tuinal. Some of them had terrible bummers—bummer was the Angels’ term for a bad trip on a motorcycle and very quickly it became the hip world’s term for a bad trip on LSD. The only bad moment at Kesey’s came one day when an Angel went berserk during the first rush of the drug and tried to strangle his old lady on Kesey’s front steps. But he was too wasted at that point to really do much.”
—The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, 1968

#03 - TIMOTHY LEARY [1920-96]

"'Turn on' meant go within to activate your neural and genetic equipment. Become sensitive to the many and various levels of consciousness and the specific triggers that engage them. Drugs were one way to accomplish this end. 'Tune in' meant interact harmoniously with the world around you—externalize, materialize, express your new internal perspectives. Drop out suggested an elective, selective, graceful process of detachment from involuntary or unconscious commitments. 'Drop Out' meant self-reliance, a discovery of one's singularity, a commitment to mobility, choice, and change. Unhappily my explanations of this sequence of personal development were often misinterpreted to mean 'Get stoned and abandon all constructive activity.'"
—Flashbacks, 1983

02 - HUNTER S. THOMPSON [1937-2005]

“That was the fatal flaw in Tim Leary’s trip. He crashed around America selling ‘consicousness expansion’ without ever giving a thought to the grim meat-hook realities that were lying in wait for all the people who took him too seriously . . . All those pathetically eager acid freaks who thought they could buy Peace and Understanding for three bucks a hit. But their loss and failure is ours, too. What Leary took down with him was the central illusion of a whole life-style that he helped to create . . . a generation of permanent cripples, failed seekers, who never understood the essential old mystic fallacy of the Acid Culture: the desperate assumption that somebody—or at least some force—is tending the Light at the end of the tunnel.”
—Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas, 1971

#01 - ALBERT HOFMANN [1906-2008]

"Of greatest significance to me has been the insight that I attained as a fundamental understanding from all of my LSD experiments: what one commonly takes as 'the reality,' including the reality of one's own individual person, by no means signifies something fixed, but rather something that is ambiguous—that there is not only one, but that there are many realities, each comprising also a different consciousness of the ego. One can also arrive at this insight through scientific reflections. The problem of reality is and has been from time immemorial a central concern of philosophy. It is, however, a fundamental distinction, whether one approaches the problem of reality rationally, with the logical methods of philosophy, or if one obtrudes upon this problem emotionally, through an existential experience. The first planned LSD experiment was therefore so deeply moving and alarming, because everyday reality and the ego experiencing it, which I had until then considered to be the only reality, dissolved, and an unfamiliar ego experienced another, unfamiliar reality. The problem concerning the innermost self also appeared, which, itself unmoved, was able to record these external and internal transformations. Reality is inconceivable without an experiencing subject, without an ego. It is the product of the exterior world, of the sender and of a receiver, an ego in whose deepest self the emanations of the exterior world, registered by the antennae of the sense organs, become conscious. If one of the two is lacking, no reality happens, no radio music plays, the picture screen remains blank."
—LSD: My Problem Child, 1980

The Lord God

For whether we be beside ourselves, it is to God: or whether we be sober, it is for your cause.
2 Corinthians 5:13

The DNA - LSD connection...
Crick and Watson discover DNA in 1953 - Just about when the Sequoia Seminars Begin...

Gerald Heard,  Christopher Isherwood, Sir Julian Huxley
Auldous Huxley and Linus Pauling L.A. 1960
Nobel Prize genius Crick was high on LSD - when he discovered the secret of life
Copyright 2004 Associated Newspapers Ltd. Mail on Sunday (London)  
August 8, 2004  

FRANCIS CRICK, the Nobel Prize-winning father of modern genetics, was under the influence of LSD when he first deduced thedouble-helix structure of DNA nearly 50 years ago.

The abrasive and unorthodox Crick and his brilliant American co-researcher James Watson famously celebrated their eureka moment in March 1953 by running from the now legendary Cavendish Laboratory in Cambridge to the nearby Eagle pub, where they announced over pints of bitter that they had discovered the secret of life.

Crick, who died ten days ago, aged 88, later told a fellow scientist that he often used small doses of LSD then an experimental drug used in psychotherapy to boost his powers of thought. He said it was LSD, not  the Eagle's warm beer, that helped him to unravel the structure of DNA, the discovery that won him the Nobel Prize.

Despite his Establishment image, Crick was a devotee of novelist Aldous Huxley, whose accounts of his experiments with LSD and another hallucinogen, mescaline, in the short stories The Doors Of Perception and Heaven And Hell became cult texts for the hippies of the Sixties and Seventies.

In the late Sixties, Crick was a founder member of Soma, a legalise-cannabis group named after the drug in Huxley's novel Brave New World. He even put his name to a famous letter to The Times in 1967 calling for a reform in the drugs laws.

It was through his membership of Soma that Crick inadvertently became the inspiration for the biggest LSD manufacturing conspiracy-the world has ever seen the multimillion-pound drug factory in a remote  farmhouse in Wales that was smashed by the Operation Julie raids of the late Seventies.

Crick's involvement with the gang was fleeting but crucial. The revered scientist had been invited to the Cambridge home of freewheeling American writer David Solomon a friend of hippie LSD guru Timothy Leary who had come to Britain in 1967 on a quest to discover a method for manufacturing pure THC, the active ingredient of cannabis.

It was Crick's presence in Solomon's social circle that attracted a brilliant young biochemist, Richard Kemp{associated with The Brotherhood of Eternal Love } , who soon became a convert to the attractions of both cannabis and LSD. Kemp was recruited to the THC project in 1968, but soon afterwards devised the world's first foolproof method of producing cheap, pure LSD.

Solomon and Kemp went into business, manufacturing acid in a succession of rented houses before setting up their laboratory in a cottage on a hillside near Tregaron, Carmarthenshire, in 1973. It is estimated that Kemp manufactured drugs worth Pounds 2.5 million an astonishing amount in the Seventies before police stormed the building in 1977 and seized enough pure LSD and its constituent chemicals to make two million LSD 'tabs'.

The arrest and conviction of Solomon, Kemp and a string of co-conspirators dominated the headlines for months. I was covering the case as a reporter at the time and it was then that I met Kemp's close friend, Garrod Harker, whose home had been raided by police but who had not been arrest ed. Harker told me that Kemp and his girlfriend Christine Bott by then in jail were hippie idealists who were completely uninterested in the money they were making.

They gave away thousands to pet causes such as the Glastonbury pop festival and the drugs charity Release.

'They have a philosophy,' Harker told me at the time. 'They believe industrial society will collapse when the oil runs out and that the answer is to change people's mindsets using acid. They believe LSD can help people to see that a return to a natural society based on self-sufficiency is the only way to save themselves.

'Dick Kemp told me he met Francis Crick at Cambridge. Crick had told him that some Cambridge academics used LSD in tiny amounts as a thinking tool, to liberate them from preconceptions and let their genius wander freely to new ideas. Crick told him he had perceived the double-helix shape while on LSD.

'It was clear that Dick Kemp was highly impressed and probably bowled over by what Crick had told him. He told me that if a man like Crick, who had gone to the heart of human existence, had used LSD, then it  was worth using. Crick was certainly Dick Kemp's inspiration.' Shortly afterwards I visited Crick at his home, Golden Helix, in Cambridge.

He listened with rapt, amused attention to what I told him about the role of LSD in his Nobel Prize-winning discovery. He gave no intimation of surprise. When I had finished, he said: 'Print a word of it and I'll sue.'

Linus Pauling was working on the structure of DNA too:

"Linus Pauling and the Race For DNA - A documentary history"

Linus Pauling, 1950

Francis Crick, 1955    James Watson, 1955
Linus Pauling was the first to identify[20] the 3.6 amino acids per helix turn ratio of the α helix.

Stimulated by their discussions with Wilkins and what Watson learned by attending a talk given by Franklin about her work on DNA, Crick and Watson produced and showed off an erroneous first model of DNA. Their hurry to produce a model of DNA structure was driven in part by Watson's belief that they were competing against Linus Pauling. Given Pauling's recent success in discovering the Alpha helix, it was not unreasonable to worry that Pauling might also be the first to determine the structure of DNA.[28]
Operation Julie - The best acid ever?

The late 1970s saw Operation Julie, which netted some 1.5kg of LSD, enough for 7.5 million 1970s doses of the drug, or up to 20-30 million doses at today"s levels. These were small tablets or "microdots" of high purity and potency, produced in a remote farmhouse in Wales. The "conspirators" were arrested and jailed in 1978 following an intensive police surveillance operation led by Dick Lee, who along with undecover officers, subsequently resigned from the police. Although presented as a great success, the operation started almost by accident:

The Brotherhood of Eternal Love, one of the groups formed by Leary and funded by Bill Hitchcock, a millionaire property dealer, in the wake of the prohibition of LSD in the USA in 1965, was disbanded following a police bust. One of the members, Ron Stark, flew to London and met Richard Kemp, a Cambridge chemistry student. Stark provided 7.4 kioos of ergotamine tartrate, a precursor for LSD synthesis, from which Kemp made 1.7 kilos of LSD, using a process known as the "wrinkle" which allowed production of 99.7% pure acid. This was sufficient to make 8.5 million doses of 200µg each.

In 1974, Gerald Thomas, a cannabis smuggler earlier thrown out of the group for unreliability, was arrested in Canada and gave the names of Kemp, Christine Bott, and Henry Todd as being involved with "the biggest acid lab in the world".

Kemp and Bott moved to Wales where they set up a lab in a remote farmhouse, whereas Todd and Andrew Munro, an inorganic chemist, set up shop in a basement in Seymour Road, London producing inferior quality LSD in 100µg black microdots. Kemp"s bad luck started when his Range Rover was involved in a fatal accident, and was impounded by police. By chance, Dick Lee was visiting the area, noticed the owner of the vehicle, and searched in finding a note with reference to hydrazine hydrate, a chemical used in LSD synthesis. From that point on Kemp and the cottage were put under surveillance.

The two labs, operating independently but stated to be part of the same conspiracy, were raided on 26th March 1977. The welsh operation had already shut down, and undercover officers had missed seeing Bott burying the equipment in the garden. Even so, there was little hard evidence when the defendants were arrested, most coming from confessions. The 17 defendants pleaded guilty at Bristol Crown Court and were sentenced to a total of 130years imprisonment, with Kemp and Todd each receiving 13 years. The author, David Solomon (Marijuana Papers) received 10 years for providing raw materials, Munro received 10 years, and Bott 9 years.

Although there were persistent rumours that the group had stashed away several million doses, none reappeared years later following the release of the main protagonists. Following Julie, the price of LSD rose sharply, from around 50p to over Ł1 per tablet. By this time, LSD had fallen out of fashion, the preferred drug among youth culture in the late 1970s being alcohol. Punks regarded LSD and cannabis as drugs of the unfashionable and wimpish hippies, their preferred drugs being "sulphate" (amphetamine) and Special Brew.

Operation Julie UK - LSD and the Brotherhood
"Operation Julie", Dick Lee & Colin Pratt.  London:  W.H.Allen (1978).  
Out of Print.  Covers the tracking and 1977 take-down of the U.K.  organization led by Richard Kemp that formed from the regrouping of the  post-indictment remnants of the BEL.  The Kemp ring allegedly  manufactured 60% of the world's LSD at the time, amounting to tens  of millions of hits over a several year period.

The motive of the ring's leadership was the expectation that  widespread use of LSD by Britain's youth would catalyze leftist  Revolution, leading to the overthrow of the aging and morally bankrupt

For the temerity of admitting this to post-arrest police, sentences  totaled 170 years in prison.

Their bust was immortalized in the delightful electric guitar/piano  medley, "Julie's in the Drug Squad" by the Clash (on the "Give 'em Enough Rope" album).

The most recent LSD bust of note occurred in Bolinas, California in July 1993, and was the largest seizure of LSD in U.S. history:  1.5  million dosage units bought over a four year period.

Consistent with the unusual patterns associated with LSD trafficking,  not only did the distribution ring consist entirely of women, including  a grandmother in her fifties, but all refused to testify in exchange  for reduced sentences.
CDPRC Protests Bolinas LSD Bust -  20 Jul 93  

BOLINAS, CALIFORNIA: Drug reform activists are calling for an end to harassment of LSD and psychedelic drugs following the government's announcement of its biggest-ever LSD bust in Bolinas on June 29. Local residents expressed shock at the arrest of Sage Appel, 50, Marcella Whitefield, 27, George Horvath, 33, and Neal Dry, 38. who were well-regarded in the community.

Bolinas, a countercultural enclave on the coast north of San Francisco, has been the object of ongoing DEA harassment and an involuntary training ground for narcotics agents, who ride through the hills in tie-dye shirts on trail bikes looking for marijuana gardens.

The defendants, who are accused of operating a major nationwide LSD distribution network that sold over one million doses of crystal LSD to undercover agents over a period of four years, face a minimum of twelve years to life under current federal sentencing laws.

The Gerald Heard - Linus Pauling connection - Esalen (1961):
Mind Control in the 1990's: Neuro-Linguistic Programming - Rick Branch
In 1961 Michael Murphy and Richard Price opened a new residential community which came to be known as Esalen.

Located in California's Big Sur area, Esalen "helped mid-wife much of what came to be known as the human-potential movement. Seminar leaders in Esalen's first three years included Gerald Heard, Alan Watts, Arnold Toynbee, Linus Pauling, Norman O. Brown, Carl Rogers, Paul Tillich, Rollo May, and a young graduate student named Carlos Castaneda," (The Aquarian Conspiracy, p. 137; emphasis mine).

The Hollywood Hospital Ross McLean Abram Hoffer and Dr. Humphry Osmond- Linus Pauling connection :

Linus Pauling wrote: "In 1967, I happened to read a number of papers published by two psychiatrists in Saskatchewan, Canada. Dr. Abram Hoffer and Dr. Humphry Osmond. (T)here was something extraordinary about their work. They were giving very large amounts of niacin to the schizophrenic patients, as much as 17,000 milligrams per day, which is 1,000 times the RDA. I was astonished that niacin and ascorbate, with the striking physiological property, when given in very small amounts, of preventing death from pellagra and scurvy, should be so lacking in toxicity that 1,000 times the effective daily intake could be taken by a person without harm. This meant that these substances were quite different from drugs, which are usually given to patients in amounts not much smaller than the lethal dosages.

I thought that these substances, normally present in the human body, and required for good health and life, deserved a name to distinguish them from ordinary Pharmaceuticals, and I decided to call them 'orthomolecular' substances." (Linus Pauling in His Own Words: Selections from his Writings, Speeches and Interviews, edited by Barbara Marinacci. NY: Simon and Shuster, 1995.)

Dr. Humphry Osmond's remarkable medical career included decades of distinguished psychiatric practice and a prodigious output of writing and research. He is widely recognized as a pioneer investigator into the chemistry of consciousness. Along with Dr. John Smythies, Osmond developed the theory that schizophrenics suffer due to endogenous production of an adrenalin-based hallucinogen. This led to the Hoffer-Osmond Adreno-chrome Hypothesis in the early 1950s, the very origin of orthomolecular medicine. The popular press may today remember Humphry Osmond for coining the term "psychedelic," but countless thousands of grateful patients will remember him as the co-discoverer of niacin therapy for schizophrenia. A bibliography of Dr. Osmond's work is posted at

Dr. Abram Hoffer and Linus Pauling were friends. Each influenced the other. When Pauling started orthomolecular medicine in 1968, he cited articles by Hoffer & Osmond on psychiatry.
Hoffer wrote a chapter in the Linus Pauling book "Orthomolecular Psychiatry" (1). Hoffer advocated the use of niacin in psychiatry in this chapter. At that time Hoffer was working with Humphrey Osmond, who also contributed to this outstanding book. Osmond died before Hoffer.

Bill Wilson ( AA )

Hoffer was interested in alcoholism.

"From the day he was freed of lifelong tension and insomnia by taking 3000 milligrams of niacin daily, Bill Wilson became a powerful runner with us. Bill helped me organize the first Schizophrenic's Anonymous group in Saskatoon, which was very successful. Bill introduced the orthomolecular concepts to a large number of AA members, especially in the United States." Hoffer
Hoffer & Osmond. In Ref. 10 they blamed schizophrenia on the "M-substance", which was an unknown amine similar to mescaline. Their rationale for this was that mescaline produced similar symptoms to schizophrenia. In 1952 Osmond thought that the "M-substance" was DMPEA (11). This brilliant theory was ahead of its time, so it was largely ignored. Osmond was so mad that he moved from the UK to Canada. The other UK psychiatrists ignored Osmond's theory except for Smythies and Harley-Mason, who was a chemist. Hoffer thought that the Osmond/Smythies theory was brilliant, which it was.
Chronic Schizophrenic Patients Treated Ten Years Or More A.Hoffer, Ph.D. M.D.1

We (Dr. H. Osmond and I), began to use nicotinic acid nicotinamide and ascorbic acid in
large doses for treating acute schizophrenics in 1951
. Based upon the results obtained from pilot
studies, we began the first double blind therapeutic trials in the history of psychiatry in 1953. By then we knew that these vitamins were safe even in multigram doses, that they could be taken for long periods of time, and that the side effects were minimal and easily dealt with.

Crick's involvement with the gang was fleeting but crucial. The revered scientist had been invited to the Cambridge home of freewheeling American writer David Solomon a friend of hippie LSD guru Timothy Leary who had come to Britain in 1967 on a quest to discover a method for manufacturing pure THC, the active ingredient of cannabis.
August 01 - 07, 2007
Obituary - David Solomon, jazz critic, drug guru, 81 - April 26 2007

David Solomon, editor, jazz critic, psychedelic sage and longtime Village resident, died at his home on W. 10th St. on April 26 at the age of 81.

Born in California in 1925, he came to New York after serving in the Army during World War II. Because his two older brothers were lost on bombing runs over Germany, Solomon was reassigned as a sole-surviving son from a combat-ready unit to intelligence work. After his discharge in 1946, he went to the Washington Square College of New York University and earned a B.A. degree.

Living in the Village with his wife and two daughters, he became an editor at Esquire in the mid-1950s and worked with literary luminaries, including Aldous Huxley, Jack Kerouac, William S. Burroughs and Allen Ginsberg.

He became managing editor of Metronome in the early 1960s and was a friend of Dizzy Gillespie, jazz writer Nat Hentoff, song writer and singer Earl Robinson and his son, Perry Robinson, the jazz clarinetist. In the 1960s, Solomon became literary editor of Playboy and published Timothy Leary, Ram Das (Richard Alpert), Alan Watts and Humphry Osmond, who coined the  word “psychedelic.”

He also edited two books, “LSD - the Consciousness Expanding Drug,” in 1964 and “The Marijuana Papers” in 1966. After that, he moved with his wife and daughters to England where he co-edited “Drugs and Sexuality” in 1973 and “The Coca Leaf and Cocaine Papers” in 1975.

He came back to the U.S. and the Village in 1983 and continued writing and editing counterculture works. He became a fixture at Sweet Basil, the jazz club on Seventh Ave. S., now gone. He is survived by his daughters, Lin and Kim, and three grandsons.
One of the interesting things about Linus Pauling back in 1952 was that he was a friend of Lord Victor Rothschild and Linus was having trouble getting a visa for his trip back to England also he was making trips to Vancouver Canada...

Victor Rothschild - born Oct 31 1910 - Halloween - Cambridge
February 1952

In February, Pauling receives a letter from Mrs. Ruth B. Shipley of the Passport Division of the Department of State, informing him that his request for a passport is being denied because "the Department is of the opinion that your proposed travel would not be in the best interests of the United States." Pauling had applied for a passport in January in order to visit England to take part in a meeting on the structure of proteins to be held on May 1. A debate was going on about whether his alpha helix really could be used to explain the structure of such proteins as alpha keratin, and the Royal Society was organizing a symposium to help resolve the differences about this important discovery.
# Throughout the summer, Pauling’s passport difficulties are constantly in the news. Senator Wayne Morse of Oregon publicly condemns the action of the State Department, as does Albert Einstein. Pauling makes a few more attempts to get a reversal, and on the "fourth try," he gets a "limited passport," good until October 1 for travel to England and France.

# During July and August, Linus and Ava Helen Pauling make a six-week trip to France and England. In Paris, he attends the second International Congress of Biochemistry, and in England, he attends a meeting of the Faraday Society on the physical chemistry of proteins.
February 7

Letter from LP to Lord Rothschild of Trinity College

RE: writes to inform Lord Rothschild of his upcoming visit to England for the Royal Society Conference on the structure of proteins. [Letter from Lord Victor Rothschild to LP February 13, 1952] [Filed under LP Correspondence: Box #336, Folder #6: File (Rothschild, Victor.)].

February 13   (Vancouver, BC)
Letter from Lord Rothschild of Trinity College to LP

RE: writes to invite LP to spend a week with his family in May. [Letter from LP to Lord Victor Rothschild February 7, 1952, letter from LP to Lord Rothschild March 13, 1952] [Filed under LP Correspondence: Box #336, Folder #6: File (Rothschild, Victor.)].

Letter from Victor Rothschild of Merton Hall, Cambridge [?] to LP RE: Invites LP to stay with him on the upcoming trip to England and carry out proposed experiments on bull spermatozoa.

So who was Lord N.M. Victor Rothschild?
Lord Victor Rothschild, 79, a Scientist And Member of Banking Family
Published: March 22, 1990

LONDON, March 21— Lord Rothschild, a scientist and member of the famous banking family who was linked to one of Britain's most well-known spy scandals, died Tuesday. He was 79 years old.

His wife, Lady Rothschild, who did not disclose the cause of death or other details, said in a statement issued today that the funeral would be private and that a memorial serice would be held later.

Nathaniel Mayer Victor Rothschild was educated at Harrow and at Trinity College in Cambridge, where he was an outstanding biophysicist.

He succeeded his uncle as the third Baron Rothschild in 1937. He took his seat in the House of Lords, the unelected upper chamber of Parliament, as a member of the Labor Party.

At Cambridge in the 1930's he joined the exclusive debating society known as the Apostles, which included Guy Burgess, Donald Maclean, Kim Philby and Anthony Blunt, who were later exposed as agents for the Soviet Union.

Cleared by Thatcher

In 1986 some Members of Parliament called for investigations into whether Lord Rothschild had also been a Soviet spy. Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher dismissed the speculation, and Lord Rothschild strongly denied the allegations.

At the start of World War II, Lord Rothschild joined M.I.5, Britain's domestic intelligence agency, where he became a senior officer. Later, he recalled, when he realized his Jewish descent would condemn him to a concentration camp if the Nazis took over, he stole a death capsule from his employers.

In 1944 he was awarded the George Medal after defusing explosives hidden in a case of Spanish onions in a ship's hold. In keeping with his style, he carried out the operation with a set of jeweler's screwdrivers given to him by Cartier.

A Jazz Pianist { Think David Soloman }

He was awarded an honorary degree from Tel Aviv University for ''the advancement of science, education and the economy of Israel'' in 1971. It was followed in 1975 by an honorary degree from Jerusalem's Hebrew university.

Lord Rothschild was also a sportsman, a jazz pianist and a zoologist.

In 1970, Prime Minister Edward Heath appointed Lord Rothschild to head a review of all British Government departments. Mr. Heath later publicly rebuked Lord Rothschild for his outspoken views on the gloomy state of Britain's economy.

Lord Rothschild spent 20 years as an executive with the Shell Oil Company. After just two months working in the family bank he said he found the job ''dull,'' but he remained a director of N. M. Rothschild & Sons and was chairman from 1975-76.

Besides his wife, the former Teresa Mayor, Lord Rothschild is survived by their son, James, and their two daughters, Emma and Victoria.

He is also survived by three children from his first marriage, a son, Jacob, and two daughters, Sarah and Miranda. His eldest child, Jacob, is the heir to his title.
Was Victor Rothschild a "Soviet" Agent? (Encore)

Between 1935 and 1963, the Soviet Union knew all of Britain's military and scientific secrets thanks to "The Cambridge Five" a spy ring that operated in M1-5, MI-6 and the Foreign Office. Western intelligence agencies were rendered ineffective and Allied secrets including the design of the atomic bomb were stolen.

The traitors were Kim Philby, Donald Maclean, Guy Burgess and Anthony Blunt. But there is a natural reluctance to admit that "the Fifth Man" was Nathaniel Meyer Victor Rothschild (1910-1990), the Third Baron Rothschild, the British head of the world's richest banking dynasty , which controls the Bank of England.

In 1993, after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, six retired KGB Colonels in Moscow confirmed Rothschild's identity to Roland Perry. Col. Yuri Modin, the spy ring's handler, went on the record.

Perry writes: "According to ...Modin, Rothschild was the key to most of the Cambridge ring's penetration of British intelligence. 'He had the contacts,' Modin noted. 'He was able to introduce Burgess, Blunt and others to important figures in Intelligence such as Stewart Menzies, Dick White and Robert Vansittart in the Foreign Office...who controlled Mi-6." (p.89)

You can understand the reluctance. The Rothschilds are undoubtedly the largest shareholders in the world's central bank system. Victor Rothschild's career as Soviet agent confirms that these London-based bankers plan to impose a "world government" dictatorship akin to Communism.

It adds credence to the claim they were behind the Bolshevik Revolution, and used the Cold War and more recently the 9-11 hoax and bogus "War on Terror" to advance their world hegemony.

Which is more plausible? One of the richest men in the world, Victor Rothschild espoused Communist ideals so that his own fabulous wealth and position could be taken away?

Or that Communism in fact was a deception designed to take away our wealth and freedom in the name of "equality" and "brotherhood"?
The fact that Rothschild was protected until his death suggests this is a ruling class conspiracy.
According to Greg Hallett, Anthony Blunt, a fellow spy, was an illegitimate son of George V, half-brother and look-alike to Edward VIII, the Duke of Windsor.

Until his exposure in 1964, Blunt was Knighted and Curator of the Queen's art collection. He received immunity from prosecution in exchange for his confession.
Victor Rothschild, a member of the famous banking dynasty, was born in 1910. A talented scientist, Rothschild joined MI5 during the Second World War. This included working with Arthur Koestler to produce anti-Nazi propaganda. In 1940 Rothschild suggested that Anthony Blunt should be invited to join the secret service. He also rented a house to his friend Guy Burgess.

After the liberation of France Rothschild worked with Dick White, Kim Philby and Malcolm Muggeridge at the MI6 offices established at the Rothschild family mansion in Paris.

In 1961 Rothschild passed on information to Arthur Martin that Kim Philby had tried to recruit Flora Solomon, as a spy in 1937. Rothschild also worked closely with Peter Wright and is believed to have supplied him with information that suggested that Roger Hollis was a Soviet spy.

Edward Heath was a great admirer of Rothschild and in 1970 he appointed him head of the government's Central Policy Review Staff. It was later claimed that Rothschild persuaded Heath to appoint Michael Hanley as Director General of MI5 in 1972. Later Margaret Thatcher appointed Rothschild as her unofficial security adviser.

Victor Rothschild died in 1990. Four years later, Roland Perry, published The Fifth Man, where he unconvincingly claimed Rothschild was one of the Cambridge Spy Ring (Kim Philby, Donald Maclean, Guy Burgess, Anthony Blunt and John Cairncross).,_3rd_Baron_Rothschild
NATHANIEL MAYER VICTOR ROTHSCHILD was born in England on October 31 {Holloween?)
In his memorial address, Sir Andrew Huxley observed ....
Andrew Fielding Huxley was born in Hampstead, London, on 22nd November 1917
The children of his first marriage included Sir Julian Huxley the biologist and Aldous Huxley the writer.
Pugwash Conferences  - 1957

The prime organizer of the original event was Lord Bertrand Russell. He was a member of the Cambridge Aspostles, just as Lord Victor Rothschild, the 3rd Baron Rothschild and father of today's Lord Jacob Rothschild. Aldous Huxley (wrote 'Brave New World'), John Maynard Keynes (famous economist; close friend of CFR chair and J.P. Morgan chairman Russell C. Leffingwell), and the 'Cambridge spies' (gay; MI5; MI6; 'KGB' spies; close associates of Lord Victor Rothschild) were other members of the Aspostles.

The first Pugwash meeting was held at the home of Cyrus Eaton, Sr. in Pugwash, Nova Scotia (7). Eaton began his career working for John D. Rockefeller, Jr. Cyrus Eaton, Jr. would later team up with the Rockefellers to start an investment project in the Soviet Union during the height of the Vietnam war (Cool. The Rothschilds announced that they would team up with the same Rockefeller company two years later (9).

Oh and Victor's Sister "Nica" was also into jazz and lived in New York...
She probably knew David Soloman (jazz Critic), She was known as the Jazz Baroness:

"Nica" Rothschild - New York - Jazz
Pannonica de Koenigswarter (10 December 1913 – 30 November 1988) was a British-born jazz enthusiast and member of the prominent Rothschild international financial dynasty.

Kathleen Annie Pannonica Rothschild was the daughter of Charles Rothschild and the Hungarian baroness Rozsika Edle von Wertheimstein. She grew up in Waddesdon Manor, among other family houses. The name "Pannonica" (nicknamed "Nica") derives from Eastern Europe's Pannonian plain. Her friend Thelonious Monk reported that she was named after a species of butterfly her father had discovered. She was a niece of Walter Rothschild, the 2nd Baron Rothschild, and her brother Victor Rothschild became the 3rd Baron Rothschild. (According to, she was granted the rank of the daughter of a baron on 15 March 1938.[1]) Her elder sister Dame Miriam Rothschild was a distinguished scientist and zoologist.

In 1935 she married French diplomat Baron Jules de Koenigswarter, later a Free French hero. She worked for Charles de Gaulle during World War II. The couple separated in 1951 and she moved to New York City, renting a suite at the Hotel Stanhope on Fifth Avenue. The couple eventually divorced in 1956.[2] In 1958, she purchased a house with a Manhattan skyline view, that was built for film director Josef von Sternberg at 63 Kingswood Road in Weehawken, NJ.

In New York, she became a friend and patron of many prominent jazz musicians, hosting jam sessions in her hotel suite. She is sometimes referred to as the "bebop baroness" or "jazz baroness" because of her patronage of Thelonious Monk and Charlie Parker among others. Following Parker's death in her Stanhope rooms in 1955, Koenigswarter was asked to leave by the hotel management; she re-located to the Bolivar Hotel at 230 Central Park West, a building commemorated in Thelonious Monk's 1956 tune "Ba-lue Bolivar Ba-lues-are".

She was introduced to Thelonious Monk by jazz pianist/composer Mary Lou Williams in Paris while attending the "Salon du Jazz 1954", and championed his work in the USA, writing the liner notes for his 1962 Columbia album Criss-Cross, and even took criminal responsibility when she and Monk were charged with marijuana possession by the police. After Monk ended his public performances he retired to Nica's house in Weehawken, New Jersey and died there in 1982.

see also:

Waddesdon Manor
The generous act of my cousin Jimmy in offering Waddesdon Manor to the National Trust ensured the preservation of the house and its contents in perpetuity... One hundred and thirty years ago this house and its setting were created to delight and surprise the small circle of Baron Ferdinand's friends ...
Lord Jacob Rothschild

Quote from: TahoeBlue on July 07, 2010, 11:57:30 AM
Related: Mentmore Castle :Eyes Wide Shut (1999)
The Castle in Kubrick's Wide Eyes Shut was built in reality by Baron Mayer de Rothschild

Is Paul McCartney of the Beatles who's face is made of plastic Dead?

I don't know , as a Tavistock operation I like to look at the details. The Paul/Faul cannot be proved. But expert doubles are very much the style of the brits. "I Buried Paul" is a real thing. Why would anyone have a joke like that?

I just was watching BBC's "Beatles Biggest Secrets" and found it interesting with the story line that something did happen when Brian Epstein OD/suicided/murdered and the Beatles run off to Maharishi Mahesh [Tavistock/Rothschild] in India . Paul breaks with Asher and a little later marries Linda Eastman (Heiress) (McCartney) and forms Apple possibly for legal reasons.

So Asher knew the Paul was dead and Faul marries Linda Eastman, Apple is formed to include Faul. No nothing can be proved but that Tavistock operation was not complete and with future millions  $ at stake the McCartney family would certainly keep their mouths shut for the good of Queen and Country and $.

In the BBC footage it shows a nervous Asher with ?Paul? in India.

Interesting that  :
Life magazine's June 16th 1967 edition featured the story, 'The New Far-Out Beatles: They're grown men now and creating extraordinary musical sounds' written by Thomas Thompson. In Thompson's article, Paul McCartney is quoted as saying, "After I took it (LSD), it opened my eyes. We only use one-tenth of our brain. Just think what we could accomplish if we could only tap that hidden part. It would mean a whole new world."

So one assumes sometime in the first half of '67 Paul and The Beatles dropped acid.
He took his second "acid trip" with Lennon on 21 March 1967 after a studio session
On 24 August 1967, McCartney met the Maharishi Mahesh Yogi at the London Hilton, and later went to Bangor, in North Wales, to attend a weekend 'initiation' conference

27 August 1967 Epstien OD's/suicides/murdered

On 25 December 1967[11] McCartney and Asher announced their engagement, and
she accompanied McCartney to India in February and March 1968.
Asher ended the engagement in early 1968, after returning from Bristol to discover Paul in bed with another woman, Francie Schwartz.[3][12]
Asher has consistently refused publicly to discuss McCartney or her time with him,[1] and has maintained her position on the matter to this day.[14] On this basis, she is described by the Beatles' 1968 biographer Hunter Davies as the only major Beatles associate not to have published her recollections

Brian Epstein Od/suicided/murdered , I'm in with the biggest rock group ever, I'm worth millions, I'm so happy I could just die.....
Brian Samuel Epstein (pronounced /ˈɛpstaɪn/) (19 September 1934 – 27 August 1967)

Epstein died of an accidental drug overdose at his home in London in August 1967. The Beatles' early success has been attributed to Epstein's management and sense of style. Paul McCartney said of Epstein: "If anyone was the Fifth Beatle, it was Brian

Linda Louise McCartney, Lady McCartney (née Eastman, formerly See, September 24, 1941 – April 17, 1998) was an American photographer, musician and animal rights activist. Her father and mother were Lee Eastman and Louise Sara Lindner Eastman, heiress to the Lindner Department Store fortune.

On 15 May 1967, the then Linda Eastman met Paul McCartney at a Georgie Fame concert at the Bag O'Nails club in London.[16] She was in the UK on an assignment to take photographs of "Swinging Sixties" musicians in London. The two later went to the Speakeasy club on Margaret Street to see Procol Harum.[6][17] They met again four days later at the launch party for Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band at Brian Epstein's house in Belgravia.
When her assignment was completed, she flew back to New York City.[18]

In May 1968, they met again in New York, as John Lennon and Paul McCartney were there to announce the formation of Apple Corps.[19] In September of the same year, he phoned her and asked her to fly over to London.  They were married six months later at a small civil ceremony (when she was four months pregnant with their daughter Mary) at Marylebone Registry Office on 12 March 1969

There also seems to be a connection with Victor Rothschild and Auldous Huxley to the UK side of the Tavistock LSD push. When, Who and How did the Beatles get turned on to LSD? The Sequoia Seminars - 1954 - LSD Therapy - History
The Castle in Kubrick's Wide Eyes Shut was built in reality by Baron Mayer de Rothschild

Mentmore Towers is a Neo-Renaissance English country house in the village of Mentmore in Buckinghamshire. It takes its name from the village in which it stands, and from its numerous towers and pinnacles. It was built by Baron Mayer de Rothschild

This Rothschild/Mentmore collection is said to have been one of the finest ever to be assembled in private hands, other than the collections of the Russian and British royal families

The empty house, unaltered since the day it was built, was sold in 1977 for Ł220,000 to the Transcendental Meditation movement founded by Maharishi Mahesh Yogi. In 1992, the TM organization made Mentmore the British national headquarters of its political arm, the Natural Law Party.

From 1977 to 1979, the building housed the national office of the TM organization, and was used for weekend and longer residence courses in Transcendental Meditation, as well as World Peace Assemblies for the practice of the more advanced TM-Sidhi program.
Maharishi inspired Beatles but died leaving Ł2b and rape rumours

He inspired the Beatles and promised world peace but died leaving Ł2 billion amid rumours of rape and murder
He was the Sixth Beatle, a spiritual force with the potential to create world peace and end famine.
Or he was an avaricious old man with a penchant for young girls who ruined the greatest pop group in history.
when he began his first world tour as a spiritual leader in Burma in 1958, the Maharishi was praised for his austerity.

One commentator wrote: "He asks for nothing. His worldly possessions can be carried in one hand."
The 'giggling guru' - so called because of his high-pitched laugh - lived in an opulent 200-room mansion, with helicopters and dozens of cars at his disposal, and was worth an estimated Ł2billion.

The movement the Maharishi leaves behind, after his death at his luxurious retreat in Vlodrop in the Netherlands, has been called the world's richest cult.

Then came the stories of the Maharishi's attempt to have sex with Mia Farrow. John Lennon said later: "There was a hullabaloo about him trying to rape Mia and a few other women. The whole gang charged down to his hut and I said: 'We're leaving!' He asked why and I said: 'If you're so cosmic, you'll know why.' The Maharishi gave me a look that said: 'I'll kill you, you bastard!'"

In 1997 Mentmore Towers was sold to a company, owned by Simon Halabi, now named Mentmore Towers Ltd

The Sequoia Seminars - 1954 - LSD Therapy - History
Under the auspices of MK-ULTRA the CIA regularly dosed its agents and associates with powerful hallucinogens as a preemptive measure against the Soviets' own alleged chemical technology, often with disastrous results. The secret project would see at least two deaths: tennis pro Harold Blauer died after a massive injection of MDA; and the army's own Frank Olson, a biological-warfare specialist, crashed through a closed window in the 12th floor of New York's Statler Hotel, after drinking cognac laced with LSD during a CIA symposium. Dr. Osmond doubts that Hubbard would have been associated with such a project "not particularly on humanitarian grounds, but on the grounds that it was bad technique."

[Note: Recently, a researcher for WorldNetDaily and author of a forthcoming book based on the Frank Olson "murder," revealed to this writer that he has received, via a FOIA request of CIA declassified materials, documents which indicate that Al Hubbard was, indeed, in contact with Dr. Sidney Gottlieb and George Hunter White--an FBI narcotics official who managed Operation Midnight Climax, a joint CIA/FBI blackmail project in which unwitting "johns" were given drinks spiked with LSD by CIA-managed prostitutes, and whose exploits were videotaped from behind two-way mirrors at posh hotels in both New York and San Francisco. The researcher would reveal only that Al Hubbard's name "appeared in connection with Gottlieb and White, but the material is heavily redacted."]

Hubbard's secret connections allowed him to expose over 6,000 people to LSD before it was effectively banned in '66. He shared the sacrament with a prominent Monsignor of the Catholic Church in North America, explored the roots of alcoholism with AA founder Bill Wilson, and stormed the pearly gates with Aldus Huxley (in a session that resulted in the psychedelic tome <i>Heaven and Hell</i>), as well as supplying most of the Beverly Hills psychiatrists, who, in turn, turned on actors Cary Grant, James Coburn, Jack Nicholson, novelist Anais Nin, and filmmaker Stanley Kubrick.

This post will focus on Stewart Brand and Esalen - (Cybernetics Beginnings ?)

Quote from: TahoeBlue on July 03, 2010, 06:34:04 PM
Excellent find. It is interesting our problem is NOT having too many babies, It's that we are not dying fast enough for them...

ClimateGate and Scenario Planning - "Hide the decline" is just the tip of the iceburg

Sub-Replacement fertility -  the Second Demographic Transition

Memorable quotes for THX 1138 SRT: How shall the new environment be programmed? It all happened so slowly that most men failed to realize that anything had happened at all.

The Sequoia Seminars

Stolaroff, with the help of Willis Harman, largely funded the foundation, the real purpose of which was to conduct the research needed to make LSD credible in the medical profession. They worked with several psychologists, including Fadiman, as well as the mysterious Al Hubbard, who was a mentor to both Harman and Stolaroff and who became a member of the board of directors.

Fadiman, who soon was teaching at San Francisco State, finished his Ph.D. in psychology at Stanford, and his research at the foundation focused on the changes in beliefs, attitude, and behavior that resulted from taking LSD.
The foundation was not far from Roy Kepler's bookstore and a short walk from the hole-in-the-wall store where the Midpeninsula Free University store and print shop were to locate in the mid-sixties. In another building a block away, Stewart Brand later established the Whole Earth Truck Store and the Whole Earth Catalog. About a mile away from the truck store, the original People's Computer Company settled and in turn was the catalyst for the Homebrew Computer Club in the mid-1970s. The club itself served to ignite the personal-computer industry.
Stewart Brand - On the Waterfront
Published: April 15, 2009

Job description: I design stuff; I start stuff; I found stuff. On the passport I put “writer.”

Bad trip: That was my first trip. I had 400 micrograms of LSD under quite clinical circumstances at a psychological research institute in Menlo Park, Calif. It was in a white room with therapists sitting around.

Good trip: In 1963 or ’64 I showed up at the door of Ken Kesey, the novelist and LSD evangelist. I was involved in Kesey’s Acid Tests, which were happenings where LSD made its way around and everyone was there to entertain each other.

On the wagon: Since 1969 I haven’t used psychedelics. I realized I’d seen all I needed to see

Current project: With the Long Now Foundation, I am helping to build a 10,000-year clock inside a mountain in Nevada. We are trying to get people to think long-term, because civilization’s shortening attention span is mismatched with the pace of environmental problems

What was Bucky Fuller’s reaction to your button campaign that asked, “Why haven’t we seen an image of the whole earth yet?”

It was all because of LSD, see. I took some lysergic acid diethylamide on an otherwise boring afternoon and came to the notion that seeing an image of the Earth from space would change a lot of things.

So, on next to no budget, I printed up buttons and posters and sold them on street corners at the University of California, Berkeley. I went to Stanford and back east to Columbia, Harvard, and MIT.

I also mailed the materials to various people: Marshall McLuhan, Buckminster Fuller, senators, members of the U.S. and Soviet space programs. Out of everyone, I only heard back from Bucky Fuller, who wrote, “Dear boy, it’s a charming notion but you must realize you can never see more than half the earth from any particular point in space.” I was amused, and then met him a few months later at a seminar at Esalen Institute in Big Sur, California. I sat across from his lunch table and pushed the button over to him, asking him what he thought about it. He said, “Oh yes, I wrote to that guy.” I said, “I’m the guy. So what do you think?

What kind of difference do you think it will make when we actually get photographs of the earth from space?”

There was this slow, lovely silence. Then he said, “Dear boy, how can I help you?”

Stewart Brand is founder of the Whole Earth Catalog and cofounder of The Long Now
Foundation, The WELL, and Global Business Network.

I know the Global Business Network does some work with the Pentagon.
What about the possibility of a long peace?

I love working with the Pentagon because they’re the only entity I know that is
completely eager to think in half-century terms
. And there are several reasons for that.

They’re not a commercial entity so they’re not worried about the next quarter. They’re not a democratic entity so they’re not worried about the next election. There really is a socialist economy in the military, and the people that you encounter at the senior levels are extremely bright. They’ve come up in a very tough meritocratic pyramid, and are trained throughout their lives to think globally.

What sort of scenario planning do you do with them?

One of the scenarios that developed in the course of our work with the Pentagon was what we refer to as a rogue superpower. We were looking at the various threats from rogue states and one of us said, “Let’s see. What if you combined a lone superpower?

What about rogue states? What if they’re one and the same?” The answer is a rogue superpower! So we looked at this at great length and, lo and behold, in 2001 we received a call from a friend in the Pentagon. He said, “I think we’ve gotten to the rogue superpower scenario.”

What were your thoughts on 9/11?

We were thinking that it was sort of right on schedule. It was horrifying for a lot of people who had been working both in the Clinton Administration and in Congress on the  terrorism environment because we were saying for some time, “Look, the U.S. is not invulnerable in this.” So a lot of us just groaned because we had already thought about
The idea to build a monument scale, multi-millennial, all mechanical clock as an icon to long-term thinking came from computer scientist Danny Hillis and was published in the form of an email to friends. Later it was followed up with an essay published in the 1995 Wired magazine "Scenarios" issue.

EST - Esalen - Werner Erhard - Ira Einhorn - George Lucas - Stewart Brand
Bob Toben drove Sharon and me down to Philadelphia. We stayed with my literary agent Ira Einhorn and his doomed girl friend Holly Maddux [13]. Ira took us to the mainline mansion of  Arthur Young. Young was the inventor of the Bell Helicopter and was a  close friend of Charles Lindbergh. Young's wife was an heiress of the Forbes Steel fortune. Young financed the Institute for the Study of Consciousness in Berkeley California. He invited me to stay there. Einhorn told me he would introduce me to Stewart Brand, Michael Murphy [14] and George Leonard [15] when I got to San Francisco. He was very concerned about what he called "Soviet breakthroughs in psychotronic weapons of mind control at a distance using ELF and sound waves." He said he had support from the local telephone company and from the Bronfman [16] in Toronto to link up visionary scientists like myself.

He also said he was working with Jacques Vallee [17] and Brendan O Regan on a UFO data base. Ira mentioned that he was working with Congressman Charlie Rose (D. North Carolina) of the House Select Committee on Intelligence [18]. Rose confirmed his connection to Einhorn in a telephone conversation with me.

Werner was as good as his word and promptly had his EST Foundation write me an initial $5,000 check (Autumn 1974). Einhorn did his job as my literary agent and arranged a meeting at Arthur Young's Institute in Berkeley that included Michael Murphy, Hazel Henderson [19] and another physicist, Saul Paul Sirag [20], who was Barbara Honegger's [21] lover.

Werner gave me free run of his organization which I found rather odd. The estoids all seemed to be glassy-eyed and very creepy [22]. One in particular, Raz Ingrasci, talked about Werner as if he were God-incarnate. One day Raz said he would jump out of a high window if Werner ordered him to. One day I noticed a table with a sign that said "Bulgarian Desk" [23]. There were a lot of pretty young women who were easily available since I was known as one of Werner's special friends -- a Prince of the Court. Werner was always very warm with me and invited me to many dinners both at Franklin House and at expensive restaurants. He never carried any money or credit cards. We were always escorted (in a Mercedes) by a security team, who also paid all the bills.

A former student of physicist John Wheeler [24], Robert Fuller was head of Werner's Foundation. Fuller had been President of Oberlin College but had suffered a mid-life crisis and had fallen under Werner's influence. Fuller now heads the World Watch Institute in Washington. Fuller [25] was jealous of Werner's fondness for me and that this was a factor precipitating my falling out with Werner. I was worried about the crypto-Nazi feel of the est-org, but I had hoped that Werner would get his intellectual act together and say something of genuine interest in terms of physics and philosophy. I was not at all subservient to Werner in his presence like most of the academics that surrounded and apparently adored him. Some of them called him the "new Heidegger" [26]. Professor Irwin Corey [27] made more sense.

There was a lot of talk of Werner running for President one day.
Werner said he would appoint me to be head of the National Science Foundation. Werner's brother Nathan Rosenberg was in the Navy as an aide to President Carter's Secretary of Defense Harold Brown [28]. Kevin Garvey [29] told me that Werner had fifteen loyal estoids in the Carter White House. Werner was very active with the training of government people in Washington D.C. Carter [30] had created Project Scanate [31] for remote-viewing of military targets by psychics. Werner used remote-viewing in his training, and he also contributed money to SRI for that project.

Sidney was a close friend of the late Bishop Pike. Werner had me meet with several Stanford and U.C. Faculty before he set up the Physics Consciousness Research Group at Esalen with me and Michael Murphy as co-directors. Michael arranged all our activities in Big Sur. Saul Paul Sirag [32] was my chief assistant. Michael arranged for Jean Lanier to supply me with money. Jean, who resembled Shirley MacLaine [33], was the widow of the late Chairman of the Board of Stone-Webster Engineering. Her current husband was an Episcopal Priest, Sidney Lanier.

Sidney was a close friend of the late Bishop Pike. He was active in New York off-broadway theater. Sidney was also a close friend of Jose Ferrer, who I resemble. Jean rented a five bedroom suite for us on top of Nob Hill [34]. [Jean Lanier ] She was a close friend of Laurance Rockefeller who would telephone the Nob Hill flat looking for her.

I attended the EST April Celebrity Training of 1975. The list of trainees included Ellie Coppola, Sterling Hayden [35], Michael Murphy, Buzz Aldrin [36], Ted Ashley [37], the late Jerry Rubin [38], Fred Wolf, Saul Paul Sirag and many others.

Sterling Hayden quickly walked out calling Werner a "Nazi" as he pushed away some estoids who tried to block his passage. Michael Murphy was visibly upset and angry at his close friend Werner. I was sitting with Astronaut Buzz Aldrin, who was having a severe kidney problem. Werner got all confused when he tried to talk about the new physics. He let me explain to the group in ordinary language what he was trying to say in his hypnotic _estspeak_.

The trick of est is to seduce your consciousness by subverting the English language with dominating psycho-babble. It was right out of George Orwell's 1984. The est-training did get every one high. It must have been how the SS officers felt after being indoctrinated as leaders of the Master Race.

I was introduced to Ellie Coppola during a break in the training.
She had just read _Space-Time and Beyond_. Ellie invited Fred Wolf and me to her home at 2800 Broadway at 2am after the training. We met her husband Francis Ford Coppola. The first thing Francis said to me was that he did not like Werner Erhard but that he would not tell his wife what to do. Francis has fine moral instincts. I was getting suspicious of Werner [39] especially after I heard the rumor that he said he changed his name from Jack Rosenberg to Werner Erhard to "give up Jewish weakness for German strength."

I started to spend a lot of time at the Coppola's house. I introduced them to Uri Geller and to Einhorn's friend, French UFO scientist Jacques Vallee [40]. I think Steven Spielberg and George Lucas were there as well that time but I am not sure. Vallee became technical consultant to _Close Encounters of the Third Kind_ as a result of that introduction. Francois Trauffaut [41] played the role of Jacques Vallee in the Spielberg film. Ira Einhorn had introduced me to Vallee. Einhorn and Vallee were working together on a computer network project that anticipated the Internet. Einhorn originally introduced me to Hazel Henderson, Arthur Young, Stewart Brand and Michael Murphy.

Einhorn at Esalen is described by Willian Irwin Thompson in _The Edge of History_. Congressman Charlie Rose (D. North Carolina) of the House Committee on Intelligence confirmed to me by telephone that Ira was involved in National Security operations. Ira, like O.J. Simpson, always claimed he was framed by "the KGB." It is curious that he was never found. Ira spent weeks at Esalen after he was indicted for the murder of Holly Maddux. Senator Arlen Specter was his defense attorney and one of the Bronfmans from Toronto allegedly paid his legal fees.

I met Jack Nicholson [42], Michael Douglas, Milos Forman, Saul Zaentz and Hans Syberberg [43] at various parties at the Coppola's Broadway mansion and at Tomasso's Restaurant in North Beach where Francis would bake the pizza in the wood-burning oven. Francis was running CITY Magazine. Ellie had Raisa Gustaitus do an article about our Esalen Group called "Faster than the speeding photon." I first met Stephen Schwartz [44] at CITY where he was assisting Warren Hinckle [45]. I once walked into the Caffe Trieste with Francis when Steve Turner walked up to him and aggressively pushed him calling him a "dirty dog."  Francis floored Turner with one punch. My meeting with Hans Syberberg at Francis's showing of _Our Hitler_ is of particular importance because it involved a man named "Putzi."

I received a phone call from a man named George Koopman [46] during one of our Esalen seminars in 1976. He asked if he could come to Big Sur. I said yes. Koopman soon became a financial patron of my _Ghost Busters_ [47] at Esalen. Koopman was a  close friend of Dan Akroyd [48], and my group was the  inspiration for the film Ghost Busters. He provided money  through military contracts with the Air Force and the U.S.  Army Tank Command funnelled through his company Insgroup in  Irvine, California.

Koopman was addicted to cocaine and would talk freely when high. He told us that he was related to Arthur Krock, the publisher of the New York Times. He said that he had blown the whistle on U. S. Army Intelligence domestic spying to the New York Times. Koopman said that he had worked on the "kook desk" for the Defense Intelligence Agency and that they were very interested in the kind of new physics we were working on. They were especially interested in machines that could tell the future [49] and in new kinds of aircraft propulsion systems. Koopman liked to show how he could open locked doors with his burglar tools that he always carried in his brief case. He showed me a letter from the military giving him permission to have the tools.

Koopman was very interested in Werner Erhard's tax structure. I took Koopman to meet Werner. Werner was in a room with a large blackboard. On the board were several references to "UFOs" and "extra-terrestrial contacts." Werner did not seem to trust Koopman.

I found out through one of my girlfriends [50] that Koopman succeeded in spying on the Arica organization. Koopman, Sirag and I had heard weird stories from Jan Brewer at Esalen that Arica was started in Chile by high ranking fugitives from the Third Reich who were masters of the occult. Many of the regulars at Esalen, including some of our group like Dr. John Lilly [51] and Claudio Naranjo [52] had been in the first Arica training in Chile. Timothy Leary was released from prison. Leary became part of my group at Esalen. Leary was a close friend of Michael Murphy. George Koopman arranged for Leary and me to lecture together at the Arthur Young's Institute in Berkeley. Koopman spent a lot of money hiring a professional T.V. crew to record us. Robert Anton Wilson, Nick Herbert and Saul Paul Sirag participated in this event. Koopman became Leary's business manager and publisher. Leary's message was SMI2LE (Space Migration Intelligence Increase Life Extension) which is also the message of this book.

Koopman sabotaged me at Esalen by suddenly breaking his contract and stopping the cash flow he had committed. The ostensible reason was that I had insulted the New Age seminarians at Esalen by calling them "idiots and morons," which I did. Werner would say much worse in his trainings. Koopman was very high when he confronted me with this supposed sin. Koopman would show up at the Caffe Trieste on several occasions years later. Koopman was apparently ordered by higher ups to cut me out of the Esalen picture because I was too much of a "loose cannon" that they could not control. They replaced me with my assistant Saul Paul Sirag and with Nick Herbert who continued to run the Esalen seminars. It may be that Koopman's death in 1989 was no accident.

That's just a hunch. Chipman's death around the same time as Koopman's may also not have been from natural causes.

In 1974, Jack Sarfatti is Director of a physics program at the Esalen Institute. He's been funded by Werner Erhard and Jean Lanier, a friend of Laurance Rockefeller. (Sarfatti, Jack, "The Parsifal Effect", The Destiny Matrix) Sarfatti met with Puharich, Uri Geller, and Ira Einhorn at Puharich's Ossining ranch. Einhorn acted as a literary agent for Sarfatti, and brought him to Esalen.

Physics /Consciousness research group.This is where it all started back in 1975. PCRG was co-founded by Jack Sarfatti and Michael Murphy at the Esalen Institute in Big Sur, California in 1974.

Financed by Werner Erhard, Jean Lanier and the late George Koopman, the PCRG nurtured the creation of books like Space-Time and Beyond, The Tao of Physics, The Dancing Wu Li Masters, Cosmic Trigger, and The Roots of Consciousness. The group included the physicists and authors, Fred Alan Wolf, Nick Herbert and Fritjof Capra, along with Saul Paul Sirag, Henry Dakin, Robert Anton Wilson, Uri Geller, Barbara Honneger, the late Brendan O Regan, George Leonard, Gary Zukav, Ira Einhorn, and artist Lynn Hershmann.

Nobel Laureate, Brian Josephson, along with physicists David Finkelstein, Russell Targ, Karl Pribram, Henry Stapp, Phillipe Eberhard, and Ralph Abraham, all came for shorter visits. The group is now reborn on the World Wide Web twenty years later with both new and old faces. According to George Koopman, the PCRG was the inspiration for the film Ghost.
...It may be that Koopman's death in 1989 was no accident. That's just a hunch. Chipman's death around the same time as Koopman's may also not have been from natural causes.

Loose ends? George Koopman's Obit....
George Koopman, 44, Founded Rocket Firm
OBITUARIES July 21, 1989|The New York Times

George A. Koopman, an enterpreneur in space technology who founded the American Rocket Co., died in an automobile accident on Wednesday in Lancaster, Calif. He was 44 and lived in Malibu.

Mr. Koopman was driving alone from his home to the Edwards Air Force Astronautics Laboratory, where his company is testing a rocket motor. His car overturned, and he died of head injuries, said Anita Storey, a spokeswoman for Amroc, as the company is known.

Mr. Koopman`s career included being an intelligence analyst in the Vietnam War, a maker of military training films for the government and the coordinator of spectacular stunts in the 1980 movie The Blues Brothers.

Four years ago he formed the rocket company with Bevin McKinney, an aerospace engineer, and James Bennett, a researcher who helped Congress to draft the law allowing commercial space launches.

The company, based in Camarillo, Calif., states as its purpose developing the technology to deliver commercial and government payloads into space.
I received a phone call from a man named George Koopman [46] during one of our Esalen seminars in 1976. He asked if he could come to Big Sur. I said yes. Koopman soon became a financial
patron of my _Ghost Busters
_ [47] at Esalen. Koopman was a  close friend of Dan Akroyd [48], and my group was the  inspiration for the film Ghost Busters.
Was Jan Brewer telling the truth about the Fourth Reich using Arica to influence the New Age?

Brewer was part of the original Esalen group of forty that went to Chile for the first Arica training with Oscar Ichazo [67]. Arica was big at Esalen at the same time that the Soviets were soaking in the hot tubs.

Was I pulled out of the operation by George Koopman because in his opinion I was unpredictable and uncontrollable? Or is the truth still even stranger than even I can imagine?

Was Michael Murphy a brilliant Puppet Master or merely a lucky charming “useful idiot,” a Forrest Gump character like me?
Was Ira Einhorn framed?
Was Jean Nadal murdered?
Was Francois Trauffaut murdered?

Was Harold Chipman [68] murdered?
Was George Koopman murdered?
Is this all my Walter Mitty paranoid exaggeration? What do you think?

Reisser Nadal. He was investigating the New Age movement for French National Radio...
He stayed with me in San Francisco and told me he had discovered some disturbing political
connections including a plan to assassinate Nelson Rockefeller
... Rockefeller did die soon after under odd

His death was due to a sudden onset of bone cancer. This is the way Harold Chipman also died. I am told that radioactive poisoning has been used for murder by intelligence organizations. Trauffaut is also dead.

Quote from: TahoeBlue on March 31, 2011, 01:40:11 PM
Witness of Rockefeller Co.'s CEO's "suicide" is product of Bankster Eugenics
Where was Megan Marshak when Vice-President Nelson Rockefeller Died?
In recounting old news stories similar to the Monica Lewinsky case, the press has often invoked the name of 27-year-old Megan Marshak, whom, they say, was at the side of  former Vice-President Nelson Rockefeller when he died on January 26, 1979.

However, that is a damn lie and everybody familiar with the case knows it. Megan Marshak was not "at his side" when Nelson Rockefeller died of a heart attack.  Megan Marshak  - Where then was she?

The official coroner’s report, issued by the competent New York State authority, states that Nelson Rockefeller died of a heart attack while he was having sexual intercourse. You can look it up in the archives at 28th Street and First Avenue (provided they let you look at this one).

Megan Marshak was, in fact, underneath Nelson Rockefeller when he died.

The tragedy, which was recounted daily in the press at the time, was that had there not been political considerations, his life might have been saved.

Nelson Rockefeller was a big, heavy man. When he collapsed of a heart attack, Megan Marshak was pinned underneath him. She had to struggle to get out. He was naked. It was not known that he had a mistress. For these reasons, she was reluctant to call the ambulance. Instead, Megan Marshak called her girlfriend, who lived nearby. ...

Part III

Placeholder - I never covered this:

related: Occult-Part Two (Seven Degrees of Charlie Manson)  

Hell's Angels: The Strange and Terrible Saga of the Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs is a book
written by Hunter S. Thompson, first published in 1966 by Random House

Thompson - Hells Angels Interview
HUNTER S. Thompson introduced Kesey to a group of Hell's Angels in July 1965.

The Hell's Angels were as impressed with Kesey as he was with them, and in August Kesey hosted his first Acid Test with the Angels at his home in La Honda.

Thompson believed it would be a disastrous mix­ the Angels had never taken LSD, but after a night of wild revelry that approached insanity at times, the Hell's Angels rode away peacefully the following morning.

The Merry Pranksters and the Hell's Angels would participate in numerous events together over the next two years. Thompson continued his close association with a group of Angels to gather material for his book, but he parted company suddenly in September 1966 when several members, some of whom he considered friends, turned on him and nearly beat him to death
From Monterey Pop to Altamont.  OPERATION CHAOS: The CIA's War Against the Sixties Counter-Culture
When the Hell’s Angels announced they were going to disrupt the Vietnam protest march in Berkeley, Ken Kesey and Allen Ginsberg invited the leaders down to Kesey’s mountain home and turned them on with LSD and the next day they were as meek as lambs, loved all sentient creatures, and rode in the march on Kesey’s Op-Art truck. That’s the connection.
Long after reading Thompson’s book, we spoke to Ralph “Sonny” Barger, who was the president of the Oakland branch of the Hell’s Angels while Thompson rode with them gathering material for his Sixties era best seller.  When Barger’s autobiography, Hell’s Angel ($14 William Morrow), was published, this columnist had read somewhere that there was still a bone of contention between Thompson and Barger, so we asked about it.  Barger considers Thompson one of America’s greatest living writers, who just happens to owe Barger and his pals a keg or two of beer and the debt is considered “active unpaid.”  (This was approximately 2001 when that interview took place.)
Sonny Barger Interview
By Paul DeRienzo

Ralph "Sonny" Barger is one of he best known players in the drama of the 60s. Whether hanging out with his good friend Jerry Garcia of the Grateful Dead, allegedly holding Rolling Stone Keith Richards at gunpoint during the debacle at Altamont or taking on the anti-Vietnam war movement in Oakland, Barger and the Angels were witnesses to the 60s counterculture. Barger also fought the law, sometimes he lost and sometimes he won, like his victory over the federal government in their famous but failed racketeering prosecution against Barger and the Angels.

BARGER–When I got out of the army in ’56, in the San Francisco area, I lived in Oakland, I had the choice of becoming a beatnik or a motorcycle rider. I fortunately chose motorcycles. Had I become a beatnik, they sort of faded out into the hippies and the hippies sort of faded out, so I probably wouldn’t have been anything. I don’t know, that’s a question there’s no real answer to, you can only surmise.
DeRienzo–You took LSD in your youth, do you still take it?

BARGER –I took a lot of LSD and I wasn’t really young, I was in my 30s. I never really liked pot; I never liked whites, which they took before speed. I never liked speed because the smallest amount of speed in the world would keep me up for three days. But I found LSD, I liked LSD and I took it until I didn’t want it any more. I took cocaine until I woke up doing life in prison.
DeRienzo–Did the Angel’s have anything to do with breaking Timothy Leary from prison?

BARGER –Absolutely not. Timothy Leary’s group did that. I ended up with Timothy Leary in Folsom prison and Timmy thought it was a really big joke till he ended up in Folsom prison.
He knew that he was in the wrong place. He said wait a minute I’ll tell you everything you want to know and he started informing on everyone who helped him break out.

Mao was a Yale Man - A Yali and Skull and Bones,3604,331676,00.html
Still on the road -  14 June 2000

Sonny Barger - He is on a 20-city tour to promote his book and this has brought him to a theatre in Venice, where his host for the night is a local actor, one Dennis Hopper.
Dennis Hopper: "This is one of the greatest honours I've ever been asked to do," says the man whose role in Easy Rider in 1969 defined a different kind of rebellion on wheels. "Sonny Barger is a hero of mine. He is a man who stood for his inner pride." And he bear-hugs the guest of honour.
If it was Altamont that defined the Hell's Angels for many in the world, it was Hunter S Thompson who first documented their lifestyle in detail in his book, Hell's Angels: A Strange and Terrible Saga. Barger claims that Thompson deliberately provoked a fight at the end of his year on the road with the Angels so that he could claim they had nearly killed him. They fell out after the book's publication in 1967, although Barger tells me he still thinks Thompson is "one of the great writers".

"He's all show and no go," writes Barger in the book. "I ended up not liking him at all, a tall, skinny, typical hillbilly from Kentucky." Thompson, you might think quite nobly, got his beating because he remonstrated with another Hell's Angel, Junkie George, who had slapped his "old lady" and kicked a dog. Thompson told him "only punks slap their old ladies and kick their dogs", which was enough to ensure that he then qualified for a slapping himself.
Drugs were embraced warmly by the Hell's Angels and California's early illegal backroom chemists used members to test their drugs because they always agreed to try anything. Sonny - or Chief, as his men called him - was particularly partial to LSD, which he places on the same pedestal as the Harley-Davidson motorcycle. His current model is a Road King 2000, and he has put 11,800 miles on the clock since he bought it in March. His mileage rate is down because of the constraints of the book tour.

Hell's Angel: The Life and Times of Sonny Barger and the Hell's Angels Motorcycle Club will be published by Fourth Estate on August 3, price Ł14.99.

Just a couple of Clips. The first one is a not too happy Hell’s Angel letting Hunter know he’s not happy. The second is audio footage of Hunter and Allen Ginsberg being harassed by the fuzz.  

JR sent this find my way. It’s a old, rare book and a must have for any HST fan.

1968 Collier’s Encyclopedia Yearbook (covering the year 1967)”. Included among the vast array of articles is “The Hippies” by Hunter S. Thompson. Up until a few months ago, I had never even heard of this, it’s not listed in too many places, a very obscure article by the Doc.

As far as I know this is the only place this story has been published. This is a hard to find book…

Hunter’s article covers 7 pages, with some photos of various freaks & hippies. It’s pretty much straight out journalism, he writes to inform the reader all kinds of aspects of hippies, drugs, habits, prices of pot, perceptions, background, Haight-Ashbury. Hunter covers a little bit about him writing his first book, Hell’s Angels & Ken Kesey. In the “Special articles of the year 1967″ section there is a photo of Hunter, the Hell’s Angels book is listed with a short blurb in “Books of the Year”. All around strong content & an interesting book for hardcore & serious Doc fans”
THE GONZO KING An interview with Hunter S. Thompson by Matt Higgins Tue, Sep 02, 2003 12:00
As someone who’s reputed to have tried every drug out there, is there one that’s your favorite?

I would say that acid is still walking with the King. After all these years, it’s almost always pleasant. I would say acid is my favorite. I don’t do it that often. You might want to be careful with it. But it is the real thing. Now I’m talking LSD-25, not what you might buy on some market today. Real LSD-25 is the king of drugs. I use it. I don’t necessarily recommend it. I don’t recommend anything that I do.

Who Killed Hunter Thompson

Warren Hinckle - Hunter S. Thompson’s name first appears on the Ramparts masthead, November 1967.

But he was a friend of yours during that time period in the late ‘60s at Ramparts?

Oh yeah. I never knew him before. He just walked into the office one night. He walks in my office says, “Yeah, I’m Hunter Thompson.” This is after the Hell’s Angels book, and I’d read it and it was terrific. So anyway, we had a couple of drinks; I know we walked up the street. This is when the Ramparts offices were on Broadway at the very end at the top of the strip. So we went up the street to have dinner and came back.

I had a monkey at the time—named Henry Luce to piss off the guy at Time magazine, which did get him pissed off. (Luce found a reporter and asked him if it was true those people up there have a monkey called by my name? It made me happy.) Anyway, we get back (Hunter had thrown his knapsack on the couch in my office) and I hadn’t locked the [monkey’s] cage or something like that.

The monkey had gotten out and gotten into Hunter’s knapsack. And it had a whole bunch, a lot of bottles of pills in there, and they were all over the floor but they were all empty. The monkey must have gobbled them all, well obviously he did, and he was berserk. He was just running.

It was an old government building where they did scientific research (I’m sure poison gas), and they had these government-type windows on the side, and in the whole center of the space were these partitions, half wood and half glass you can’t see through.

The monkey was running around the top of that thing and it had its leash on—the leash was flying! And it just turned into a completely vicious bastard. It was a sweet monkey before. It was up there for a day or so. No one was going to touch the goddamn thing; it wouldn’t stop running. And Hunter just sat there and said, “Goddamned monkey stole my pills.” It did steal his pills. I said, “f**k you why didn’t you lock your knapsack?”

“Why should I lock my knapsack? You should have security around here.”

“Not from the monkey.” 

Life Extensions and LSD

Too bad about Steve Jobs....maybe Oracle's Ellison could have helped?

This a placeholder for Djerassi - "Co-"Creator of "the" Pill :

the SMIP Ranch. SMIP originally stood for “Syntex Made It Possible.”

Carl Djerassi

See: Co-Creator of the Pill Laments Resulting Demographic "Horror Scenario"
May 11, 1992
Carl Djerassi Receives 1992 Priestley Award:
The Early Years
Djerassi is best known to the public for his synthesis and development of the fmt oral contraceptive-commonly known as The Pill. This milestone was reached through his intense interest in steroids.

Born to a Bulgarian father and an Austrian mother in Vienna in 1923, he lived for awhile in Bulgaria after Hitler’s annexation of Austria, attending the American school in Sofia where he learned English.

In 1939, he emigrated to the US with his mother. Both his parents were physicians and Carl initially expected to follow in their footsteps.

In a recent interview in the San Francisco Chronicle, ~ Djerassi, now 68, was labeled a “feminist.” And well he might be.

He now teaches only two courses at Stanford for undergraduates, one of them under two titles-’’Femninist Perspectives on Birth Control” and “Gender-Specific Perspectives on Birth Control.”

The course is offered through the feminist studies program and the human biology program. His wife, Diane Wood Middlebrook, whose biography of the poet Anne Sexton we recently discussed, for five years headed the feminist studies program at Stanford, in addition to serving as professor of English.
“The Pill is a four-letter word,” Djerassi  told the Chronicle. “But it’s both a pejorative word and complimentary. In the beginning an explosion of litigation went on for 10 years while women concerned about side effects demanded, ‘Why do you use us as guinea pigs?’ But then when women saw that it empowered them, it was a quantum jump-from diaphragms and condoms to the Pill-with nothing at all in between.”

The Lederberg Connection

In 1958, Lederberg, now president emeritus of Rockefeller University, became chairman of Stanford University’s genetics department.

That same year, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine, along with George W. Beadle and Edward L. Tatum, for his work in genetics. The paths of Djerassi and Lederberg converged in the arena of artificial intelligence, in which Lederberg is still engaged as director of a small research team at Rockefeller. As Djerassi recounts in his autobiography:

“We were well advanced in our mass spectrometry research when, one day in the mid- 1960s, Joshua Lederberg approached me with a proposal for collaboration. His interest in exobiology (evidence for life in outer space) had prompted him to establish an instrumentation facility in the genetics department of Stanford’s school of medicine, in preparation for an eventual unmanned mission to Mars.

Like other investigators in the field, he felt that placing a rugged mass spectrometer with a remote control sampling device on the space vehicle might be the most effective method for screening moleades indicative of organic life, such as amino acids, the building blocks for proteins, and porphyrins, which are substances related to chlorophyll.

Would I join him and Edward Feigenbrmm, a professor in the computer science department and one of the pioneers of artificial intelligence, in determining whether AI could be used to derive chemical structures from a single mass spectrum sent back from outer space by telemetry?

Over a dozen years, our three research groups collaborated to lay some of the cornerstones for the imposing edifice that computer-aided knowledge engineering now represents in chemistry.

As Lederberg put it in an interview, ‘We are trying to teach a computer how Djerassi thinks about mass spectrometry.’

In 1976, following his second divorce— described as a “watershed event” z  (p. 282>
Djerassi turned from being a serious art collector to being an art patron.

His purchase, in the mid- 1960s, of 1,200 acres of coastal range about a half-hour’s drive from the  Stanford campus made art ideal site for an artist’s colony, with its open hills overlooking the Pacific Ocean and its deep redwood canyons.

Djerassi calls the property the SMIP Ranch. SMIP originally stood for “Syntex Made It Possible.”

But, Felix Bloch is credited with giving the acronym another meaning—sic manebimus in pace, thus we’ll remain in peace. The Djerassi Foundation supports the complex of buildings that comprise the artist’s colony. Numerous works by resident artists are located among the redwood forests and on the open hills of SMIP.

Nobel laureate Roald Hoffmann, also a poet/chemist, has been in residence three times at the colony, which has housed nearly 600 artists, working in literature, music, and the visual arts, as well as in dance and the performing arts.

Djerassi Resident Artists Program, SMIP Ranch
2325 Bear Gulch Rd.  Woodside, CA  (650) 747-1250

He was interested in mass spectrometry - hmmm:
Computer-assisted elucidation of structures of natural products

more prominent chemist was Carl Djerassi. There are ..... (a) Eight structures
obtained with LSD for an unknown alkaloid
from Alstonia undulata for which only
the presence of .... Sutherland, G. L., Feigenbaum, G. A. and Lederberg, J. ...

December 2, 1968

Mr. Joshua Lederberg
San Francisco Chronicle
5th and Mission
San Francisco, calif.

Dear Mr. Lederberg:
In your article on the LSD and chromosomes issue in the Chronicle of Sunday, December lst, you refer to the study by Cohen, Hirschhorn and Frosch , which appeared in the New England Journal of Medicine last year.

This paper has a number of methodological flaws: although the data are presented commendably completely, there are erros of Merence. A re-analysis of the data yields conclusions quite opposite to those of the authors. I quote from the enclosed review of the literature to date, by Dr. Joel Fort and myself (to be published in Psychedilic Review #10)

A group of 22 LSD users is reported to have a mean of 13.2% chromosomal breakage, compared to a mean of 3.8% in a group of 12 non-users. However,
we note that of the 22 'LSD-users' not one had used only LSD;

all except 3 had used amphetamines, most had used heroin and many phenothiazines (tranquillieers used to treat mental illness and to counteract LSD). We also find that the original control group= conta&$s 14 persons, two of them being eliminated from the data because they had viral infections
shortly after the blood sample was taken. These two individuals had a very high rate of chromosomal breakage, and if they are mmm& included in the
calculations, the mean for the control group jumps to 18.4% breakage, which is higher than the 'LSD group'. Cohen et al. also give data on a group
of 6 persons who had used drugs other than LSD (amphetamines, opiates, phenothiazines),The mean breakage rate of this group (not shown by the
authors, bpt readily calculable from their data) was 12.6%. One must conclude that according to their own data, LSD users do not have a higher
rate of chromosomal breaks than anyone who uses common tranquillisers, or stimulants, or who wsms has had viral infections."

... or who uses cyclamate sweeteners, one may perhaps add.

The whole chromosome issue seems to be a beautiful demonstration of the operations of prejudice in science. Nobody
seems to have even bothered to calculate the mfY chro~~osomal effects of caffeine, alcohol, or X-ray emitting TV sets that children sit in fromt of for hours.

I enjoy your column.

Sincerely yours
Ralph Metzner, Ph.D.
Editor, Psychedelic Review

Ralph Metzner has been exploring altered states of consciousness for over forty years. He earned his B.A. from Oxford University and his Ph.D. in Clinical Psychology from Harvard in 1962. In 1964 he co-authored The Psychedelic Experience with Timothy Leary and Richard Alpert. Dr. Metzner was born and spent his early years in Germany.

He served as the academic dean at the California Institute of Integral Studies from 1979 through 1988. He is now Professor Emeritus

Yes ther same Lederburg!!!!  Here is his Obit:
Posted: February 4, 2008
Joshua Lederberg, Rockefeller University's fifth president, dies at 82

Joshua Lederberg, University Professor and president emeritus of The Rockefeller University, died from pneumonia Saturday, February 2, at NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital. An adviser to nine United States presidential administrations, he was a distinguished molecular geneticist whose achievements helped lay the foundation for the current revolution in molecular biology and biotechnology.

Lederberg was a recipient of the 1958 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, at the age of 33, for his work on the organization of genetic material in bacteria.

The son of a rabbi, Lederberg was born in Montclair, New Jersey, in 1925, and graduated from Stuyvesant High School in New York City at the age of 15. He received his bachelor’s degree from Columbia College in 1944 and his Ph.D. from Yale University in 1947.

He held appointments at the University  of Wisconsin and Stanford University School of Medicine before coming to The Rockefeller University as its fifth president in 1978. During his presidency, the university recruited several world-class faculty, created the University Fellows Program, which brought outstanding young scientists to campus, and constructed a major new research building. On his retirement as president in 1990, he returned to research as University Professor Emeritus, the Raymond and Beverly Sackler Foundation Scholar, and head of the Laboratory of Molecular Genetics and Informatics.

Lederberg was a pioneer in the field of bacterial genetics. While at Yale, he made the seminal discovery that a form of sexual reproduction occurs in bacteria, demonstrating that bacteria possess a genetic mechanism, called recombination, similar to that of higher organisms, including humans. He later showed that bacterial genetic material is exchanged not only by conjugation, when the entire complement of chromosomes is transferred from one bacterial cell to another, but also by transduction, when only fragments are transferred.

More recently, his work addressed how the activation of genes alters their vulnerability to mutagenesis. In addition, he had interests in genetics, chemistry, evolution and the origin of life; the use of computer models for scientific reasoning; and the application of scientific understanding to direction of research, public health and policy.

Lederberg served in the U.S. Navy and worked on many government advisory committees and boards dealing with research on physical and mental health. He played an active role in the Mariner and Viking missions to Mars sponsored by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. He was a consultant to the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency during the negotiation of the biological weapons disarmament treaty, and he continued to advise on national security problems in a variety of capacities including membership on the U.S. Defense Science Board and the Secretary of Energy Advisory Board.

In addition to the Nobel Prize, Lederberg was honored with many awards and prizes, including the National Medal of Science and the Presidential Medal of Freedom. He was also a member of the boards of several foundations, including the Carnegie Corporation, the Revson Foundation and the Camille and Henry Dreyfus Foundation, and he served as chairman of the scientific advisory board of the Ellison Medical Foundation.

His interest in improving communications among scientists, the general public and government policymakers led Lederberg to write extensively for lay audiences, at one time including a weekly column syndicated for several years by The Washington Post on the social impact of scientific progress.

Lederberg is survived by his wife, Dr. Marguerite S. Lederberg of New York City; his children, Anne Lederberg of New York City and David Kirsch of Chevy Chase, Maryland; and two grandchildren.

Notice he didn't live forever....
EMF Mourns the Loss of Joshua Lederberg

Ellison Scholars have produced exciting new findings and have trained outstanding new investigators dedicated to research on basic mechanisms of biological aging. Dr. Lederberg, more than most of his contemporaries, realized that an understanding of these mechanisms had the potential to lead to rational preventive and therapeutic interventions for a very large number of major diseases of aging.
THE CREATION of The Ellison Medical Foundation grew out of a series of conversations in the early 1990s between two men. One was Lawrence J. Ellison, the founder and Chief Executive Officer of Oracle, the giant software corporation specializing in information management. The other was Dr. Joshua Lederberg, the Nobel Prize winning biologist known for his innovative thinking about the intersections of science and society

| - - -

Why is Lederberg so important in connection to SRI and Carl Djerassi ?
Well, Lederberg was involved with Bio Warfare and Fort Dietrick/ ( and MK-Ultra?)
Camp Detrick and Joshua Lederberg
Bio Safety Level 4 (BL-4) isolation suite at Camp Detrick
Subject of Biological Warfare is isolated in an enclosed negative-pressure gurney
Gurney ready to be moved through transport-port to isolation suite

Joshua Lederberg studied bacteria and viruses from the viewpoint of transduction. Thus genes that convey virulence could be made more virulent or transferred to bacteria that did not normally act as disease vectors.

A subcommittee of the American Society of Microbiology was established at the beginning of World War II, but extended well beyond World War II. The purpose of this subcommittee was to review issues related to biological warfare. Of course, this is very legitimate. However, perhaps an unstated function was also the examination of research that might pertain to biological warfare: thus, censorship.

The following documents establish connections between Joshua Lederberg and Camp Detrick Biological Warfare research.

Lederberg, Joshua to Wolfe, Hugo C.: June 10, 1949
Regarding the report of the FAS committee on Biological Warfare
The focus of this letter is the use of agricultural pathogens which would not incur retroaction (retaliation or the use of biological weapons that could only be specifically targeted against a particular geographic or climatic area). Insofar as biological warfare might be targeted against humans, Joshua Lederberg states that the possibility of retaliation, as well as subsequent exclusion of military invasion, must be taken into account.

Note that at no point does Joshua Lederberg raise any moral objections; in fact, he suggests that the public should be 'educated' to allay its fears of, and moral objections to, biological warfare.
Genetic effects of LSD- 25 on E. Coli ... 1970
Does LSD cause birth defects?
But little now is heard of the genetic effects of drug use. Is there, and was there ever, any truth to the allegations?
Put your drug-sodden mind at ease, Tonio — the notion that acid causes birth defects was thoroughly discredited years ago. The controversy started in 1967 when New York geneticist Maimon Cohen published a paper claiming he'd found an unusually high number of broken chromosomes in a 57-year-old man who'd been given LSD as part of a hospital therapy. Cohen also found that human cells dosed with LSD in a test tube showed significant chromosome damage. Not long afterward, another study said that street acid users were found to have scrambled genes in alarming numbers. These reports got big play in the media and soon everybody "knew" that if you did acid your children would be born looking like kumquats.

Later research pretty much nixed this screwy idea, but unfortunately good news never gets as much play as bad. Researchers pointed out that all sorts of things, including milk and undistilled water, can cause chromosome damage in a test tube — such experiments just don't prove much. Others noted that Cohen's 57-year-old man had received regular treatments with Librium and Thorazine, which have since been shown to cause chromosome damage.
Dendral System - Stanford -  Lederberg - Djerassi - Feigenbaum - AI to chemical inference

How DENDRAL was conceived and born.
Joshua Lederberg
Rockefeller University
New York, N.Y.

As agreed with your organizers, this will be a somewhat personal history. They have given me permission
to recall how I came to work with Ed Feigenbaum on DENDRAL, an exemplar of expert systems and of
modelling problem-solving behavior. My recollections are based on a modest effort of historiography, but
not a definitive survey of and search for all relevant documents.
As computer science is not my primary profession, my relationship to it has been more episodic; and I can
more readily isolate how I came to take some part in it, at Stanford from 1962 - 1978, mainly in very
close collhboration with Ed Feigenbaum, Bruce Buchanan, and a host of others. My central scientific
commitments have been to molecular genetics, starting when I was a 20-year old medical student in 1945
138). At Columbia and then at Yale, I worked on the genetics of bacteria, a specialty which converged
with the role of DNA as genetic information. My first academic appointment was at the University of
Wisconsin from 1947 - 1958; then I went to Stanford in 1959 to take part in the reconstruction of its
School of Medicine (formerly in San Francisco) at the Palo Alto campus. My role was to found a new
Department of Genetics; I had no plan to 'be working with computers. In fact, I met Ed Feigenbaum in
1963. Then, promptly after he moved from Berkeley to Stanford faculty in early 1965, we initiated the
collaboration that became the DENDRAL project.
We had more and more collaborators, including the explicit involvement of Carl Djerassi and his associates as
founts of authentic chemical expertise
. As our reports began to appear in refereed ch;mistry journals, we
eventually gained some confidence that we were contributing to the scientific domain, as well as to
system- building -- a point about which some of my colleagues had been skeptical.
10. Buchanan, B.G., D.H. Smith, W.C. White, R. Gritter, E.A. Feigenbaum, J. Lederberg and C. Djerassi,
1976. Applications of artificial intelligence for chemical inference. XXII. Automatic rule formation in mass spectrometry by means of the meta-DENDRAL program. J. Am. Chem. SOC. 98:6168-6178.

Previously mentioned Louis Brandeis in connection with Pinchot family and Ram Dass (aka Richard Alpert)

I will expand upon this in this post.... [ Frankists as the original illuminati movement ]  

As a child Mary Pinchot was brought into contact with left-wing intellectuals. People like Mabel Dodge, Crystal Eastman, Max Eastman, Louis Brandeis, Robert La Follette and Harold Ickes were regular visitors at their Grey Towers home in Milford, Pennsylvania.

No direct Frankism connection to Ram Dass - but...
Richard Alpert AKA Ram Dass born original last name Alperovitz
Richard Alpert (born April 6, 1931), also known as Baba Ram Dass, is a contemporary spiritual teacher who wrote the 1971 bestseller Remember Be Here Now. He is well known for his personal and professional association with Timothy Leary at Harvard University in the early 1960s. He is also known for his travels to India and his relationship with the Hindu guru Neem Karoli Baba.

Youth and college
Alpert was born to a prominent Jewish family in Newton, Massachusetts. His father, George Alpert, was one of the most influential lawyers in the Boston area and president of the New York, New Haven and Hartford Railroad, as well as one of the leading founders of Brandeis University and the Albert Einstein College of Medicine. ...

Well I have been researching "Frankism" and guess what?

A THUMBNAIL IMAGE of Eva Frank is available of an portrait commissioned by her father in the late 18th Century. Eva Frank was regarded as a very beautiful, intelligent, and charming woman. The official portrait of her is a well guarded relic available only to practicing Frankists.

A priest profiled in Lucifer's Lodge showed his devotion to her when he went back into his burning house to retrieve her portrait.

Supreme Court Justice Lewis Brandeis, a known Frankist, was also a Eva Frank Devotee and kept a framed portrait of her on his very desk.  

[ Think of Madonna and Lady Gaga.... : ]
the religion of “Edom”—Jacob Frank’s own version of Christianity, into which, as he claimed, he had led his followers in anticipation of its imminent collapse. The collapse of Christianity, together with all other religions, was envisaged as an apocalyptic event, which would culminate in the inauguration of the Redemption by the fully revealed “Maiden.” On to this syncretistic notion of the holy messianic “Maiden” Frank grafted the kabbalistic conception of the female emanation of the godhead, the sefira Malkhut (Kingdom), which was traditionally associated with the messianic soul and was envisaged by the kabbalists as rising, at the time of the Redemption, from her lowest position in the hierarchy of the sefirot to its highest and most sublime point.

 Eva was thus conceived as the human incarnation of the kabbalistic sefira Malkhut and the “inner fruit” of the Christian Holy Virgin, which Frank had fused together in the figure of the messianic “Maiden.” According to him, it was precisely the failure to recognize that the Messiah must be a woman that aborted the messianic mission of Shabbetai Zevi, who was not able to discover the “Maiden” within Islam—the religion of his apostasy—since Islam mandated the “covering up” and concealment of all females; it also accounted for the failure of all previous Jewish messianic projects, since within Judaism it was possible only to allude to the “Maiden” in the symbols of the Kabbalah, but not to reveal her to the entire world in her earthly, human incarnation.“Privacy-Issues”-and-Ancestral-Cultic-Connections
Life of the First Jewish u.s. supreme Court Justice  Louis Brandeis: exploring “Privacy issues” and Ancestral  Cultic Connections

Louis Brandeis was a descendant of one of the prominent shabbatean/Frankist  families of Prague. They did not follow Frank’s example of conversion to Islam or  Catholicism, but maintained a Jewish identity, though very detached from Jewish  ritual and practice.

His mother Frederika Dembitz Goldmark brandeis “disdained  formal religious ceremonies and encouraged her children to value ethical teachings  of religion, including Judaism, while eschewing the age-old rituals.” Brandeis grew up in the family environment, where, though born a Jew, he was not raised as a Jew.  In fact, he celebrated Christmas, but not the Jewish holidays; neither did he keep  the kosher laws, or the sabbath. He was very disengaged from Jewish practice.

Brandeis’s maternal uncle, Gottlieb Wehle, wrote an ethical will in which he  exhorts members of his family to “respect their ancestors’ tradition of antinomian disdain for the normative Judaism of traditional rabbis.” This was perhaps a reaction to the family’s waning allegiance to the Frank sect. It was Justice Brandeis’s  relatives, who revealed a copy of a portion of this will to Gershom scholem, who  published it.

In fact, Brandeis manifested a great interest in his mother’s background as evidenced by his insistence that she write down the history of the family,  which she did. Although she never clearly expressed her Frankist background, she  did allude to it. In her letters she gives some insight into why Louis Brandeis was so  divorced from traditional Judaism. The environment as presented in her letters in  which she detailed her family background evinces an anti-traditional atmosphere.  

It harkened back to a time in Prague when it was normative to be Jewish ethnically,  German culturally, and Austrian politically. Yet, the Brandeis family, obviously  influenced by the Frankist sect, had shunned their Jewishness and failed to expose  their son Louis to anything more than the vagaries of Jewish identity.

Brandeis’s mother gave him a copy of a portrait of Eva Frank (who was Jacob  Frank’s daughter and his spiritual successor upon his death), which was handed  down and reserved for those who were privileged descendants of Frankists.

This  generation of Frankists had thrown off and/or forgotten the deviant ways of the  founder; previous generations had actually destroyed the written remnants of their  affiliation with the sect, even going door to door to collect any memoirs or written  traces of the sect, so that they could discard the embarrassing “evidence.”

They  continued, however, to maintain a certain elitist pride about being connected to  the sect’s past. This pride was reflected in Brandeis’s mother’s letters to her son; her  descriptions of the close-knit community bespeak the Frankist sect in clandestine  terms. Hence, we know that Louis Brandeis knew of this “ghost in the closet,” that  would not be wise to profess openly. This may have made him particularly sensitive  about the importance of the right to privacy (which he defined in his co-authored  Right to Privacy article as the right to an “inviolate personality”) and the right to speak one’s conscience.

Louis Brandeis took his second cousin, Alice, as his bride, a practice not uncommon for Jewish people and Frankists during this era. she too was a descendant  of the circle of crypto-Frankist Jews, and was undoubtedly aware of the secret of the family’s past.

It is well settled that people possess learned traits, and in this respect there is  much transfer from parent to child. For example, Holocaust survivors’ children often carry the scars and the effects of growing up in a home dominated by the fallout  of the traumatic impact of the Holocaust on their parents. This may manifest itself  in a variety of ingrained responses that are displayed throughout life; for example,  paranoia, phobias, withdrawal, and many other traits. It is not far-fetched to speculate that Louis brandeis’

s personality was partly shaped by the secret in the closet that was possessed, and even repressed, by his parents who came to the U.S. to start  a new life, obviously free of cultic influence.
Frankfurt at the time was the headquarters of the Jesuit, Adam Weishaupt, founder of the Illuminati, as well as Rothschild Brothers' financial empire. This is worth repeating: Frankfurt was the birthplace of both the Illuminati and the Rothschild empire. When Jacob Frank entered the city, the alliance between the two had already begun.

Weishaupt provided the conspiratorial resources of the Jesuit Order, while the Rothschilds contributed the money. What was missing was a means to spread the agenda of the Illuminati and that the Frankists added with their network of agents throughout the Christian and Islamic worlds. Jacob Frank became instantly wealthy because he was given a nice handout by the Rothschilds of Frankfurt. There is no other explanation.

Going back to the basics:
H. B. Sharman (Henry Burton, 1865–1953) devoted his life to educating others[1] about the life and teaching of Jesus.
Henry Burton Sharman was born 12 August 1865, in Stratford, Ontario, the eldest of eleven children
Many of his students went on to lead groups in universities and retreat centers. Groups that carried on his seminar method included Pendle Hill, Sequoia Seminars, and the Guild for Psychological Studies [1]. Among his

Canadian students who were influential were the controversial missionaries to China, the Endicotts, James Gareth Endicott[8] and his wife Shirley,[9] and Murial Duckworth, the tireless peace activist.[10]

He was also influential in the life and teaching of his famous Unitarian sister-in-law, Sophia Lyon Fahs.[11] One sociological study of Sharman's influence made much of a split in his students that occurred in the late 1940s and continued after his death, some focusing on transformation of the individual, and others the transformation of society.[12]

In addition to Records of the Life of Jesus, Sharman published
Studies in the Life of Christ (1896);
The Teachings of Jesus about the Future, according to the Synoptic Gospels (1909);
Jesus in the Records (1918); Jesus as Teacher (1935);
Studies in the Records of the Life of Jesus (1938);
Son of Man and Kingdom of God: A Critical Study (1943) and Paul as Experient (1945),
he also supervised the translation of some of his works into Chinese and Japanese.

All are currently out of print, except for Records of the Life of Jesus, which has been reprinted by the Guild for Psychological Studies.

Sharman's original version used the English Revised Version of the gospel text, published in 1881.
In 1991, the Guild for Psychological Studies published a new edition, based on the Revised Standard Version.

Jesus as teacher [microform] ([c1935])

Too bad about Steve Jobs - maybe Larry Ellison could have helped?

Joshua Lederberg, Nobel Laureate, President Emeritus of The Rockefeller University, and Chair of the Scientific Advisory Board for The Ellison Medical Foundation,

received the Irving S. Wright Award of Distinction from the American Federation for Aging Research.

The award, named in honor of the founder of AFAR, recognizes exceptional contributions to basic or clinical research in the field of aging by a member of the scientific community. Robert D. Terry, University of California, San Diego, was also given this award. The awards were presented in May at the AFAR 25th anniversary dinner, Advancing Great Minds, in celebration of research in the neurosciences. The dinner kicked off the AFAR/New York Academy of Sciences conference, Imaging and the Aging Brain, at which Eric Kandel, Nobel Laureate, University Professor Columbia University, and EMF Scientific Advisory Board member, gave the keynote address, “The Biology of Memory and Age Related Memory Loss.”

(left to right, top - Stephanie James, Joshua Lederberg, Larry Ellison, Richard Sprott, George Martin, Gerald Weissmann, Alan Barbour, Arnold Levine, Cynthia Kenyon;
left to right, bottom - Steven Austad, Ian Lipkin, David Relman, Eric Kandel, Leonard Guarente, Barry Bloom.)

Michael Savage  - "The Gate Keeper"  

Michael Savage's "Gate House"

Main house
Michael Savage (born Michael Alan Weiner; March 31, 1942)

His first marriage to Carol Ely in 1964 ended in divorce, and he remarried after meeting his current wife Janet in 1967. His first wife says that she became pregnant twice and aborted both pregnancies over Weiner's objections.[1]

During this time Weiner also worked for famous psychedelic drug advocate Timothy Leary as keeper of the stone gatehouse on Leary's Millbrook estate. Leary hired him to the post because Weiner did not use LSD himself

What has Michael Savage ever said about his connections with Timothy Leary?
what else has he said about all his friends in the 60's and before he became a conservative?

Savage worked for famous psychedelic drug advocate Timothy Leary as keeper of the stone gatehouse on Leary's Millbrook estate. Leary hired him to the post because Savage did not use LSD himself.

Strangley - among the cops who came to bust Leary at Millbrook was G. Gordon Liddy

So here you have Michael Savage - G. Gordon Liddy and Tim Leary together before they were "famous".

Leary was supposedly working MKUltra for the CIA.... Later Leary was an FBI Informer to get out of Jail time.

All very interesting....

DANHEIN - former 2,500 acre estate of C.F. Deitrich, the Bavarian style gatehouse is very impressive, unfortunately it is all you can see because it is a private residence. it is located on route 44 and Franklin Avenue, in Millbrook.

Later, I received E-Mail that said:

I've been doing research on the web and discovered that "Danhein" castle is probably also known as Millbrook Estate. I am making this assumption because I, too, saw the impressive gatehouse and was told by locals that the property was formerly the Hitchcock family estate and now the Deitrich family home. I also read that the Mellon's had once owned this property but I have not yet found another reference to this fact.

This residence was rented by Timothy Leary in the 60's and has been mentioned in several articles and books by or about Leary. I was so abruptly told by at least two different locals that this property was a "private residence" and I didn't understand their rudeness. They probably want to keep the Leary crowd away.

The correct name is "Daheim", which is from the German "Da Heim" meaning "the home place". In 1889 Charles F. Dieterich ( not "Deitrich") (1836-1927) started buying up small farm holdings adjacent to the village of Millbrook, eventually accumulating over 2000 acres in all. He was the founder of a company which eventually evolved into Union Carbide.
When Charles Dieterich died in 1927, aged 91, the estate passed to his son, Alfred Elliot, then 48. For health reasons Alfred was living in California and eventually sold it after a few years to a local syndicate, "Millbrook Partners". The syndicate sold it in 1935 to the partnership of Walter C. Teagle, chairman of the board of Standard Oil, Gerard Winston, and several other un-named parties. Eventually the estate was purchased by Mrs. Thomas Hitchcock (of the Mellon clan) and ownership eventually was settled on one of her sons, Thomas, who owns it to this day.

Timothy Leary did reside in the main house for many years during the 1960's, having been befriended by the Hitchcock sons while at college. He was a relatively quiet and benign presence in the community until some local political leaders on the make (G. Gordon Liddey of Watergate infamy) began using him for political advantage. Eventually, tiring of the controversy, Mrs. Hitchcock gave him the boot

On several occasions Millbrook was raided by FBI agents. This included one raid led by G. Gordon Liddy.
In 1965 Leary's daughter was arrested carrying marijuana while crossing the Mexican border. Leary took responsibility for his daughter having the drug and he was later convicted of possession under the Marijuana Tax Act and was sentenced to 30 years in jail. In 1969 the Marijuana Tax was declared unconstitutional and Leary's conviction was quashed.

The following year Leary was arrested and charged with possession of marijuana. Found guilty, he was sentenced to prison. However, with the help of the Weathermen, he escaped from prison. Leary and his wife to move to Algeria where he spent time with Black Panther leader, Eldridge Cleaver. Later the couple went to live in Switzerland.

Richard Nixon described Leary as the "most dangerous man in America" and ordered G. Gordon Liddy to destroy him. In 1974 he was illegally kidnapped by Interpol agents in Kabul and transported to the United States. (At the time Afghanistan had no extradition treaty with the United States.) Leary was eventually released from prison in April, 1976.
In 1957 Liddy joined the Federal Bureau of Investigation. He remained in the organization until returning to legal work in 1962. Liddy was appointed as Assistant Attorney General, Dutchess County, New York, in 1966. One of his first tasks was to arrange the arrest and prosecution of Timothy Leary.
On 3rd September, 1971, Liddy and E. Howard Hunt supervised the burglary of a psychiatrist who had been treating Ellsberg. The main objective was to discover incriminating or embarrassing information to discredit Ellsberg.
The Man Who Turned on the World     Michael Hollingshead
        5.   The Millbrook Happenings
In the Fall of 1964 I arrived at Millbrook. Leary and Alpert, who had proclaimed themselves the International Foundation for Internal Freedom (IFIF), had had to leave Zihuatanejo, Mexico, where they had set up a training centre for people using LSD. They got back to New York and started looking for an alternative base somewhere in the States.

The solution to their problem came in the form of a sixty-four-room mansion on a 2000-acre walled estate within two hours motoring distance of the city. They had rented the estate from the young millionaire Billy Hitchcock, at a nominal rent more or less—$500 a month.

    The mansion was empty when they and their tiny followship arrived, but it was the ideal place for them to be; it was secluded and spacious and not entirely lacking in antiquated charm. It had been built in the 1890s to the rather bizarre architectural specifications of the German-born gas-lamp magnate, Charles F. Dieterich, who christened his country seat 'Daheim'.
Tim's wedding to 'the beautiful blonde Swedish model' Nena Von Schlebrugge took place six weeks after I had moved into my upstairs room at Millbrook.

It was a radiant morning and we were up early to welcome the guests, most of whom drove up from New York. The marriage service was held in the Episcopal church in the village of Millbrook in the early afternoon and afterwards we returned to the estate where we had arranged a Swedish-style buffet in all the downstairs rooms of Castalia, so guests could wander around the house eating delicacies. I had met most of the guests individually, or in small groups, but this was the first really big gathering of assorted heads.

There were some 150 of us, all high on LSD, or pot, or both. It was a brilliant festive occasion with everyone dressed up so brightly that it was like watching an idyllic pageant from Elizabethan England. Most of the girls had dazzling ornaments over Indian saris. They held flowers and seemed to glitter in an extraordinary delicacy. The men wore robes and brightly coloured costumes—harlequin pants, richly textured jackets, sumptuous shirts. To view them on the lawn from the roof of the bowling alley was to peep into a kaleidoscopic garden party of glorious humanity. Castalia had been transformed into a palace and it embraced this ceremony.

    It was one of those days when everyone was happy and joyous and loving. Felicities filled the air. Charlie Mingus played his bass, Maynard Fergusson cogitated on his trumpet, and other musicians joined in to produce an elegant weaving series of improvisations. Don Snyder took a wonderfully sympathetic series of photographs.

   Before Tim and Nena left for New York to catch the plane to New Delhi for their first visit to India there was a receiving line and we all filed past with our presents. Psychedelic presents of course.

Some gave hashish, some gave bags of excellent grass. Some gave mushrooms. A snuff box of cocaine. A quantity of LSD. The entire range of mind-expanding substances were proffered to the newly-weds, and all the while people were turning on. When Tim and Nena left we carried on with the celebrations into the dawn, and watched the sun edging over the horizon as the earth heaved over and took us into another day.

see also:
William "Billy" Hitchcock was the grandson of William Larimer Hitchcock, founder of Gulf Oil, and a nephew of Pittsburgh financier Andrew Mellon, who served as treasury secretary during Prohibition.
Leary had been busted in December 1965 after he and his daughter were caught transporting three ounces of pot across the Mexican border into Laredo, Texas. Leary was fined $30,000 in addition to receiving a maximum sentence of thirty years. While his lawyers appealed the verdict, Leary returned to Millbrook, but the political harassment continued. Relations between the acid commune and the affluent townsfolk of conservative Dutchess County were always a bit strained, to say the least.

When the town bigwigs heard that some of the local teenagers were hanging around Millbrook, they pressured the sheriff to put an end to the shenanigans of Leary and company. At the time the Dutchess County prosecutor was none other than G. Gordon Liddy, the future Waterbugger whose arsenal of dirty tricks included LSD and other hallucinogens to neutralize political enemies of the Nixon administration.

As far as Liddy was concerned, Leary and his pernicious band of dope fiends epitomized the moral infection that was sweeping the land. He was eager to raid the Millbrook estate, where, as he put it, "the panties were dropping as fast as the acid." He and a team of deputies staked out the mansion for months, waiting for the right moment to make an arrest that would stick. Early one morning in April 1966 they decided to act. Crouched behind the bushes with their binoculars, they noticed some kind of film being shown in the house. Splendid, thought Liddy, jockeying for a peek at what he hoped was a pornographic display, the prospect of exposing a citadel of smut as well as a den of dopers was fine by him. He must have been disappointed to find that the film only showed a waterfall.

The deputies made their entry in classic "no-knock" fashion, kicking in the front door and charging up the main stairwell. They were greeted by Leary bouncing down the stairs in nothing but a shirt. A warrant was read aloud, and Leary was finally persuaded to put on a pair of pants. The search continued for five hours; a small amount of marijuana was found, but no other drugs. Leary accused the police of using Gestapo tactics and violating his constitutional rights. When the Supreme Court ruled that suspects must be informed of their legal rights at the time of arrest, the bust was thrown out of court.

Leary had escaped on a technicality, but Liddy was still hot on the case. Roadblocks were set up around the estate, and anyone who wanted to visit had to submit to a lengthy, humiliating strip search. The state of siege grew more intense, until the commune was forced to disband in the spring of 1967. The golden age of anarchy at Millbrook had come to an end.